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The German Democratic Party
German Democratic Party
(German: Deutsche Demokratische Partei, DDP) was founded in November, 1918,[8] by leaders of the former Progressive People's Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei), left members of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei), and a new group calling themselves the Democrats. In 1930 the party changed to the Deutsche Staatspartei (DStP).

Contents

1 Politics 2 Persons and governments 3 After 1945 4 Pictures 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading

Politics[edit] The Democrats were a more left-wing or social liberal party, whereas the German People's Party
German People's Party
was right-wing liberal. Many of the leading figures in the party had been supporters of Imperial Germany's aim of Weltpolitik[9] and Mitteleuropa[citation needed]. Along with the Social Democrats and the Centre Party, the Democratic party was most committed to maintaining a democratic, republican form of government. Its social bases were middle-class entrepreneurs, civil servants, teachers, scientists, and craftsmen. It considered itself also a devotedly national party and opposed the Treaty of Versailles, but emphasized on the other hand the need for international collaboration and the protection of ethnic minorities. The party was the one voted for by most Jews.[10] The party was attacked by some for being a party of Jews and professors.[11] Persons and governments[edit] The party's first leader was Protestant parish priest Friedrich Naumann, who was popular and influential, but failed with his Nationalsozialer Verein ten years earlier to link progressive intellectuals with the working class. He died early in 1919. Other well-known politicians of the DDP were Hugo Preuß, the main author of the Weimar constitution, and the eminent sociologist Max Weber. Hjalmar Schacht, president of the Reichsbank
Reichsbank
and one of the founders of the party, left the party in 1926 and became a supporter of Adolf Hitler. Nearly all German governments from 1918 to 1931 included ministers from the DDP, such as Walther Rathenau, Eugen Schiffer, Hugo Preuss, Kurt Riezler, Otto Gessler, Max Weber, and Erich Koch-Weser. From their 18% share of the first German federal elections under proportional representation in 1919, they dropped, for example, to 4.9% in the 1928 German federal election, and to 1.0% in the November 1932 German federal election. The party merged with the more right-leaning Young German Order
Young German Order
to form the German State Party
German State Party
in 1930. With Ludwig Quidde
Ludwig Quidde
(Nobel Peace Prize winner of 1927) and others, the party had a pacifist wing which left the Party in 1930 and founded the Radical Democratic Party, which represented radical democratic and more Left-wing
Left-wing
policies. After 1945[edit] After 1945, former politicians of the DDP joined mainly the new Free Democratic Party (1945/1948), as did the liberals from the German People's Party. First Federal President Theodor Heuss, a journalist and professor of history, had been a German State Party
German State Party
deputy in 1933. In the Soviet occupation zone
Soviet occupation zone
the liberal leader was former DDP minister Wilhelm Külz. Other DDP members went to the Christian Democrats, such as Ernst Lemmer, the former leader of the Young Democrats and Federal Minister in 1956-1965. Pictures[edit]

Feminist and DDP co-founder Helene Lange

Funeral celebration for Walter Rathenau, the murdered DDP minister of foreign affairs, in 1922

Psychologist Willy Hellpach, DDP candidate for Reich Presidency in 1925

DDP ministers Wilhelm Külz
Wilhelm Külz
(left, interior) and Otto Gessler
Otto Gessler
(army), in 1926

One of the political leaders of the party, Hermann Dietrich, in 1926

Ludwig Quidde, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize of 1927

DDP flag 1929

Former DDP minister Bernhard Dernburg
Bernhard Dernburg
in 1931

Allied prisoner Hjalmar Schacht
Hjalmar Schacht
in 1945

Federal President Theodor Heuss
Theodor Heuss
in 1953

See also[edit]

Democratic Party of Germany Liberalism List of liberal parties Liberalism
Liberalism
in Germany Weimar Republic

References[edit]

^ Mommsen, Hans (1996). The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy. University of North Carolina Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-8078-2249-3.  ^ Van De Grift, Liesbeth (2012). Securing the Communist State: The Reconstruction of Coercive Institutions in the Soviet Zone of Germany and Romania, 1944-48. Lexington Books. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7391-7178-3.  ^ Lash, Scott; Urry, John (1987). The End of Organized Capitalism. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-7456-0068-9.  ^ a b Kurlander, Eric (2006). The Price of Exclusion: Ethnicity, National Identity, and the Decline of German Liberalism, 1898–1933. Berghahn Books. p. 197. ISBN 1-8454-5069-8.  ^ Maier, Charles S. (1975). Recasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization in France, Germany and Italy in the Decade after World War I. Princeton University Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-691-05220-4.  ^ Lee, Stephen J. (1998). The Weimar Republic. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 0-415-17178-4.  ^ Hugo Preuss
Hugo Preuss
(2008). Schwarz-Rot-Gold: Zum Nürnberger Parteitag (1920). Gesammelte Schriften – Vierter Band: Politik und Verfassung in der Weimarer Republik. Mohr Siebeck. p. 155.  ^ http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_image.cfm?image_id=4033&language=english ^ Smith, Woodruff D. (1989) The Ideological Origins of Nazi Imperialism Oxford University Press p196-7 ^ Niewyk, Donald L. (1980) The Jews in Weimar Germany Louisiana State University Press p31 ^ Baumgarten, Albert I. (17 March 2010). Elias Bickerman as a historian of the Jews : a twentieth-century tale. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. p. 73. ISBN 9783161501715. 

Further reading[edit]

Frye, Bruce B. (1963). "The German Democratic Party
German Democratic Party
1918–1930". Political Research Quarterly. 16 (1): 167–179. doi:10.1177/106591296301600112. 

v t e

Political parties in Germany in the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
(1918–1933)

Communist

Communist Party of Germany
Communist Party of Germany
(KPD) Communist Workers Party of Germany (KAPD) Communist Party Opposition (KPO)

Socialist Social Democratic

Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD) Majority Social Democratic Party of Germany (MSPD) Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (SAPD)

Catholic

Bavarian People's Party
Bavarian People's Party
(BVP) Centre Party (Zentrum) Christian People's Party (CVP)

Agrarian

Bavarian Peasants' League (BB) Agricultural League Schleswig-Holstein Farmers and Farmworkers Democracy (SHBLD) Christian National Peasants' and Farmers' Party (CNBL) German Farmers' Party (DBP)

Liberal

German Democratic Party
German Democratic Party
(DDP) German People's Party
German People's Party
(DVP) German State Party
German State Party
(DStP)

Conservative

German National People's Party
German National People's Party
(DNVP) People's Right Party (VRP) Christian Social People's Service
Christian Social People's Service
(CSVD) Conservative People's Party (KVP)

Völkische and Nazi

German Workers' Party
German Workers' Party
(DAP) German Social Party (DSP) German Socialist Party (DSP) National Socialist German Workers' Party
German Workers' Party
(NSDAP)-Nazi Party German Völkisch Freedom Party (DVFP) National Socialist Freedom Movement (NSFB)

Miscellaneous

German-Hanoverian Party
German-Hanoverian Party
(DHP) Economi

.