Gallia Narbonensis
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Gallia Narbonensis (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
for "Gaul of
Narbonne Narbonne (, also , ; oc, Narbona ; la, Narbo ; Late Latin:) is a commune in France, commune in southern France in the Occitanie Regions of France, region. It lies from Paris in the Aude Departments of France, department, of which it is a Subpr ...

Narbonne
", from its chief settlement) was a
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
located in what is now
Languedoc Languedoc (; , ; oc, Lengadòc ) is a former province of France The Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy ...

Languedoc
and
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, R ...

Provence
, in southern
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
. It was also known as Provincia Nostra ("Our Province"), from its having been the first Roman province north of the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerl ...

Alps
, and as Gallia Transalpina ("Transalpine Gaul"), distinguishing it from
Cisalpine Gaul Cisalpine Gaul ( la, Gallia Cisalpina, also called ''Gallia Citerior'' or ''Gallia Togata'') was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. After its conquest by the Roman Republic in the 200s BC it was consi ...
in northern Italy. It became a Roman province in the late 2nd century BC. Gallia Narbonensis was bordered by the
Pyrenees Mountains french: Pyrénées ca, Pirineus an, Pirineus oc, Pirenèus eu, Pirinioak, Auñamendiak , etymology=Named for Pyrene , photo=Central pyrenees.jpg , photo_caption=Central Pyrenees , country_type= Countries , country= , geology= granite, gneis ...

Pyrenees Mountains
on the west, the
Cévennes The Cévennes ( , ; oc, Cevenas) is a cultural region and mountain range, range of mountains in south-central France, on the south-east edge of the Massif Central. It covers parts of the ''Departments of France, départements'' of Ardèche, Gard, ...

Cévennes
to the north, the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerl ...

Alps
on the east, and the
Gulf of Lion Map of the Gulf of Lion The Gulf of Lion (French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a co ...
on the south; the province included the majority of the
Rhone
Rhone
catchment. The western region of Gallia Narbonensis was known as
Septimania 300px, Septimania in 537 Septimania (french: Septimanie ; oc, Septimània ; ca, Septimània ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything ...
. The province was a valuable part of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post- period of . As a it included large territorial holdings around the in , , and ruled by . From the t ...

Roman Empire
, owing to the
Greek colony Greek colonization was an organised Colonies in antiquity, colonial expansion by the Archaic Greece, Archaic Greeks into the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea in the period of the 8th–6th centuries BC (750 and 550 BC). This colonization differed ...
of Massalia, its location between the Spanish provinces of Rome, and its financial output.


Names

The province of Gallia Transalpina ("Transalpine Gaul") was later renamed Gallia Narbonensis, after its newly established capital of Colonia Narbo Martius (colloquially known as Narbo, at the location of the modern
Narbonne Narbonne (, also , ; oc, Narbona ; la, Narbo ; Late Latin:) is a commune in France, commune in southern France in the Occitanie Regions of France, region. It lies from Paris in the Aude Departments of France, department, of which it is a Subpr ...

Narbonne
), a Roman colony founded on the coast in 118 BC. The name Gallia Narbonensis most likely originates in the Augustan era. Its first recorded use was in a Roman censor, census conducted by Gnaeus Pullius Pollio. The Romans had called it ''Provincia Nostra'' ("our province") or simply ''Provincia'' ("the province"). The term has survived in the modern French language, French and Occitan names of the eastern part of the area (French ''
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, R ...

Provence
'', Occitan ''Provença''), now a région of France.


Founding

By the mid-2nd century BC, Ancient Rome, Rome was trading heavily with the Ancient Greece, Greek colony of Massalia (modern Marseille) on the southern coast of Gaul. Massalia, founded by colonists from Phocaea, was by this point centuries old and quite prosperous. Rome entered into an alliance with Massalia, by which it agreed to protect the town from local Gauls, nearby Aquitani, sea-borne Carthage, Carthaginians and other rivals, in exchange for a small strip of land that it wanted in order to build a road to Hispania, to assist in troop transport. The Massalians, for their part, cared more for their economic prosperity than they did for territorial integrity. During the war against Quintus Sertorius, Sertorius Gallia Narbonensis was an important base for military activities. This was an important event in the Romanization of Narbonese Gaul, as it resulted into the Romans organizing the province. During this period, the Mediterranean settlements on the coast were threatened by the powerful Gauls, Gallic tribes to the north, especially the tribes known as the Arverni and the Allobroges. The area became a
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
in 121 BC, following a great victory of the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, Quintus Fabius Maximus (later additionally named Allobrogicus), who had campaigned in the area and Battle of the Isère River, defeated the Allobroges and the Arverni under King Bituitus at the Isère River. This defeat substantially weakened the Arverni and ensured the further security of Gallia Narbonensis. The province had come into Roman control originally under the name Gallia Transalpina (Transalpine Gaul), which distinguished it from
Cisalpine Gaul Cisalpine Gaul ( la, Gallia Cisalpina, also called ''Gallia Citerior'' or ''Gallia Togata'') was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. After its conquest by the Roman Republic in the 200s BC it was consi ...
on the near side of the Alps to Rome. In this strip of land, the Romans founded the town of Narbonne in 118 BC. At the same time, they built the Via Domitia, the first Roman road in Gaul, connecting Gaul to Hispania, and the Via Aquitania, which led toward the Atlantic through Tolosa (Toulouse) and Burdigala (Bordeaux). Thus the Romans built a crossroads that made Narbonne an optimal trading center, and Narbonne became a major trading competitor to Massalia. From Narbonne, the Romans established the province of Transalpine Gaul, later called Gallia Narbonensis.


