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Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
( Latin
Latin
for " Gaul
Gaul
of Narbonne", from its chief settlement)[n 1] was a Roman province
Roman province
located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. It was also known as Provincia Nostra ("Our Province"), from its having been the first Roman province
Roman province
north of the Alps, and as Gallia Transalpina ("Transalpine Gaul"), distinguishing it from Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
in northern Italy. It became a Roman province
Roman province
in the late 2nd century BC. Its boundaries were roughly defined by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south and the Cévennes
Cévennes
and Alps
Alps
to the north and west. The western region of Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
was known as Septimania.

Contents

1 Names 2 Founding 3 Later history 4 List of Proconsular governors of Gallia Narbonensis 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading

Names[edit] The province of Gallia Transalpina ("Transalpine Gaul") was later renamed Gallia Narbonensis, after its newly established capital of Colonia Narbo Martius
Narbo Martius
(colloquially known as Narbo, at the location of the modern Narbonne), a Roman colony
Roman colony
founded on the coast in 118 BC. The Romans had called it Provincia Nostra ("our province") or simply Provincia ("the province"). The term has survived in the modern French and Occitan names of the eastern part of the area (French Provence, Occitan Provença), now a région of France. Founding[edit] By the mid-2nd century BC, Rome was trading heavily with the Greek colony of Massalia (modern Marseille) on the southern coast of Gaul. Massalia, founded by colonists from Phocaea, was by this point centuries old and quite prosperous. Rome entered into an alliance with Massalia, by which it agreed to protect the town from local Gauls, nearby Aquitani, sea-borne Carthaginians and other rivals, in exchange for a small strip of land that it wanted in order to build a road to Hispania, to assist in troop transport. The Massalians, for their part, cared more for their economic prosperity than they did for territorial integrity. In this strip of land, the Romans founded the town of Narbonne
Narbonne
in 118 BC. At the same time, they built the Via Domitia, the first Roman road in Gaul, connecting Gaul
Gaul
to Hispania, and the Via Aquitania, which led toward the Atlantic through Tolosa (Toulouse) and Burdigala (Bordeaux). Thus the Romans built a crossroads that made Narbonne
Narbonne
an optimal trading center, and Narbonne
Narbonne
became a major trading competitor to Massalia. From Narbonne, the Romans established the province of Transalpine Gaul, later called Gallia Narbonensis. During this period, the Mediterranean settlements on the coast were threatened by the powerful Gallic tribes to the north, especially the tribes known as the Arverni
Arverni
and the Allobroges. In 123 BC, the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus (later additionally named Allobrogicus) campaigned in the area and defeated the Allobroges
Allobroges
and the Arverni under King Bituitus. This defeat substantially weakened the Arverni and ensured the further security of Gallia Narbonensis. Later history[edit] Control of the province, which bordered directly on Italia, gave the Roman state several advantages: control of the land route between Italy
Italy
and the Iberian peninsula; a territorial buffer against Gallic attacks on Italy; and control of the lucrative trade routes of the Rhône
Rhône
valley between Gaul
Gaul
and the markets of Massalia. It was from the capital of Narbonne
Narbonne
that Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
began his Gallic Wars. The area became a Roman province
Roman province
in 121 BC,[1] originally under the name Gallia Transalpina (Transalpine Gaul). The name distinguished it from Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
on the near side of the Alps
Alps
to Rome. In 40 BC, during the Second Triumvirate, Lepidus was given responsibility for Narbonese Gaul
Gaul
(along with Hispania
Hispania
and Africa), while Mark Antony
Mark Antony
was given the balance of Gaul.[2] Emperor Diocletian's administrative reorganization of the Empire in c. AD 314 merged the provinces Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
and Gallia Aquitania into a new administrative unit called Dioecesis Viennensis (Diocese of Vienne) with the capital more to the north in Vienne. The new diocese's name was later changed to Dioecesis Septem Provinciarum (Diocese of the Seven Provinces), indicating that Diocletian
Diocletian
had demoted the word "province" to mean a smaller subdivision than in traditional usage. Galla Narbonensis and surrounding areas were incorporated into the Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom
between AD 462 and 477, permanently ending Roman political control. After the Gothic takeover, the Visigothic dominions were to be generally known as Septimania, while to the east of the lower Rhone the term Provence
Provence
came into use. List of Proconsular governors of Gallia Narbonensis[edit] (This list is based on A.L.F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
(London: Batsford, 1988), pp. 79, 86f.)

Gnaeus Pullius Pollio -- between 18 and 16 BC Titedius Labeo -- under Tiberius Manius Vibius Balbinus -- 15-17 Torquatus Novellius Atticus -- 30-34 Titus Mussidius Pollianus -- 34-37 Titus Vinius -- under Nero L. V[...]dius Bassus -- c. 77 Gaius Iulius Cornutus Tertullus -- before 78 Aulus Larcius Priscus -- 103-109 Marcus Acilius Priscus Egrilius Plarianus -- 118-120 Titus Aninius Sextius Florentinus -- c. 124 Lucius Aurelius Gallus -- 124-127 Lucius Novius Crispinus Martialis Saturninus -- 144-5 Gaius Seius Calpurnius Quadratus Sittianus -- before 150 Lucius Cestius Gallus Cerrinius Iustus Lutatius Natalis -- between 165 and 183 Gnaeus Cornelius Aquilius Niger -- between 138 and 192 Lucius Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus Fulcinianus -- between 180 and 192 ...]dius Titii filius -- 2nd century Lucius Ranius Optatus Novatus -- between 197 and 214 Ignotus, allegedly killed for supporting Geta -- c. 210 ...]us -- between 210 and 230 Tiberius Claudius Paulinus -- 216-217 Gaius Aemilius Berenicianus Maximus -- between 222 and 235 Iulianus -- between 222 and 235

Notes[edit]

^ The name is also variously expressed as Narbonese or Narbonnese Gaul, Narbonian Gaul, and Narbonensian Gaul.

References[edit]

^ a b Maddison, Angus (2007), Contours of the World Economy 1–2030 AD: Essays in Macro-Economic History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 41 . ^ Boatwright et al., The Romans, From Village to Empire, p.272 ISBN 978-0-19-511876-6

Further reading[edit]

William Smith, ed. (1872) [1854]. "Gallia Transalpina". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. 

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania Inferior Germania Superior Hispania
Hispania
Baetica Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

Italy
Italy
was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

v t e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia Cirtensis Numidia Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia I Cilicia II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya Superior Libya Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I's administrative reorganization in 534–536

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144357701 GND: 4071548-6 HDS: 8419

Coordinates: 44°00′00″N 4°00′00″E / 44.0000°N 4.0000°E

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