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Gingerbread
Gingerbread
refers to a broad category of baked goods, typically flavored with ginger, cloves, nutmeg or cinnamon and sweetened with honey, sugar or molasses. Gingerbread
Gingerbread
foods vary, ranging from a soft, moist loaf cake to something close to a ginger biscuit.[1]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Varieties 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Etymology[edit]

Gingerbread
Gingerbread
men

Gingerbread
Gingerbread
with royal icing

Originally, the term gingerbread (from Latin
Latin
zingiber via Old French gingebras) referred to preserved ginger. It then referred to a confection made with honey and spices. Gingerbread
Gingerbread
is often used to translate the French term pain d'épices (literally "spice bread") or the German terms Pfefferkuchen
Pfefferkuchen
(lit. "pepper cake") or Lebkuchen
Lebkuchen
(of unclear etymology). History[edit] Gingerbread
Gingerbread
is claimed to have been brought to Europe in 992 CE by the Armenian monk Gregory of Nicopolis
Nicopolis
(also called Gregory Makar and Grégoire de Nicopolis).[2] He left Nicopolis
Nicopolis
(in modern-day western Greece) to live in Bondaroy
Bondaroy
(north-central France), near the town of Pithiviers. He stayed there for seven years and taught gingerbread baking to French Christians. He died in 999. In the 13th century, gingerbread was brought to Sweden
Sweden
by German immigrants. In 15th-century Germany, a gingerbread guild controlled production.[3] Early references from the Vadstena Abbey
Vadstena Abbey
show that the Swedish nuns baked gingerbread to ease indigestion in 1444.[4] It was the custom to bake white biscuits and paint them as window decorations. The first documented trade of gingerbread biscuits dates to the 17th century,[citation needed] where they were sold in monasteries, pharmacies, and town square farmers' markets. In Medieval England gingerbread was thought to have medicinal properties.[5] One hundred years later, the town of Market Drayton
Market Drayton
in Shropshire, England became known for its gingerbread, as is proudly displayed on their town's welcome sign, stating that it is the "home of gingerbread", twinned with Pézenas
Pézenas
and Arlon. The first recorded mention of gingerbread being baked in the town dates to 1793, although it was probably made earlier, as ginger had been stocked in high street businesses since the 1640s. Gingerbread
Gingerbread
became widely available in the 18th century. Gingerbread
Gingerbread
came to the Americas with settlers from Europe. Molasses, which was less expensive than sugar, soon became a common ingredient and produced a softer cake. The first American cookbook, American Cookery by Amelia Simmons published in 1796, contained seven different recipes for gingerbread.[6] Varieties[edit]

Traditional Toruń gingerbread

In England, gingerbread may refer to a cake, or a type of cookie or biscuit made with ginger. In the biscuit form, it commonly takes the form of a gingerbread man. Gingerbread men
Gingerbread men
were first attributed to the court of Queen Elizabeth I, who served the figurines to foreign dignitaries.[7] Today, however, they are generally served around Christmas. Parkin is a form of soft gingerbread cake made with oatmeal and treacle which is popular in northern England. In the United States, this form of gingerbread is sometimes called "gingerbread cake" or "ginger cake" to distinguish it from the harder forms. French pain d'épices is somewhat similar, though generally slightly drier, and involves honey rather than treacle. Originally French pain d'épices did not contain ginger. In the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium, a soft and crumbly gingerbread called peperkoek, kruidkoek or ontbijtkoek is popularly served at breakfast time or during the day, thickly sliced and often topped with butter. In Germany gingerbread is made in two forms: a soft form called Lebkuchen
Lebkuchen
and a harder form, particularly associated with carnivals and street markets such as the Christmas markets that occur in many German towns. The hard gingerbread is made in decorative shapes, which are then further decorated with sweets and icing. The tradition of cutting gingerbread into shapes takes many other forms, and exists in many countries, a well-known example being the gingerbread man. Traditionally, these were dunked in port wine. In Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine, the honey cake eaten at Rosh Hashanah (New Year) closely resembles the Dutch peperkoek or the German Lebkuchen, though it has wide regional variations. In the Nordic countries, the most popular form of ginger confection is the pepperkaker (Norwegian), pepparkakor (Swedish), brunkager (Danish), piparkökur (Icelandic), piparkakut (Finnish) and piparkūkas (Latvian) or piparkoogid (Estonian). They are thin, brittle biscuits that are particularly associated with the extended Christmas period. In Norway and Sweden, pepperkaker/pepparkakor are also used as window decorations (the pepperkaker/pepparkakor are a little thicker than usual and are decorated with glaze and candy). Many families bake pepperkaker/pepparkakor/brunkager as a tradition. In Switzerland, a gingerbread confection known as "biber" is typically a two-centimeter (approximately ¾ of an inch) thick rectangular gingerbread cake with a marzipan filling. The cantons of Appenzell
Appenzell
and St. Gallen
St. Gallen
are famous for biber, and are artfully adorned with images of the Appenzell
Appenzell
bear or the St. Gallen
St. Gallen
cathedral respectively by engraving or icing. In Russia, a gingerbread maker was first mentioned in Kazan
Kazan
cadastres in 1568.[8] Gingerbread
Gingerbread
confections are called pryaniki (sg. pryanik), derived from the old Russian word for 'pepper'. Historically three main centers of gingerbread production have developed in the cities of Vyazma, Gorodets, and Tula. Gingerbreads from Tver, Saint Petersburg and Moscow
Moscow
were also well known in the Russian Empire. A classic Russian gingerbread is made with rye flour, honey, sugar, butter, eggs and various spices; it has an embossed ornament and/or text on the front side with royal icing.[9] A Russian gingerbread can also be shaped in various forms and stuffed with varenje and other sweet fillings. In Poland, gingerbreads are known as pierniki (singular: piernik). Some cities have traditional regional styles. Toruń gingerbread (piernik toruński) is a traditional Polish gingerbread that has been produced since the Middle Ages in the city of Toruń. It was a favorite delicacy of Chopin when he visited his godfather, Fryderyk Florian Skarbek, in Toruń during a school vacation. Kraków gingerbread is the traditional style from the former Polish capital. In Romania, gingerbread is called turtă dulce and usually has sugar glazing. A variety of gingerbread in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
is known as меденка ("made of honey"). Traditionally the cookie is as big as the palm of a hand, round and flat, and with a thin layer of chocolate. Other common ingredients include honey, cinnamon, ginger and dried clove. Gingerbread
Gingerbread
is popular in England, and is available in supermarkets. As in other countries, Gingerbread
Gingerbread
biscuits are often decorated with royal icing. In Panama, a confection named yiyinbre is a gingerbread cake made with ginger and molasses; it is typical of the region of Chiriquí. Another popular confection is quequi or queque, a chewy biscuit made with ginger, molasses and coconut. See also[edit]

