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GIMPO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (Korean : 김포국제공항 ), commonly known as GIMPO AIRPORT (IATA : GMP, ICAO : RKSS) (formerly and originally KIMPO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT), is located in the far western end of Seoul , some 15 km (9 mi) west of the Central District of Seoul. Gimpo was the main international airport for Seoul and South Korea before being replaced by Incheon International Airport in 2001. In 2015, 23,163,778 passengers used the airport, making it the third largest airport in Korea , as it has been surpassed by Jeju International Airport . International Terminal at Gimpo Airport, Seoul, South Korea

The airport is located south of the Han River in western Seoul . The name "Gimpo" comes from the nearby city of Gimpo , of which the airport used to be a part.

On 29 November 2003, scheduled services between Gimpo and Haneda Airport in Tokyo , Japan resumed. Services to Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport resumed on 28 October 2007. Services to Kansai International Airport in Osaka , Japan started on 26 October 2008. Services to Beijing Capital International Airport started on 1 July 2011. Services to Taipei Songshan Airport started on 30 April 2012.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Korean War * 1.2 International era * 1.3 Domestic era

* 2 Airlines and destinations

* 2.1 Domestic Terminal * 2.2 International Terminal * 2.3 Cargo

* 3 Statistics

* 3.1 Top carriers

* 4 Other facilities

* 5 Ground transportation

* 5.1 Rail

* 6 Accidents and incidents * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

F51s at Kimpo (K14) Airfield, October 1950

The airfield was originally constructed in 1939–1942 during the Japanese Imperial period . Mitsubishi Ki-51s at Kimpo in October 1945

KOREAN WAR

Gimpo played a major role during the Korean War , and the USAF designated the airfield as KIMPO AIR BASE or K-14.

North Korean forces attacked South Korea on 25 June 1950 starting the Korean War . During one of the first Korean People\'s Air Force (KPAF) attacks on 25 June a Military Air Transport Service C-54 Skymaster was destroyed on the ground at Gimpo. On 27 June US naval and air forces began evacuating 748 US diplomats, military dependents, and civilians by air transport from Kimpo and Suwon Airfield . On the afternoon of 27 June five F-82 Twin Mustangs of the 68th Fighter Squadron and 339th Fighter Squadron were escorting four C-54 Skymaster aircraft out of Kimpo when the C-54s were attacked by five KPAF Lavochkin La-7 fighters. In the subsequent dogfights three LA-7s were shot down for the loss of no US aircraft in the first air battle of the war. Later that day four F-80Cs of the 35th Fighter-Bomber Squadron shot down four Ilyushin Il-10s for no losses over Gimpo in the USAF's first jet-aircraft victory.

Gimpo was captured by the KPA shortly after the capture of Seoul on 28 June 1950. On 29 June eight B-29s of the 19th Bomb Group bombed Gimpo and the Seoul railyards. By July the KPAF were using the base for attacks on UN forces, on 10 July, seven Yak-7s were hidden at Gimpo and used in strikes against UN positions at Cheongju . The next day they surprised and damaged several F-80s in the area. On 15 July the US launched an attack on Gimpo, destroying two or three of the seven Yak-7s there and damaging the runway. On 5 August 5th Air Force fighters strafed and bombed Gimpo, destroying 9 aircraft and damaging 9 others.

Following the Inchon landings on 15 September 1950, the 2nd Battalion 5th Marines was ordered to seize Gimpo on 17 September. Gimpo was defended by a conglomeration of half-trained fighting men and service forces and by the morning of 18 September the Marines had secured the airfield. The airfield was in excellent shape as the North Koreans had not had time to do any major demolition. On 19 September, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers repaired the local railroad up to eight miles (13 km) inland and 32 C-54 transport planes began flying in gasoline and ordnance. VMF-212 was one of the first units to operate from Gimpo before moving forward to Yonpo Airfield . On 25 September the 811th Engineer Aviation Battalion began repairing bomb damage on the 6,000 feet (1,800 m) asphalt runway at Gimpo and covering it with Marsden Matting . On 6 October the USAF took control of Gimpo from the USMC.