Later history

Control of the province, which bordered directly on Italy (Roman Empire), Italia, gave the Roman state several advantages: control of the land route between Italy and the Iberian peninsula; a territorial buffer against Gaul, Gallic attacks on Italy; and control of the lucrative trade routes of the Rhône valley between Gaul and the markets of Massalia. It was from the capital of Narbonne that Julius Caesar began his Gallic Wars. Caesar rebuilt Narbonne, Narbo and built the cities of Fréjus, Forum Julium and Arles. Julius Caesar also granted many communities in Gallia Narbonensis citizenship. In 49 BCE the city of Massalia sided with the Pompeians during the Caesar's Civil War, civil war. After the war ended, the city of Massalia lost all of its independence and was fully subject to Roman rule. In 40 BC, during the Second Triumvirate, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir), Lepidus was given responsibility for Narbonese Gaul (along with Hispania and Africa), while Mark Antony was given the balance of Gaul. After becoming Roman emperor, Emperor, Augustus made Gallia Narbonensis a senatorial province governed by a Proconsul. Emperor Diocletian's administrative reorganization of the Empire in 314 merged the provinces ''Gallia Narbonensis'' and ''Gallia Aquitania'' into a new administrative unit called ''Dioecesis Viennensis'' (Diocese of Vienne) with the capital more to the north in Vienne, Isère#Roman Vienne, Vienne. The new diocese's name was later changed to ''Septem Provinciae, Dioecesis Septem Provinciarum'' (Diocese of the Seven Provinces), indicating that Diocletian had demoted the word "province" to mean a smaller subdivision than in traditional usage. ''Galla Narbonensis'' and surrounding areas were incorporated into the Visigoths#Visigothic kingdom, Visigothic Kingdom between AD 462 and 477, permanently ending Roman political control. After the Gothic takeover, the Visigothic dominions were to be generally known as
Septimania 300px, Septimania in 537 Septimania (french: Septimanie ; oc, Septimània ; ca, Septimània ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything ...
, while to the east of the lower Rhone the term
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, R ...

Provence
came into use.


List of Proconsular governors of Gallia Narbonensis

(This list is based on A.L.F. Rivet, ''Gallia Narbonensis'' (London: Batsford, 1988), pp. 79, 86f.) * Gnaeus Pullius Pollio—between 18 and 16 BC * Titedius Labeo—under Tiberius * Manius Vibius Balbinus—15-17 * Torquatus Novellius Atticus—30-34 * Titus Mussidius Pollianus—34-37 * Titus Vinius—under Nero * L. V[...]dius Bassus—c. 77 * Gaius Iulius Cornutus Tertullus—before 78 * Aulus Larcius Priscus—103-109 * Marcus Acilius Priscus Egrilius Plarianus—118-120 * Lucius Aninius Sextius Florentinus—c. 124 * Lucius Aurelius Gallus (suffect consul), Lucius Aurelius Gallus—124-127 * Lucius Novius Crispinus Martialis Saturninus—144-5 * Gaius Seius Calpurnius Quadratus Sittianus—before 150 * Lucius Cestius Gallus—between 165 and 183 * Gnaeus Cornelius Aquilius Niger—between 138 and 192 * Lucius Fabius Cilo, Lucius Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus Fulcinianus—between 180 and 192 * ...]dius T.f.—2nd century * Lucius Ranius Optatus Novatus—between 197 and 214 * ''Ignotus'', allegedly killed for supporting Geta (emperor), Geta—c. 210 * ...]us—between 210 and 230 * Tiberius Claudius Paulinus—216-217 * Gaius Aemilius Berenicianus Maximus—between 222 and 235 * Iulianus (proconsul of Narbonensis), Iulianus—between 222 and 235 * C. Seius Calpurnius Quadratus Sittianus—middle 3rd century


Notes


References


Further reading

* {{Coord, 44.0000, N, 4.0000, E, source:wikidata, display=title Provinces of Roman Gaul History of Narbonne Provence Former countries in French history 121 BC 120s BC establishments 2nd-century BC establishments 2nd-century BC establishments in the Roman Republic 5th-century disestablishments 5th-century disestablishments in the Roman Empire States and territories established in the 2nd century BC States and territories disestablished in the 5th century Provinces of the Roman Republic France in the Roman era