HOME
The Info List - G7 Forum


--- Advertisement ---



  Canada
Canada
(2018 host)

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau

 France

President Emmanuel Macron

 Germany

Chancellor Angela Merkel

 Italy

Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni

 Japan

Prime Minister Shinzō Abe

 United Kingdom

Prime Minister Theresa May

 United States

President Donald Trump

 European Union

Council President Donald Tusk Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker

The Group of Seven
Group of Seven
or G7 is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States. These countries, with the 7 largest advanced economies in the world,[1] represent more than 62% of the global net wealth ($280 trillion)[2]. The G7 countries also represent 46% of the global nominal GDP evaluated at market exchange rates and 32% of the global purchasing power parity GDP.[3] The European Union
European Union
is also represented at the G7 summit. The 43rd G7 summit
43rd G7 summit
was held in Taormina
Taormina
(ME), Italy
Italy
in May 2017.

Contents

1 History 2 Early function 3 Work 4 List of summits

4.1 Leaders

5 Country leaders and EU representatives, as of 2018

5.1 Member country data 5.2 Member facts

6 Protests 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit]

Flags of G7 members as seen on University Avenue (Toronto).

G7 leaders during the 2014 emergency meeting about the Russian annexation of Crimea, hosted by the Netherlands.

The concept of a forum for the world's major industrialized countries emerged prior to the 1973 oil crisis. On Sunday, 25 March 1973, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, George Shultz, convened an informal gathering of finance ministers from West Germany
Germany
(Helmut Schmidt), France
France
(Valéry Giscard d'Estaing), and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Anthony Barber) before an upcoming meeting in Washington, D.C.. When running the idea past President Nixon, he noted that he would be out of town and offered use of the White House; the meeting was subsequently held in the library on the ground floor.[4] Taking their name from the setting, this original group of four became known as the "Library Group".[5] In mid-1973, at the World Bank- IMF
IMF
meetings, Shultz proposed the addition of Japan
Japan
to the original four nations, who agreed.[6] The informal gathering of senior financial officials from the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Japan, and France became known as the "Group of Five"[7] Later, a 1975 summit hosted by France
France
brought together representatives of six governments: France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Schmidt and Giscard d'Estaing were heads of government in their respective countries, and since they both spoke fluent English, it occurred to them that they, and British Prime Minister Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
and U.S. President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
could get together in an informal retreat and discuss election results and the issues of the day. In late spring, d'Estaing of France
France
invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States
United States
to a summit in Château de Rambouillet[8]; the annual meeting of the six leaders was organized under a rotating presidency, forming the Group of Six
Group of Six
(G6). In 1976, with Wilson out as prime minister of Britain, Schmidt and Gerald Ford felt an English speaker with more experience was needed, so Canada's Pierre Trudeau
Pierre Trudeau
was invited to join the group[9] and the group became the Group of Seven
Group of Seven
(G7)[8]. Since first invited by the United Kingdom in 1977 the European Union
European Union
has been represented by the president of the European Commission, and the leader of the country that holds the presidency of the Council of the European Union[10] and the Council President now also regularly attends. Until the 1985 Plaza Accord
Plaza Accord
no one outside a tight official circle knew when the seven finance ministers met and what they agreed. The summit was announced the day before and a communiqué was issued afterwards.[11] Following 1994's G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of the G7 after the group's summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 (P8) – or, colloquially, the G7+1. At the invitation of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Tony Blair
Tony Blair
and President of the United States
United States
Bill Clinton,[12] Russian President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was invited first as a guest observer, later as a full participant. After the 1997 meeting Russia
Russia
was formally invited to the next meeting and formally joined the group in 1998, resulting in a new governmental political forum, the Group of Eight
Group of Eight
or G8.[8] Russia
Russia
in fact had and has limited net national wealth and financial weight, compared to the other members of the forum G7. Russia
Russia
also hasn't ever been a major advanced economy according to IMF.[13][14] However Russia
Russia
was ejected from the G8 political forum in March 2014 following the Russian annexation of Crimea.[15] Early function[edit] The organization was founded to facilitate shared macroeconomic initiatives by its members in response to the collapse of the exchange rate 1971, during the time of the Nixon Shock, the 1970s energy crisis and the ensuing recession.[16] Work[edit]

