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Synonyms

Brachmiinae Deoclonidae Gelechiadae (lapsus) Physoptilinae (but see text)

The Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
are a family of moths commonly referred to as twirler moths or gelechiid moths. They are the namesake family of the huge and little-studied superfamily Gelechioidea, and the family's taxonomy has been subject to considerable dispute. These are generally very small moths with narrow, fringed wings. The larvae of most species feed internally on various parts of their host plants, sometimes causing galls. Douglas-fir
Douglas-fir
(Pseudotsuga) is a host plant common to many species of the family, particularly of the genus Chionodes, which as a result is more diverse in North America
North America
than usual for Gelechioidea.[1] By the late 20th century, over 900[2] genera with altogether more than 4,500 species were placed here, with about 650 genera known from North America alone. While these figures are certainly outdated, due to the many revisions to superfamily Gelechioidea
Gelechioidea
and new descriptions of twirler moths, they still serve to show the enormous biodiversity contained in this important family. Being abundant, fecund plant-eaters, many species are agricultural pests, including:

Anarsia lineatella
Anarsia lineatella
– peach twig borer Aproaerema modicella – groundnut leafminer Keiferia lycopersicella
Keiferia lycopersicella
– tomato pinworm Pectinophora gossypiella
Pectinophora gossypiella
– pink bollworm Phthorimaea operculella
Phthorimaea operculella
– potato tuber moth, tobacco splitworm Sitotroga cerealella
Sitotroga cerealella
– angoumois grain moth Tecia solanivora (Povolny, 1973) – Guatemalan potato moth, Central American potato tuber moth Tuta absoluta
Tuta absoluta
– tomato leafminer, South American tomato moth

The voracious habits of their larvae make twirler moths suitable for biological control of invasive plants. The spotted knapweed seedhead moth (Metzneria paucipunctella), for example, is used to control spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) in North America. Taxonomy and systematics[edit] Compared to the other massively diverse Gelechioidea
Gelechioidea
families – Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
(case-bearers) and Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
(concealer moths) – the systematics of the Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
are far less contentious. The "Deoclonidae", sometimes treated as a full gelechioid family, seem to be nothing other than a specialized offshoot from within the Gelechiidae, and are here included in the present family; some authors differ, however, and ally at least some of these genera with the Autostichinae
Autostichinae
and/or Symmocidae. On the other hand, the Schistonoeidae (scavenger moths) are preliminarily considered a distinct family here.[3][4][5][6][7] Of the subfamilies traditionally accepted for the Gelechiidae, only three were maintained for some time pending further information; at least one other, the Physoptilinae, were suggested to also be valid. But numerous genera of twirler moths – including most of the former "Deoclonidae" and also the proposed Physoptilinae – were of undetermined affiliation at that moment.[5][6] Later studies, including a 2013 molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae, list the following subfamilies:[8] Subfamily Anacampsinae Bruand, 1850 Subfamily Anomologinae Meyrick, 1926 Subfamily Apatetrinae Meyrick, 1947 Subfamily Dichomeridinae
Dichomeridinae
Hampson, 1918 (formerly including Chelariinae, which is now placed in Anacampsinae) Subfamily Gelechiinae
Gelechiinae
Stainton, 1854 Subfamily Physoptilinae Meyrick, 1914 Subfamily Thiotrichinae Karsholt, Mutanen, Lee & Kaila, 2013 Genera incertae sedis

Aerotypia Walsingham, 1911. Antithyra Meyrick, 1906. Coniogyra Meyrick, 1921. Dicranucha Janse, 1954 Metopios Lucas, 1945 Paraschema Povolný, 1990 Pseudosymmoca Rebel, 1903 Sphagiocrates Meyrick, 1925 Stenoalata Omelko in Omelko & Omelko, 1998 Syrmadaula Meyrick, 1918

References[edit]