Following the Chinese Third Phase Campaign and the defeat of UN Forces at the 38th parallel , on 5 January 1951 General Ridgway ordered the evacuation of Seoul and the withdrawal of UN forces to a new defensive line along the 37th parallel . Units based at Gimpo were withdrawn to the south and facilities were destroyed to prevent their use by Chinese and North Korean forces.

UN Forces resumed the offensive again in late January 1951 and launched Operation Thunderbolt on 25 January with the aim of pushing Chinese and North Korean forces back north of the Han River . By 10 February 1951, UN forces once again had control of Gimpo.

USAF units based at Gimpo (Kimpo) included:

* 4th Fighter Wing operating F-86s from 23 August 1951 to 1 October 1954, subordinate units included:

* 334th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron * 335th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron * 336th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron

* 8th Fighter-Bomber Wing from 25 June to 23 August 1951

* 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing from 10 October 1950 to 10 December 1950, subordinate units included:

* 16th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron operating F-80s from 22 October 1950 to 3 January 1951 * 25th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron operating F-80s from October 1950 to November 1951

* 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Group from 20 August 1951 to 6 December 1954, subordinate units included:

* 12th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron operating RB-26Bs * 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron operating RF-80s and RF-86s * 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron operating F-51s

* 68th Fighter Squadron operating F-82s from 30 November 1950 to March 1951 and from 27 June to 24 August 1951 * 80th Fighter Squadron operating P-51s from 27 October to 20 December 1950

Other UN units based at Gimpo (Kimpo) included:

* No. 77 Squadron RAAF operating Gloster Meteors from June 1951

On 21 September 1953 North Korean pilot No Kum-Sok defected in his MiG-15 landing at Gimpo.

*

Wreckage of a C-54 destroyed on the ground by KPAF fighters on 25 June 1950 *

Captured KPAF Ilyushin Il-10 , 21 September 1950 *

No. 77 Squadron RAAF Gloster Meteor in 1952 *

Engine change on an F-86E in 1952 *

MiG-15, September 1953

INTERNATIONAL ERA

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Map of the airport circa 2014, with the rail station seen along the top.

In 1958, Gimpo was designated as the international airport of Seoul, completely replacing the existing Yeouido Airport . Following the construction of Gimpo, Yeouido Airport was totally demolished. It soon became the main airport of Seoul and South Korea in general. In 1971, a new combined domestic and international terminal was opened. However, following the opening of Terminal 1 in 1977, the original terminal was converted to domestic flights only. Later, Terminal 2 was opened due to the Olympic Games .

However, Gimpo began to take more flights than it is capable of handling. Since 1980, Gimpo met a lot of problems, due to its lack of space to expand. A major problem is that it has a curfew, which means arrivals and departures are strictly prohibited during the night.

Due to these problems, the South Korean government decided to build a new airport. It was actually planned in Cheongju , 124 kilometres away from Seoul, but it was strongly opposed by Seoul and Gyeonggi Province citizens due to its inconvenience (it would be farther away than Viracopos Airport in Campinas , Brazil , which is approximately 80 kilometres away from the city of São Paulo ). Finally, the new site was decided to be nearby Yeongjong Island, a part of Incheon . This was later known as Incheon International Airport . All international flights were moved to Incheon when it opened in 2001, and Gimpo has only served domestic flights from then on.

DOMESTIC ERA

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However, due to the lack of airlines, a flight to Haneda Airport in Tokyo was started in 2003. From that, Gimpo returned as international airport. Since then, several international flights in neighbor countries were added and currently it normally served particular international airlines especially to nearby countries.

Since all 3 terminals were outdated, there's a masterplan to refurbish them. It is deemed to be completed by 2017.