2nd

7th

9th

14th

16th

21st

23rd

28th

30th

36th

38th

Host venues of G7 summits in North America

1st

3rd, 10th, 17th

4th, 11th

6th, 13th

8th

15th

18th

20th

22nd

24th

25th

27th

29th

31st

32nd

33rd

35th

37th

39th

40th

41st

43rd'

Host venues of G7 summits in Europe

5th, 12th, 19th

26th

34th

42nd

Host venues of G7 summits in Japan

Since 1975, the group meets annually on summit site to discuss economic policies; since 1987, the G7 Finance Ministers have met at least semi-annually, up to 4 times a year at stand-alone meetings.[17] In 1996, the G7 launched an initiative for the 42 heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC).[18] In 1999, the G7 decided to get more directly involved in "managing the international monetary system" through the Financial Stability Forum, formed earlier in 1999 and the G-20, established following the summit, to "promote dialogue between major industrial and emerging market countries".[19] The G7 also announced their plan to cancel 90% of bilateral, and multilateral debt for the HIPC, totaling $100 billion. In 2005 the G7 announced debt reductions of "up to 100%" to be negotiated on a "case by case" basis.[20] In 2008 the G7 met twice in Washington, D.C. to discuss the global financial crisis of 2007–2008[21] and in February 2009 in Rome.[22][23] The group of finance ministers pledged to take "all necessary steps" to stem the crisis.[24] On 2 March 2014, the G7 condemned the "Russian Federation's violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine."[25] The G7 stated "that the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) remains the institution best prepared to help Ukraine address its immediate economic challenges through policy advice and financing, conditioned on needed reforms", and that the G7 was "committed to mobilize rapid technical assistance to support Ukraine in addressing its macroeconomic, regulatory and anti-corruption challenges."[25] On 24 March 2014, the G7 convened an emergency meeting in response to the Russian Federation's annexation of Crimea
Crimea
at the official residence of the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, the Catshuis
Catshuis
in The Hague. This location was chosen because all G7 leaders were already present to attend the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit
2014 Nuclear Security Summit
hosted by the Netherlands. This was the first G7 meeting neither taking place in a member nation nor having the host leader participating in the meeting.[26] On 4 June 2014 leaders at the G7 summit in Brussels, condemned Moscow for its "continuing violation" of Ukraine's sovereignty, in their joint statement and stated they were prepared to impose further sanctions on Russia.[27] This meeting was the first since Russia
Russia
was expelled from the group G8 following its annexation of Crimea
Crimea
in March.[27] The annual G7 leaders summit is attended by the heads of government.[28] The member country holding the G7 presidency is responsible for organizing and hosting the year's summit. The serial annual summits can be parsed chronologically in arguably distinct ways, including as the sequence of host countries for the summits has recurred over time and series.[29] Generally every country hosts summit every 7 years.[30] List of summits[edit]

Date Host Host leader Location held Website Notes

1st 15–17 November 1975  France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Château de Rambouillet, District of the Paris
Paris
Region

G6 Summit

2nd 27–28 June 1976  United States Gerald R. Ford Dorado, Puerto Rico[31]

Also called " Rambouillet
Rambouillet
II". Canada
Canada
joined the group, forming the G7[31]

3rd 7–8 May 1977  United Kingdom James Callaghan London, England

The President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
was invited to join the annual G7 summits

4th 16–17 July 1978  West Germany Helmut Schmidt Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia

5th 28–29 June 1979  Japan Masayoshi Ōhira Tokyo

6th 22–23 June 1980  Italy Francesco Cossiga Venice, Veneto

Prime Minister Ōhira died in office on 12 June; Foreign Minister Saburō Ōkita led the delegation which represented Japan.