^ Donald J. Borror, Charles A. Triplehorn & Norman F. Johnson (1989). An Introduction to the Study of Insects (6th ed.). Fort Worth, Texas: Saunders College. p. 800. ISBN 0-03-025397-7.  ^ The Natural History Museum of London
London
website offers details on 911 genera belonging to the family Gelechiidae. The list of these is accessible here ^ R. W. Hodges (1999). "The Gelechioidea". In N. P. Kristensen. IV – Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 35: Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies 1. Handbuch der Zoologie. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 131–158. ISBN 3-11-015704-7.  ^ Christopher O'Toole, ed. (2002). Firefly Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders. ISBN 1-55297-612-2.  ^ a b Australian Biological Resources Study (October 9, 2008). "Gelechiidae". Australian Faunal Directory. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  ^ a b "Gelechiidae". Fauna Europaea. December 22, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  ^ "Gelechiidae". Tree of Life Web Project. May 1, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  ^ Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi; Kaila, Lauri (April 2013). "A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
(Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa" (PDF). Systematic Entomology. 38 (2): 334–348. doi:10.1111/syen.12006. Retrieved 28 January 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gelechiidae.

Data related to Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
at Wikispecies C. Michael Hogan (September 17, 2008). "Douglas-fir: Pseudotsuga menziesii". Archived from the original on June 4, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  Gelechiidae Gelechioidea
Gelechioidea
Global Framework Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
Genera of the World - list of preliminary subfamily/tribe assignments http://www.mapress.com./zootaxa/2009/f/z02231p039f.pdf

v t e

Extant Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Zeugloptera

Micropterigoidea

Micropterigidae
Micropterigidae
(mandibulate archaic moths)

Suborder Aglossata

Agathiphagoidea

Agathiphagidae (kauri moths)

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Heterobathmioidea

Heterobathmiidae

Suborder Glossata

Dacnonypha

Eriocranioidea

Eriocraniidae

Acanthoctesia

Acanthopteroctetoidea

Acanthopteroctetidae (archaic sun moths)

Lophocoronina

Lophocoronoidea

Lophocoronidae

Neopseustina

Neopseustoidea

Neopseustidae (archaic bell moths)

Exoporia

Hepialoidea

Anomosetidae Hepialidae
Hepialidae
(swift moths, ghost moths) Neotheoridae (Amazonian primitive ghost moths) Palaeosetidae (miniature ghost moths) Prototheoridae (African primitive ghost moths)

Mnesarchaeoidea

Mnesarchaeidae (New Zealand primitive moths)

H e t e r o n e u r a

M o n o t r y s i a

Incurvarioidea

Adelidae
Adelidae
(fairy longhorn moths) Cecidosidae Crinopterygidae Heliozelidae Incurvariidae Prodoxidae
Prodoxidae
(yucca moths)

Andesianoidea

Andesianidae (Andean endemic moths)

Nepticuloidea

Nepticulidae
Nepticulidae
(pigmy, or midget moths) Opostegidae
Opostegidae
(white eyecap moths)

Palaephatoidea

Palaephatidae (Gondwanaland moths)

Tischerioidea

Tischeriidae (trumpet leaf miner moths)

D i t r y s i a

Simaethistoidea

Simaethistidae

Tineoidea

Acrolophidae
Acrolophidae
(burrowing webworm moths) Arrhenophanidae Eriocottidae (Old World spiny-winged moths) Lypusidae Psychidae (bagworm moths) Tineidae
Tineidae
(fungus moths)

Gracillarioidea

Bucculatricidae
Bucculatricidae
(ribbed cocoon makers) Douglasiidae (Douglas moths) Gracillariidae Roeslerstammiidae

Yponomeutoidea

Acrolepiidae
Acrolepiidae
(false diamondback moths) Bedelliidae Glyphipterigidae
Glyphipterigidae
(sedge moths) Heliodinidae Lyonetiidae Plutellidae Yponomeutidae (ermine moths) Ypsolophidae

Gelechioidea

Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
(case-bearers, case moths) Cosmopterigidae
Cosmopterigidae
(cosmet moths) Elachistidae
Elachistidae
(grass-miner moths) Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
(twirler moths) Lecithoceridae
Lecithoceridae
(long-horned moths) Metachandidae Momphidae
Momphidae
(mompha moths) Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
(concealer moths) Pterolonchidae Scythrididae
Scythrididae
(flower moths) Xyloryctidae
Xyloryctidae
(timber moths)

