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Gaziantep (Turkish pronunciation: [ɡaːˈziantep]), previously and still informally called Antep (pronounced [anˈtep]), is the capital of Gaziantep Province, in the western part of Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, some 185 kilometres (115 mi) east of Adana and 97 kilometres (60 mi) north of Aleppo, Syria. It is probably located on the site of ancient Antiochia ad Taurum, and is near ancient Zeugma.

The city has two urban districts under its administration, Şahinbey and Şehitkamil. It is the sixth-most populous city in Turkey and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.

Name

Gaziantep was formerly called Antep or Aīntāb (عين تاب) in Ottoman Turkish and Armenian, ‘Aīntāb (عينتاب) in Arabic. There are several theories for the origin of the name:[citation needed]

  • Aïntap may be derived from khantap, meaning "king's land" in the Hittite language.
  • Aïn, an Arabic and Aramaic word meaning "spring", and tab as a word of praise.
  • Antep could be a corruption of the Arabic ‘aīn ṭayyib meaning "good spring".[2] However, the Arabic name for the city is spelled with t (ت), not ṭ (ط).
  • Ayin dab or Ayin debo in Aramaic, meaning "spring of the wolf"

The Crusaders called the city and its castle "Hantab", "Hamtab", and "Hatab".[3][4]

In February 1921, the Turkish parliament honored the city as غازى عينتاب Ghazi Aīntāb or "Antep the war hero" to commemorate its resistance to the French Siege of Aintab during the Franco-Turkish War, part of the Turkish War of Independence, and that name was officially adopted in 1928 as Gaziantep.[5]

History

The "Gypsy Girl" is in Zeugma Mosaic Museum.
Funerary portrait of a man, Palmyra (Syria), 2nd/3rd century AD. presented in Gaziantep Museum of Archaeology
View of Antep's historic city center
Museum about the Sufi whirling dervishes of Gaziantep

Neolithic period

The archaeological site of Tell Tülük, which gives its name to the Neolithic Dulicien culture, is situated a few kilometers to the north of the city center.

Early Bronze Age

There are traces of settlement going back to the 4th millennium BC.[citation needed]

Hellenistic period

Gaziantep is the probable site of the Hellenistic city of Antiochia ad Taurum[6] ("Antiochia in the Taurus Mountains").

Byzantine period

In the center of the city stands the Gaziantep Fortress and the Ravanda citadel, which were restored by the Byzantines in the 6th century.

Medieval history

Following the Muslim conquest of the Levant, the city passed to the Umayyads in 661 AD and the Abbasids in 750. It was ravaged several times during the Arab–Byzantine wars. After the disintegration of the Abbasid dynasty, the city was ruled successively by the Tulunids, the Ikhshidids and the Hamdanids. In 962, it was recaptured by the Byzantines.[7] The Anatolian Seljuks took Aintab in 1067. They gave way to the Syrian Seljuks in 1086. Tutush I appointed Thoros of Edessa as governor of the region.

It was captured by the Crusaders and united to the Maras Seigneurship in the County of Edessa in 1098.

It reverted to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1150, was controlled by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia between 1155–1157 and 1204–1206 and captured by the Zengids in 1172 and the Ayyubids in 1181. It was retaken by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1218. It was ruled by the Ilkhanate between 1260–1261, 1271–1272, 1280–1281 and 1299–1317 and by the Mamluks between 1261–1271, 1272–1280, 1281–1299, 1317–1341, 1353–1378, 1381–1389 and 1395–1516. It was also governed by the Dulkadirids, which was a Turkish vassal state of the Mamluks.

Ottoman period

The Ottoman Empire captured Gaziantep after the Battle of Marj Dabiq in 1516, under the reign of Sultan Selim I. In the Ot

The city has two urban districts under its administration, Şahinbey and Şehitkamil. It is the sixth-most populous city in Turkey and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.