Gimpo currently has two runways (3600 m × 45 m "> Asiana Airlines Airbus A321-200 at Gimpo International Airport Jin Air Boeing 737-800 take off at Gimpo International Airport Korean Air Boeing 737-800 at Gimpo International Airport

DOMESTIC TERMINAL

AIRLINES DESTINATIONS

Air Busan Busan , Jeju

Asiana Airlines Gwangju , Jeju , Ulsan , Yeosu

Eastar Jet Busan , Jeju

Jin Air Jeju

Korean Air Busan , Jeju , Pohang , Sacheon , Ulsan , Yeosu

T\'way Airlines Jeju

INTERNATIONAL TERMINAL

AIRLINES DESTINATIONS

Air China Beijing–Capital

All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Haneda

Asiana Airlines Beijing–Capital , Osaka–Kansai , Shanghai–Hongqiao , Tokyo–Haneda

China Airlines Taipei–Songshan

China Eastern Airlines Shanghai–Hongqiao

China Eastern Airlines operated by Shanghai Airlines Shanghai–Hongqiao

China Southern Airlines Beijing–Capital

Eastar Jet Taipei–Songshan

EVA Air Taipei–Songshan

Japan Airlines Tokyo–Haneda

Jeju Air Osaka–Kansai

Korean Air Beijing–Capital , Osaka–Kansai , Shanghai–Hongqiao , Tokyo–Haneda

T\'way Airlines Taipei–Songshan

CARGO

AIRLINES DESTINATIONS

Air China Cargo Beijing–Capital

ANA Cargo Tokyo–Haneda

Asiana Cargo Busan , Jeju , Tokyo–Haneda , Osaka–Kansai , Beijing–Capital , Shanghai–Hongqiao

China Airlines Cargo Taipei–Songshan

China Cargo Airlines Shanghai–Hongqiao

China Southern Cargo Beijing–Capital

EVA Air Cargo Taipei–Songshan

Korean Air Cargo Busan , Jeju , Cheongju , Tokyo–Haneda , Osaka–Kansai , Beijing–Capital , Shanghai–Hongqiao

STATISTICS

TOP CARRIERS

International Terminal, Gimpo Airport – Departure Domestic Terminal, Gimpo Airport – Departure

In 2016, the ten carriers with the largest percentage of passengers flying into, out of, or through Gimpo International Airport are as follows:

TOP CARRIERS (2016) RANK CARRIER Domestic passengers International passengers TOTAL %

1 Korean Air 5,215,514 1,220,978 6,436,492 25.70%

2 Asiana Airlines 4,088,721 1,123,109 5,211,830 20.81%

3 Jeju Air 2,740,861 244,915 2,985,776 11.92%

4 Jin Air 2,926,195

2,926,195 11.68%

5 Eastar Jet 1,956,905 54,663 2,011,568 8.03%

6 Air Busan 1,987,427 866 1,988,293 7.94%

7 T\'way Airlines 1,787,123 70,992 1,858,115 7.42%

8 All Nippon Airways

424,542 424,542 1.70%

9 Japan Airlines

388,466 388,466 1.55%

10 China Eastern Airlines

194,044 194,044 0.77%

OTHER FACILITIES

Korea Airports Corporation (KAC) has its headquarters on the airport property.

The Aviation and Railway Accident Investigation Board (ARAIB) has its FDR/CVR Analysis and Wreckage Laboratory on the property of the airport. When the predecessor agency Korea Aviation Accident Investigation Board (KAIB) existed, its CVR/FDR and wreckage laboratory was located on the airport property.

GROUND TRANSPORTATION

RAIL

On 23 March 2007 the AREX airport express line started operations to Incheon International Airport , with an extension to Seoul Station which opened in December 2010. Seoul Subway Line 9 also links the airport to the Gangnam area.

For many years, the airport was served by the Gimpo Line , a railway line that no longer exists. In the 1990s, Seoul Subway Line 5 was extended to Gimpo.

ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS

International Terminal, Gimpo Airport – Departure

* On 11 December 1969, North Korean agent Cho Ch'ang-hǔi hijacked a Korean Air Lines YS-11 flying from Gangneung Airbase in Gangneung, Gangwon-do to Gimpo International Airport in Seoul. It was carrying four crewmembers and 46 passengers (excluding Cho); 39 of the passengers were returned two months later, but the crew and seven passengers remained in North Korea. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair on landing. * On 20 April 1978, Korean Air Lines Flight 902 a Boeing 707 was shot down by the Soviet Air Force while flying from Paris , France to Anchorage, Alaska and continuing to Gimpo Airport. Two passengers were killed in the explosive decompression and the flight was able to land on a frozen lake where the remaining passengers and crew were transported to safety and then flown out of the Soviet Union back to South Korea * On 19 November 1980, Korean Air Lines Flight 015 landed short of the runway, ripping off all main landing gear, causing the aircraft to skid to a stop on the nose wheel and outer 2 engines starting a fire. 15 of the 226 total occupants were killed, including the First Officer and Captain. * On 1 September 1983, Korean Air Lines 007 (a Boeing 747) bound for Seoul from New York City via Anchorage was shot down by a Soviet interceptor jet after pilot error drifted the plane into a restricted soviet air space, all passengers and crew on board were killed as the plane plummeted into the East Sea and escalated tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States. * On 14 September 1986, A bomb blast occurred outside a terminal building, killing five people and wounding 36. The attack was blamed on North Korea as an attempt to disrupt the 1986 Asian Games starting 5 days later.

SEE ALSO

* Korea portal * Aviation portal

* List of the busiest airports in South Korea * Transportation in South Korea

REFERENCES

* ^ Gimpo International Airport. Airport.co.kr. Retrieved on 24 August 2013. * ^ * ^ Gimpo–Beijing air route to open in July. South Korea News (26 April 2011). Retrieved on 12 July 2013. * ^ Songshan to begin direct flights to Gimpo in Seoul. Taipei Times (30 April 2012). Retrieved on 6 March 2015. * ^ Photo from collection of LTC (USAF Ret) Harvey W. Gipple * ^ A B C D "History Milestones Sunday, January 01, 1950 – Thursday, December 31, 1959". U.S. Air Force. Archived from the original on 28 June 2013. * ^ "Valor Awards for James Walter Little". Gannett Company . 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2013. * ^ Futrell, Robert F. (1997). The United States Air Force in Korea, 1950–1953. United States Government Printing Office . pp. 99–101. ISBN 9780160488795 . * ^ Futrell, p. 102 * ^ Hoyt, Edwin P. (1984). On to the Yalu. Stein and Day. p. 58. ISBN 0812829778 . * ^ Hoyt, p.61 * ^ Futrell, pp. 178–9 * ^ Futrell, p. 293 * ^ http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20160427000642 * ^ "Directions" (see enclosed map). Korea Airports Corporation . Retrieved on June 22, 2017. "07505 Korea Airports Corporation∥78 Haneul-gil Gangseo-gu, SEOUL" - Directions and address in Korean: "07505 서울 강서구 하늘길 78 한국공항공사 " * ^ "Office Location." (Archive) Aviation and Railway Accident Investigation Board. Retrieved on 15 February 2012. "CVR/FDR analysis and wreckage laboratory : Gimpo International Airport 274 Gwahae-dong, Gangseo-gu, Seoul, Korea 157–711" * ^ "KAIB/AAR F0201." Korea Aviation Accident Investigation Board . 4/168. Retrieved on 18 June 2009. "The main office is located near Gimpo International Airport, and the flight recorder analysis and wreckage laboratories are located inside the airport." * ^ Aircraft accident Boeing 747-2B5B HL7445 Seoul–Gimpo (Kimpo) International Airport * ^ "5 DEAD, 36 HURT IN AN EXPLOSION AT SEOUL AIRPORT". New York Times. 15 September 1968. Retrieved 30 June 2016.

* This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Air Force website http://www.af.mil. * This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to GIMPO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT .

* Gimpo Airport * Airport information

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