Galacticoidea

Galacticidae

Zygaenoidea

Heterogynidae Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
(burnet, forester, or smoky moths) Himantopteridae Lacturidae Somabrachyidae Megalopygidae (flannel moths) Aididae Anomoeotidae Cyclotornidae Epipyropidae
Epipyropidae
(planthopper parasite moths) Dalceridae
Dalceridae
(slug caterpillars) Limacodidae
Limacodidae
(slug, or cup moths)

Cossoidea

Cossidae
Cossidae
(carpenter millers, or goat moths) Dudgeoneidae (dudgeon carpenter moths)

Sesioidea

Brachodidae (little bear moths) Castniidae
Castniidae
(castniid moths: giant butterfly-moths, sun moths) Sesiidae
Sesiidae
(clearwing moths)

Choreutoidea

Choreutidae
Choreutidae
(metalmark moths)

Tortricoidea

Tortricidae
Tortricidae
(tortrix moths)

Urodoidea

Urodidae
Urodidae
(false burnet moths)

Schreckensteinioidea

Schreckensteiniidae
Schreckensteiniidae
(bristle-legged moths)

Epermenioidea

Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
(fringe-tufted moths)

Alucitoidea

Alucitidae (many-plumed moths) Tineodidae (false plume moths)

Pterophoroidea

Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
(plume moths)

Whalleyanoidea

Whalleyanidae

Immoidea

Immidae

Copromorphoidea

Copromorphidae (tropical fruitworm moths) Carposinidae
Carposinidae
(fruitworm moths)

Hyblaeoidea

Hyblaeidae
Hyblaeidae
(teak moths)

Pyraloidea

Pyralidae
Pyralidae
(snout moths) Crambidae
Crambidae
(grass moth)

Thyridoidea

Thyrididae
Thyrididae
(picture-winged leaf moths)

Mimallonoidea

Mimallonidae (sack bearer moths)

Lasiocampoidea

Lasiocampidae
Lasiocampidae
(eggars, snout moths, or lappet moths)

Bombycoidea

Anthelidae
Anthelidae
(Australian lappet moth) Bombycidae
Bombycidae
(silk moths) Brahmaeidae
Brahmaeidae
(Brahmin moths) Carthaeidae (Dryandra moth) Endromidae
Endromidae
(Kentish glory and relatives) Eupterotidae Lemoniidae Saturniidae
Saturniidae
(saturniids) Sphingidae
Sphingidae
(hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms) Phiditiidae

Noctuoidea

Doidae Erebidae
Erebidae
(underwing, tiger, tussock, litter, snout, owlet moths) Euteliidae Noctuidae
Noctuidae
(daggers, sallows, owlet moths, quakers, cutworms, darts) Nolidae
Nolidae
(tuft moths) Notodontidae
Notodontidae
(prominents, kittens) Oenosandridae

Drepanoidea

Epicopeiidae
Epicopeiidae
(oriental swallowtail moths) Drepanidae
Drepanidae
(hook-tips)

Geometroidea

Sematuridae Uraniidae Geometridae (geometer moths)

Cimelioidea

Cimeliidae (gold moths)

Calliduloidea

Callidulidae
Callidulidae
(Old World butterfly-moths)

Superfamily unassigned

Millieriidae

Rhopalocera (butterflies)

Hedyloidea

Hedylidae
Hedylidae
(American moth-butterflies)

Hesperioidea

Hesperiidae (skippers)

Papilionoidea (true butterflies)

Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(gossamer-winged butterflies: blues, coppers and relatives) Nymphalidae
Nymphalidae
(brush-footed, or four-footed butterflies) Papilionidae (swallowtail butterflies) Pieridae
Pieridae
(whites, yellows, orangetips, sulphurs) Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(metalmarks)

Note: division Monotrysia
Monotrysia
is not a clade.

Taxonomy of the Lepidoptera Lists by region

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q778491 BAMONA: Gelechiidae BugGuide: 7747 EoL: 825 EPPO: 1GELEF Fauna Europaea: 3177 Fossilworks: 223181 GBIF: 3553 ITIS: 118700 NCBI: 3

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