Gaziantep was formerly called Antep or Aīntāb (عين تاب) in Ottoman Turkish and Armenian, ‘Aīntāb (عينتاب) in Arabic. There are several theories for the origin of the name:[citation needed]

  • Aïntap may be derived from khantap, meaning "king's land" in the Hittite language.
  • Aïn, an Arabic and Aramaic word meaning "spring", and tab as a word of praise.
  • Antep could be a corruption of the Arabic ‘aīn ṭayyib meaning "good spring".[2] However, the Arabic name for the city is spelled with t (ت), not ṭ (ط).
  • Ayin dab or Ayin debo in Aramaic, meaning "spring of the wolf"

The Crusaders called the city and its castle "Hantab", "Hamtab", and "Hatab".[3][4]

In February 1921, the Turkish parliament honored the city as غازى عينتاب Ghazi Aīntāb or "Antep the war hero" to commemorate its resistance to the French Siege of Aintab during the Franco-Turkish War, part of the Turkish War of Independence, and that name was officially adopted in 1928 as Gaziantep.[5]

History

The "Gypsy Girl" is in Zeugma Mosaic Museum.
Funerary portrait of a man, Palmyra (Syria), 2nd/3rd century AD. presented in Gaziantep Museum of Archaeology
View of Antep's historic city center
Crusaders called the city and its castle "Hantab", "Hamtab", and "Hatab".[3][4]

In February 1921, the Turkish parliament honored the city as غازى عينتاب Ghazi Aīntāb or "Antep the war hero" to commemorate its resistance to the French Siege of Aintab during the Franco-Turkish War, part of the Turkish War of Independence, and that name was officially adopted in 1928 as Gaziantep.Turkish parliament honored the city as غازى عينتاب Ghazi Aīntāb or "Antep the war hero" to commemorate its resistance to the French Siege of Aintab during the Franco-Turkish War, part of the Turkish War of Independence, and that name was officially adopted in 1928 as Gaziantep.[5]

The archaeological site of Tell Tülük, which gives its name to the Neolithic Dulicien culture, is situated a few kilometers to the north of the city center.

Early Bronze Age

There are traces of settlement going back to the 4th millennium BC.[citation needed]

Hellenistic period

Gaziantep is the probable site of the Hellenistic city of Antiochia ad Taurum[6] ("Antiochia in the Taurus Mountains").

Byzantine period

In the center of the city stands the Gaziantep Fortress and the Ravanda citadel, which were restored by the Byzantines in the 6th century.

Medieval history

Following the Muslim conquest of the Levant, the city passed to the Umayyads in 661 AD and the Abbasids in 750. It was ravaged several times during the Arab–Byzantine wars. After the disintegration of the Abbasid dynasty, the city was ruled successively by the Tulunids, the Ikhshidids and the Hamdanids. In 962, it was recaptured by the Byzantines.[7] The Anatolian Seljuks took Aintab in 1067. They gave way to the Syrian Seljuks in 1086. Tutush I appointed Thoros of Edessa as governor of the region.

It was captured by the Crusaders and united to the Maras Seigneurship in the County of Edessa in 1098.

It reverted to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1150, was controlled by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia between 1155–1157 and 1204–1206 and captured by the Zengids in 1172 and the Ayyubids in 1181. It was retaken by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1218. It was ruled by the Ilkhanate between 1260–1261, 1271–1272, 1280–1281 and 1299–1317 and by the Mamluks between 1261–1271, 1272–1280, 1281–1299, 1317–1341, 1353–1378, 1381–1389 and 1395–1516. It was also governed by the Dulkadirids, which was a Turkish vassal state of the Mamluks.

Ottoman period

The Ottoman Empire captured Gaziantep after the Battle of Marj Dabiq in 1516, under the reign

There are traces of settlement going back to the 4th millennium BC.[citation needed]

Hellenistic period

Gaziantep is the probable site of the Hellenistic city of Antiochia ad Taurum[6] ("Antiochia in the Taurus Mountains").