7th 20–21 July 1981  Canada Pierre E. Trudeau Montebello, Quebec

8th 4–6 June 1982  France François Mitterrand Versailles, Île-de-France

9th 28–30 May 1983  United States Ronald Reagan Williamsburg, Virginia

10th 7–9 June 1984  United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher London, England

11th 2–4 May 1985  West Germany Helmut Kohl Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia

12th 4–6 May 1986  Japan Yasuhiro Nakasone Tokyo

13th 8–10 June 1987  Italy Amintore Fanfani Venice, Veneto

14th 19–21 June 1988  Canada Brian Mulroney Toronto, Ontario

15th 14–16 July 1989  France François Mitterrand Paris, Île-de-France

16th 9–11 July 1990  United States George H. W. Bush Houston, Texas

17th 15–17 July 1991  United Kingdom John Major London, England

18th 6–8 July 1992  Germany Helmut Kohl Munich, Bavaria

19th 7–9 July 1993  Japan Kiichi Miyazawa Tokyo

20th 8–10 July 1994  Italy Silvio Berlusconi Naples, Campania

21st 15–17 June 1995  Canada Jean Chrétien Halifax, Nova Scotia [32]

22nd 27–29 June 1996  France Jacques Chirac Lyon, Rhône-Alpes

International organizations' debut to G7 Summits periodically. The invited ones here were: United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization.[33]

23rd 20–22 June 1997  United States Bill Clinton Denver, Colorado [34] Russia
Russia
joins the group, forming G8

24th 15–17 May 1998  United Kingdom Tony Blair Birmingham, West Midlands [35]

25th 18–20 June 1999  Germany Gerhard Schröder Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia [36] First Summit of the G-20 major economies
G-20 major economies
at Berlin

26th 21–23 July 2000  Japan Yoshiro Mori Nago, Okinawa [37] Formation of the G8+5
G8+5
starts, when South Africa
South Africa
was invited. Until the 38th G8 summit
38th G8 summit
in 2012, it has been invited to the Summit annually without interruption. Also, with permission from a G8 leader, other nations were invited to the Summit on a periodical basis for the first time. Nigeria, Algeria and Senegal accepted their invitations here. The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
was also invited for the first time.[33]

27th 20–22 July 2001  Italy Silvio Berlusconi Genoa, Liguria [38] Leaders from Bangladesh, Mali and El Salvador accepted their invitations here.[33] Demonstrator Carlo Giuliani
Carlo Giuliani
is shot and killed by police during a violent demonstration. One of the largest and most violent anti-globalization movement protests occurred for the 27th G8 summit.[39] Following those events and the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
two months later in 2001, the G8 have met at more remote locations.

28th 26–27 June 2002  Canada Jean Chrétien Kananaskis, Alberta [40] Russia
Russia
gains permission to officially host a G8 Summit.

29th 2–3 June 2003  France Jacques Chirac Évian-les-Bains, Rhône-Alpes

The G8+5
G8+5
was unofficially made, when China, India, Brazil, and Mexico were invited to this Summit for the first time. South Africa
South Africa
has joined the G8 Summit, since 2000, until the 2012 edition. Other first-time nations that were invited by the French president included: Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Switzerland.[33]

30th 8–10 June 2004  United States George W. Bush Sea Island, Georgia [41] A record number of leaders from 12 different nations accepted their invitations here. Amongst a couple of veteran nations, the others were: Ghana, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, Yemen and Uganda.[33] Also, the state funeral of former President Ronald Reagan took place in Washington during the summit.