Dutch carnival cake Ginger
Ginger
snaps Gingerbread
Gingerbread
house Gingerbread
Gingerbread
man Gingerbread
Gingerbread
Museum Kraków gingerbread Lebkuchen Licitar List of sweet breads Ontbijtkoek Pain d'épices Parchment paper

References[edit]

^ The Oxford Companion to Sugar
Sugar
and Sweets. Oxford University Press. 1 April 2015. ISBN 978-0-19-931362-4.  ^ Liana Aghajanian (2014-12-23). "How an Armenian Monk Brought Gingerbread
Gingerbread
to the West". Retrieved 2017-03-30.  ^ Anderson, L. V. "Why Do We Shape Gingerbread
Gingerbread
Cookies Like People?". Browbeat (blog). Slate. Retrieved 24 December 2013.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-03-10. Retrieved 2009-11-11.  ^ "What is the history of gingerbread?". eNotes.  ^ Anne, Byrn (2016). American cake : from colonial gingerbread to classic layer, the stories and recipes behind more than 125 of our best-loved cakes. pp. 12–16. ISBN 9781623365431. OCLC 934884678.  ^ Donald F. Lach (2010). "Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume II: A Century of Wonder. Book 3: The Scholarly Disciplines, Volume 2". p. 442. University of Chicago Press ^ Slovar' russkogo jazyka XI-XVII vv. 21. Moscow: Nauka. 1995. p. 31.  ^ "Chef doma: Pryaniki i sbiten' Maksima Syrnikova". The Village. 14 December 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2015. 

External links[edit]

Look up gingerbread in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Gingerbread[permanent dead link] at the Open Directory Project Gingerbread
Gingerbread
Men— Facebook
Facebook
fan page Amazon Kitchen Shorts: Mini Gingerbread
Gingerbread
Houses

v t e

Cake

List of cakes

Butter cakes

Devil's food cake Gooey butter cake Pound cake

Cheesecakes

Fiadone Ostkaka

Chocolate cakes

Batik cake Black Forest cake Blackout cake Chantilly cake Chocolate brownie Flourless chocolate cake Fudge cake Garash cake German chocolate cake Hedgehog slice Joffre cake Kladdkaka Molten chocolate cake Sachertorte Torta caprese

Fruitcakes

Apple cake Avocado cake Banana cake

Bánh chuối

Black bun Bolo rei Cherry cake Clementine cake Dundee cake Fig cake Genoa cake Jewish apple cake Panforte Plum cake Raisin cake

Layer cakes

Angel cake Buckwheat gateau Dobos torte Esterházy torte Hot milk cake Maria Luisa cake Mille-feuille

Cremeschnitte Napoleonka Šampita Tompouce

Princess cake Prinzregententorte Rainbow cake Sarawak cake Smith Island Cake Spekkoek Torte Vínarterta

Spit cakes

Baumkuchen Kürtőskalács
Kürtőskalács
(Chimney cake) Šakotis Spettekaka Trdelník

Sponge cakes

Bánh bò Battenberg cake Boston cream pie Bundt cake Castella Charlotte Donauwelle Frankfurter Kranz French Fancy Frog cake Génoise Gugelhupf Lady Baltimore cake Ladyfinger Lamington Madeira cake Madeleine Mantecadas Marble cake Misérable cake Opera cake Pandan cake Paper wrapped cake Red velvet cake Rum cake Shortcake Spice cake Swiss roll Tres leches cake Upside-down cake Walnut and coffee cake

Foam cakes and meringue

Angel food cake Chiffon cake Dacquoise Kiev cake Pavlova Sans rival Spanische Windtorte Zuger Kirschtorte

Yeast cakes

Babka Banana bread Banbury cake Cacavellu Campanile Canestru Chorley cake Date and walnut loaf Flies' graveyard Inuliata Pandoro Rum baba Streuselkuchen Sweetheart cake Welsh cake

Special occasions

Birthday cake Buccellato Bûche de Noël Christmas cake Doberge cake Groom's cake Halloween cake King cake

Rosca de reyes

Kransekake Lekach Marry girl cake Mooncake Pan de Pascua Pop out cake Simnel cake Soul cake Stack cake Stollen Strenna Wedding cake

Other

Beer cake Better than sex cake Biscuit Bizcocho Bulla cake Cake
Cake
balls Cake
Cake
pop Carrot cake Coconut cake Coffee cake Croquembouche Cupcake Cupcone Gingerbread

house man

Heavy cake Ice cream cake Kuih Lolly cake Muffin Ontbijtkoek Pain d'épices Pancake Parkin Petit four Pryanik

Tula pryanik

Punschkrapfen Ruske kape Teacake Tirami

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