Byzantine period

In

In the center of the city stands the Gaziantep Fortress and the Ravanda citadel, which were restored by the Byzantines in the 6th century.

Medieval history

Following the Muslim conquest of the Levant, the city passed to the Umayyads in 661 AD and the Abbasids in 750. It was ravaged several times during the Arab–Byzantine wars. After the disintegration of the Abbasid dynasty, the city was ruled successively by the Tulunids, the Ikhshidids and the Hamdanids. In 962, it was recaptured by the Byzantines.[7] The Anatolian Seljuks took Aintab in 1067. They gave way to the Syrian Seljuks in 1086. Tutush I appointed Thoros of Edessa as governor of the region.

It was captured by the Crusaders and united to the Maras Seigneurship in the County of Edessa in 1098.

It reverted to the It was captured by the Crusaders and united to the Maras Seigneurship in the County of Edessa in 1098.

It reverted to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1150, was controlled by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia between 1155–1157 and 1204–1206 and captured by the Zengids in 1172 and the Ayyubids in 1181. It was retaken by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1218. It was ruled by the Ilkhanate between 1260–1261, 1271–1272, 1280–1281 and 1299–1317 and by the Mamluks between 1261–1271, 1272–1280, 1281–1299, 1317–1341, 1353–1378, 1381–1389 and 1395–1516. It was also governed by the Dulkadirids, which was a Turkish vassal state of the Mamluks.

The Ottoman Empire captured Gaziantep after the Battle of Marj Dabiq in 1516, under the reign of Sultan Selim I. In the Ottoman period, Aintab was a sanjak centered initially in the Dulkadir Eyalet (1516–1818), and later in the Aleppo vilayet (1908–1918). It was also a kaza in the Aleppo vilayet (1818–1908). The city established itself as a centre for commerce due to its location straddling trade routes.

The 17th century Turkish traveler Evliya Celebi noted that there were 3,900 shops and two bedesten.

By the end of the 19th century, Aintab had a population of about 45,000, two thirds of which was Muslim—largely Turkish, but also

The 17th century Turkish traveler Evliya Celebi noted that there were 3,900 shops and two bedesten.

By the end of the 19th century, Aintab had a population of about 45,000, two thirds of which was Muslim—largely Turkish, but also Arabs and Kurdish. Of the Christians, there was a large Armenian community. In the 19th century, there was considerable American Protestant Christian missionary activity in Aintab.[8][9] In particular, Central Turkey College was founded in 1874 by the American Mission Board and largely served the Armenian community. The Armenians were systemically slaughtered during the Hamidian massacres in 1895 and later the Armenian Genocide in 1915.[10][11][12] Consequently, the Central Turkey College was transferred to Aleppo in 1916.

After the First World War and Armistice of Mudros, Gaziantep was occupied by United Kingdom on 17 December 1918 and it was transferred to France on 5 November 1919.[13] French Armenian Legion was also involved in occupation. In April 1920 irregular Turkish troops known as Kuva-yi Milliye sieged the city,[14] but the 10 month long battle resulted in French victory.[15] Around 6,000 Turkish civilians were murdered in progress.[16] On 25 December 1921, Treaty of Ankara was signed and as a result French evacuated the city.

In 2013, Turkey, a member state of NATO requested deployment of MIM-104 Patriot to Gaziantep to be able to respond faster in a case of military operation against Turkish soil in the In 2013, Turkey, a member state of NATO requested deployment of MIM-104 Patriot to Gaziantep to be able to respond faster in a case of military operation against Turkish soil in the Syrian Civil War, which was accepted.[17]