31st 6–8 July 2005  United Kingdom Tony Blair Gleneagles, Scotland [42] The G8+5
G8+5
was officially formed. On the second day of the meeting, suicide bombers killed 52 people on the London
London
Underground and a bus. Nations that were invited for the first time were Ethiopia and Tanzania. The African Union
African Union
and the International Energy Agency
International Energy Agency
made their debut here.[33] During the 31st G8 summit
31st G8 summit
in United Kingdom, 225,000 people took to the streets of Edinburgh as part of the Make Poverty History campaign calling for Trade Justice, Debt Relief and Better Aid. Numerous other demonstrations also took place challenging the legitimacy of the G8.[43]

32nd 15–17 July 2006   Russia
Russia
(only G8 member, not G7)[44] Vladimir Putin Strelna, Saint Petersburg

First G8 Summit on Russian soil. Also, the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO
UNESCO
made their debut here.[33]

33rd 6–8 June 2007  Germany Angela Merkel Heiligendamm, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Seven different international organizations accepted their invitations to this Summit. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
made their debut here.[33]

34th 7–9 July 2008  Japan Yasuo Fukuda Tōyako, Hokkaidō [45] Nations that accepted their G8 Summit invitations for the first time are: Australia, Indonesia and South Korea.[33]

35th 8–10 July 2009  Italy Silvio Berlusconi La Maddalena, Sardinia
Sardinia
(cancelled) L'Aquila, Abruzzo
Abruzzo
(re-located)[46] [2] This G8 Summit was originally planned to be in La Maddalena (Sardinia), but was moved to L'Aquila
L'Aquila
as a way of showing Prime Minister Berlusconi's desire to help the region after the 2009 L'Aquila
L'Aquila
earthquake. Nations that accepted their invitations for the first time were: Angola, Denmark, Netherlands and Spain.[47] A record of ten international organizations were represented in this G8 Summit. For the first time, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the World Food Programme, and the International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
accepted their invitations.[48]

36th 25–26 June 2010[49]  Canada Stephen Harper Huntsville, Ontario[50] [51] Malawi, Colombia, Haiti, and Jamaica accepted their invitations for the first time.[52]

37th 26–27 May 2011  France Nicolas Sarkozy Deauville,[53][54] Lower Normandy

Guinea, Niger, Côte d'Ivoire and Tunisia accepted their invitations for the first time. Also, the League of Arab States made its debut to the meeting.[55]

38th 18–19 May 2012  United States Barack Obama Chicago, Illinois
Illinois
(cancelled) Camp David, Maryland
Maryland
(re-located)[56]

The summit was originally planned for Chicago, along with the NATO summit, but it was announced officially on 5 March 2012, that the G8 summit will be held at the more private location of Camp David
Camp David
and at one day earlier than previously scheduled.[57] Also, this is the second G8 summit, in which one of the leaders, Vladimir Putin, declined to participate. This G8 summit concentrated on the core leaders only; no non-G8 leaders or international organizations were invited.

39th 17–18 June 2013  United Kingdom David Cameron Lough Erne, County Fermanagh[58] [3] As in 2012, only the core members of the G8 attended this meeting. The four main topics that were discussed here were trade, government transparency, tackling tax evasion, and the ongoing Syrian crisis.[59]

40th 4–5 June 2014  European Union Herman Van Rompuy José Manuel Barroso Brussels, Belgium
Belgium
(re-located from Sochi, Russia)

G7 summit as an alternative meeting without Russia
Russia
in 2014 due to association with Crimean crisis.[60] The 2014 G8 summit in Sochi
Sochi
was cancelled and re-located to Brussels, Belgium
Belgium
without Russia.[61] Emergency meeting in March 2014 in The Hague.

41st 7–8 June 2015  Germany Angela Merkel Schloss Elmau, Bavaria[62] [4] Summit dedicated to focus on the global economy as well as on key issues regarding foreign, security and development policy.[63] The Global Apollo Programme was also on the agenda.[64]

42nd 26–27 May 2016[65][66]  Japan Shinzō Abe Shima, Mie
Shima, Mie
Prefecture[67] [5] The G7 leaders aim to address challenges affecting the growth of the world economy, like slowdowns in emerging markets and drops in price of oil. The G7 also issued a warning on the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that "a UK exit from the EU would reverse the trend towards greater global trade and investment, and the jobs they create and is a further serious risk to growth".[68] Commitment to an EU– Japan
Japan
Free Trade Agreement.

43rd 26–27 May 2017[69]  Italy Paolo Gentiloni Taormina, Sicily[70] [6] G7 leaders emphasized common endeavours: to end the Syrian crisis, to fulfill the UN mission in Libya and reducing the presence of ISIS, ISIL and Da'esh in Syria and Iraq. North Korea was urged to comply with UN resolutions, Russian responsibility was stressed for Ukrainian conflict. Supporting economic activity and ensuring price stability was demanded while inequalities in trade and gender were called to be challenged. It was agreed to help countries in creating conditions that address the drivers of migration: ending hunger, increasing competitiveness and advancing global health security.[71]

44th 8–9 June 2018  Canada[72] Justin Trudeau La Malbaie, Quebec [7] To be held at the Manoir Richelieu. Prime Minister Trudeau announced five themes for Canada’s G7 presidency which began in January 2018. Under the “Working together on climate change, oceans and clean energy” theme, Canada
Canada
is hosting domestic and international discussions to advance priorities specifically focusing on oceans. These discussions will bring together experts to discuss challenges and opportunities both domestically and internationally, to move toward zero plastic waste and mitigating marine plastic litter, including microplastics.[73]

45th TBD, 2019  France[74] Emmanuel Macron TBD

46th TBD, 2020  United States[74] Donald Trump TBD

47th TBD, 2021  United Kingdom[75] Theresa May TBD

Leaders[edit]

Member

Representative(s)

Minister of Finance

Central Bank Governor

Canada Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Minister of Finance Bill Morneau Stephen Poloz

France President Emmanuel Macron Minister of the Economy Bruno Le Maire François Villeroy de Galhau

Prime Minister Édouard Philippe

Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel Minister of Finance Peter Altmaier Jens Weidmann

Italy Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni Minister of Economy and Finance Pier Carlo Padoan Ignazio Visco

Japan Prime Minister Shinzō Abe Minister of Finance Tarō Asō Haruhiko Kuroda

United Kingdom Prime Minister Theresa May Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Hammond Mark Carney

United States President Donald Trump Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin Jerome Powell

European Union Council President[76] Donald Tusk Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs and the Euro Jyrki Katainen Mario Draghi

Commission President[76] Jean-Claude Juncker

Country leaders and EU representatives, as of 2018[edit]

Canada Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister

France Emmanuel Macron, President

Germany Angela Merkel, Chancellor

Italy Paolo Gentiloni, Prime Minister

Japan Shinzō Abe, Prime Minister

United Kingdom Theresa May, Prime Minister

United States Donald Trump, President

European Union Donald Tusk, President of the European Council

European Union Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission

Member country data[edit]

Member Trade mil. USD (2014) Nom. GDP mil. USD (2014)[77] PPP GDP mil. USD (2014)[77] Nom. GDP per capita USD (2014)[77] PPP GDP per capita USD (2014)[77] HDI (2015) Population (2014) Permanent members of UN Security Council DAC OECD Economic classification (IMF)[78]

Canada 947,200 1,785,387 1,595,975 50,304 44,967 0.913 35,467,000 N Y Y Advanced

France 1,212,300 2,833,687 2,591,170 44,332 40,538 0.888 63,951,000 Y Y Y Advanced

Germany 2,866,600 3,874,437 3,748,094 47,774 46,216 0.916 80,940,000 N Y Y Advanced

Italy 948,600 2,167,744 2,135,359 35,335 35,131 0.873 60,665 551 N Y Y Advanced

Japan 1,522,400 4,602,367 4,767,157 36,222 37,519 0.891 127,061,000 N Y Y Advanced