Gaziantep is traditionally said to reflect in advance the rising political trends in Turkey, according preference to ANAP in 1984, DYP in 1989, Necmettin Erbakan's (then named as) Welfare Party in 1994, and AKP in 2004 local elections. One exception was in 1999 when, boosted by the successful image of Gaziantep city mayor Celal Doğan, CHP came first with 17.02% of the votes for the Provincial General Assembly (with four parties scoring over 15%), and the rightist MHP's rise at that time (campaigning on Turkish-identity consciousness arguments) still being reflected by its second position after CHP for the province. DEHAP, campaigning on Kurdish-identity consciousness arguments, after having touched a modest 5% ceiling in 1999, seems to have ebbed down, its score under SHP's cover in 2004 local elections remaining at a still more modest 1.81% (with MHP at 5.36%). In any case, in 2004, AKP obtained 55.11% and CHP 21.57%, and all other parties below 6% at the Provincial General Assembly elections. Prime Minister Erdoğan is known to have deemed the local elections in Gaziantep as particularly important and to have mobilized considerable governmental weight beforehand.

The current Mayor of Gaziantep is Fatma Şahin,[18] who had previously served as the Minister of Family and Social Policies in the third cabinet of Erdoğan.

Mayors

Mayors of Gaziantep
Mayor Years of service
Fatma Şahin 2014–present
Asım Güzelbey 200

The current Mayor of Gaziantep is Fatma Şahin,[18] who had previously served as the Minister of Family and Social Policies in the third cabinet of Erdoğan.

Gaziantep is famous for its regional specialities: Copperware and "Yemeni" sandals, specific to the region, are two examples. The city is an economic center for Southeastern and Eastern Turkey. The number of large industrial businesses established in Gaziantep comprise four percent of Turkish industry in general, while small industries comprise six percent. Also, Gaziantep has the largest organized industrial area in Turkey and holds first position in exports and imports.[19] The city is centre of the Green olive oil-based Nizip Soap industry.

Traditionally, commerce in Gaziantep was centre in covered markets known as 'Bedesten' or 'Hans', the best known of which are the Zincirli Bedesten, Hüseyin Pasha Bedesten and Kemikli Bedesten.

Gaziantep also has a developing tourist industry. Development around the base of the castle upgrades the beauty and accessibility to the castle and to the surrounding copper workshops. New restaurants and tourist-friendly businesses are moving into the area. In comparison with some other regions of Turkey, tourists are still a novelty in Gaziantep and the locals make them very welcome. Many students studying the English language are willing to be guides for tourists.

Gaziantep is one of the leading producers of machined carpets in the world. It exported approximately US$700 million of machine-made carpets in 2006. There are over 100 carpet facilities in the Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone.

With its extensive olive groves, vineyards, and pistachio orchards, Gaziantep is one of the important agricultural and industrial centres of Turkey.

Gaziantep is the center of pistachio cultivation in Turkey, producing 60,000 metric tons (59,000 long tons; 66,000 short tons) in 2007, and lends its name to the Turkish word for pistachio, Antep fıstığı, meaning "Antep nut".

In 2009, the largest enclosed shopping center in the city and region, Sanko Park, opened, and began drawing a significant number of shoppers from Syria.[20]

Places of interest

Museums in Gaziantep

Traditionally, commerce in Gaziantep was centre in covered markets known as 'Bedesten' or 'Hans', the best known of which are the Zincirli Bedesten, Hüseyin Pasha Bedesten and Kemikli Bedesten.

Gaziantep also has a developing tourist industry. Development around the base of the castle upgrades the beauty and accessibility to the castle and to the surrounding copper workshops. New restaurants and tourist-friendly businesses are moving into the area. In comparison with some other regions of Turkey, tourists are still a novelty in Gaziantep and the locals make them very welcome. Many students studying the English language are willing to be guides for tourists.

Gaziantep is one of the leading producers of machined carpets in the world. It exported approximately US$700 million of machine-made carpets in 2006. There are over 100 carpet facilities in the Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone.

With its extensive olive groves, vineyards, and pistachio orchards, Gaziantep is one of the important agricultural and industrial centres of Turkey.

Gaziantep is the center of pistachio cultivation in Turkey, producing 60,000 metric tons (59,000 long tons; 66,000 short tons) in 2007, and lends its name to the Turkish word for pistachio, Antep fıstığı, meaning "Antep nut".