United Kingdom 1,189,400 2,950,039 2,569,218 45,729 39,826 0.907 64,511,000 Y Y Y Advanced

United States 3,944,000 17,348,075 17,348,075 54,370 54,370 0.915 318,523,000 Y Y Y Advanced

European Union 4,485,000 18,527,116 18,640,411 36,645 36,869 0.865 505,570,700 N/A Y N/A N/A

The G7 is composed of the seven wealthiest advanced countries. The People's Republic of China, according to its data, would be the second-largest (10.3% of the world net wealth) in the world,[79], but is excluded because the IMF
IMF
and other main global institutions do not consider China
China
an advanced country because of its relatively low net wealth per adult and its not major advanced economy.[80][81] As of 2017 Crédit Suisse
Crédit Suisse
reports the G7 (without the European Union) represents above 62% of the global net wealth.[82] Including the EU the G7 represents over 70% of the global net wealth.[83] Member facts[edit]

7 of the 7 top-ranked advanced economies with the current largest GDP and with the highest national wealth (United States, Japan, Germany, UK, France, Italy, Canada).[84] 7 of the 15 top-ranked countries with the highest net wealth per capita (United States, France, Japan, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, Germany). 7 of 10 top-ranked leading export countries.[85] 5 of 10 top-ranked countries with the largest gold reserves (United States, Germany, Italy, France, Japan). 7 of 10 top-ranked economies (by nominal GDP), according to latest (2016 data) International Monetary Fund's statistics. 5 countries with a nominal GDP per capita above US$40,000 (United States, Canada, Germany, United Kingdom, France). 4 countries with a sovereign wealth fund, administered by either a national or a state/provincial government (United States, France, Canada, Italy).[86] 7 of 30 top-ranked nations with large amounts of foreign-exchange reserves in their central banks. 3 out of 9 countries having nuclear weapons (France, UK, United States),[87][88] plus 2 countries that have nuclear weapon sharing programs (Germany, Italy).[89][90] 6 of the 9 largest nuclear energy producers (United States, France, Japan, Germany, Canada, UK), although Germany
Germany
announced in 2011 that it will close all of its nuclear power plants by 2022.[91] Following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, Japan
Japan
shut down all of its nuclear reactors.[92] However, Japan
Japan
restarted several nuclear reactors, with the refueling of other reactors underway. 7 of the 10 top donors to the UN budget for the 2016 annual fiscal year. 5 countries with a HDI index for 2016 of 0.9 and higher (United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Canada, Japan). 2 countries with the highest credit rating from Standard & Poor's, Fitch, and Moody's at the same time ( Canada
Canada
and Germany).[93] 3 countries are constitutional monarchies (United Kingdom, Canada, Japan), 2 are presidential republics (France, United States) and the other 2 are parliamentary republics ( Germany
Germany
and Italy).

Protests[edit] In 2015, despite Germany's immense efforts to prevent it and despite the remote location of the summit, the luxury hotel Schloss Elmau
Schloss Elmau
at the foot of the Wetterstein mountains at an altitude of 1008 m above sea level, about 300 of the 7500 peaceful protesters led by the group 'Stop-G7' managed to reach the 3 m high and 7 km long security fence surrounding the summit location. The protesters questioned the legitimation of the G7 to make decisions that could affect the whole world. Authorities had banned demonstrations in the closer area of the summit location and 20,000 policemen were on duty in Southern Bavaria to keep activists and protesters from interfering with the summit.[94][95] See also[edit]

National wealth Big Four NATO
NATO
Quint Group of Eight Group of 15 G20 Group of Thirty Developed country List of country groupings List of multilateral free-trade agreements

References[edit]