In 2009, the largest enclosed shopping center in the city and region, Sanko Park, opened, and began drawing a significant number of shoppers from Syria.[20]

The Gaziantep Museum of Archaeology has collections of ceramic pieces from the Neolithic Age; various objects, figures and seals from the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages; stone and bronze objects, jewellery, ceramics, coins, glass objects, mosaics and statues from the Hittite, Urartu, Greek Persian, Roman, Commagene, and Byzantine periods.

The Zeugma Mosaic Museum houses mosaics from Zeugma and other mosaics, a total of 1,700 square metres (18,000 sq ft).[21][citation needed] It opened to the public on 9 September 2011.[22]

The Hasan Süzer Ethnography Museum, a restored late-Ottoman stone building, has the old life style decoration and collections of various weapons, documents, instruments used in the defense of the city as well as the photographs of local resistance heroes. It was originally built in 1906 as the home of Garouj Karamanoukian.

Some of the other historical remains are the Zeugma (called also Belkıs in Turkish), and Kargamış ruins by the town of Nizip and slightly more to the north, Rumkale.

Yesemek Quarry and Sculpture Workshop is an open-air museum located in the village known by the same name, 30 km (19 mi) south of the town of Islahiye. It is the largest open-air sculpture workshop in the Near East and the ruins in the area date back to the Hittites.

The Gaziantep Defence Museum: Before you enter the Panorama Museum located within the Gaziantep Castle, you encounter the statues of three local heroes Molla Mehmet Karayılan, Şehit Mehmet Kâmil and Şahin Bey at the entrance. As you enter the museum, you hear the echoes: "I am from Antep. I am a hawk (Şahin)." The Gaziantep War Museum, in a historic Antep house (also known as the Nakıpoğlu House) is dedicated to the memory of the 6,317 who died defending the city, becoming symbols of Turkey's national unity and resolve for maintaining independence. The story of how

The Zeugma Mosaic Museum houses mosaics from Zeugma and other mosaics, a total of 1,700 square metres (18,000 sq ft).[21][citation needed] It opened to the public on 9 September 2011.[22]

The Hasan Süzer Ethnography Museum, a restored late-Ottoman stone building, has the old life style decoration and collections of various weapons, documents, instruments used in the defense of the city as well as the photographs of local resistance heroes. It was originally built in 1906 as the home of Garouj Karamanoukian.

Some of the other historical remains are the Zeugma (called also Belkıs in Turkish), and Kargamış ruins by the town of Nizip and slightly more to the north, Rumkale.

Yesemek Quarry and Sculpture Workshop is an open-air museum located in the village known by the same name, 30 km (19 mi) south of the town of Islahiye. It is the largest open-air sculpture workshop in the Near East and the ruins in the area date back to the Hittites.

The Gaziantep Defence Museum: Before you enter the Panorama Museum located within the Gaziantep Castle, you encounter the statues of three local heroes Molla Mehmet Karayılan, Şehit Mehmet Kâmil and Şahin Bey at the entrance. As you enter the museum, you hear the echoes: "I am from Antep. I am a hawk (Şahin)." The Gaziantep War Museum, in a historic Antep house (also known as the Nakıpoğlu House) is dedicated to the memory of the 6,317 who died defending the city, becoming symbols of Turkey's national unity and resolve for maintaining independence. The story of how the Battle of Antep is narrated with audio devices and chronological panels.

Gaziantep War Museum Courtyard

  • Gaziantep War Mu

    Gaziantep War Museum Arms display

  • Gaziantep War Museum Strategy

  • Gaziantep War Museum Smithy

  • Gaziantep War Museum Mining

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    Gaziantep War Museum Children at war

  • Gaziantep Mevlevi Lodge Foundation Museum The dervish lodge is part of the mosque's külliye (Islamic-Ottoman social complex centered around a mosque). It was built in the 17th century. The Mevlevi Lodge Monastery is entered via a courtyard which opens off the courtyard of the mosque.