^ https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/02/weodata/weoselco.aspx?g=119&sg=All+countries+%2f+Advanced+economies+%2f+Major+advanced+economies+(G7) ^ http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=A8BD95FB-A213-1EE7-59CC7F2F001A11AF ^ " IMF
IMF
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
Home Page".  ^ Shultz, George P., Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State, 1993, p. 148 ISBN 0-684-19325-6 ^ Nicholas Bayne, Robert D. Putnam (2000). Hanging in There, Ashgate Pub Ltd, 230 pages, ISBN 075461185X ^ Shultz, ibid. ^ Farnsworth, Clyde H. "A Secret Society of Finance Ministers," New York Times. 8 May 1977. ^ a b c "Evian summit – Questions about the G8". Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Paris.  ^ [1] G8: The Most Exclusive Club in the World, Thomas S. Axworthy, The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Foundation of Canada, Toronto, Undated. Retrieved 23 July 2015. ^ "EU and the G8". European Union. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2006.  ^ Schaefer, Robert K (2005). "Dollar Devaluations". Understanding Globalization: The Social Consequences of Political, Economic, and Environmental Change. Rowman and Littlefield. p. 346.  ^ "Russia — Odd Man Out in the G-8", Mark Medish, The Globalist, 02-24-2006 Archived 5 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine..Accessed: 7 December 2008 ^ https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/02/weodata/weoselgr.aspx ^ http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=AD6F2B43-B17B-345E-E20A1A254A3E24A5 ^ Smale, Alison; Shear, Michael D. (24 March 2014). " Russia
Russia
Is Ousted From Group of 8 by U.S. and Allies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ Bayne, Nicholas (7 December 1998), "International economic organizations : more policy making less autonomy", in Reinalda, Bob; Verbeek, Bertjan, Autonomous Policymaking By International Organizations (Routledge/Ecpr Studies in European Political Science, 5), Routledge, ISBN 9780415164863, OCLC 70763323, 0415164869  ^ "G7/8 Ministerial Meetings and Documents". G8 Information Centre. University of Toronto. 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.  ^ International Money Fund. "Debt Relief Under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative;Perspectives on the Current Framework and Options for Change". IMF.org. Retrieved 25 March 2014.  ^ Van Houtven, Leo (September 2004). "Rethinking IMF
IMF
Governance" (PDF). Finance & Development. International Money Fund. p. 18. Retrieved 25 March 2014.  ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4238045.stm ^ Bo Nielsen (14 April 2008). "G7 Statement Fails to Convince Major Traders to Change Outlook". Bloomberg L.P.  ^ Simon Kennedy (10 October 2008). "G7 Against the Wall- Weighs Loan-Guarantee Plan (Update1)". Bloomberg L.P.  ^ Yahoo.com Archived 16 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ O'Grady, Sean (11 October 2008). "G7 pledges action to save banks". The Independent. Retrieved 7 June 2017.  ^ a b "Statement by G7 Nations". G8 Info Ctr. University of Toronto. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  ^ "G7 leaders descend on the Netherlands for Ukraine crisis talks". CBC news. Thomson Reuters. 23 March 2014.  ^ a b BBC
BBC
(5 June 2014). "G7 leaders warn Russia
Russia
of fresh sanctions over Ukraine". BBC.  ^ Feldman, Adam (7 July 2008). "What's Wrong with the G-8". Forbes. New York.  ^ Hajnal, Peter I. (1999). The G8 System and the G20: Evolution, Role and Documentation, p. 30., p. 30, at Google Books ^ G7 Italy
Italy
2017, official website. ^ a b Shabecoff, Philip. "Go-Slow Policies Urged by Leaders in Economic Talks; Closing Statement Calls for Sustained Growth Coupled With Curbs on Inflation; Ford's Aims Realized; 7 Heads of Government Also Agree to Consider a New Body to Assist Italy
Italy
Co-Slow Economic Policies Urged by 7 Leaders," New York Times. 29 June 1976; Chronology, June 1976. Archived 15 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Halifax G7 Summit 1995". Chebucto.ns.ca. 28 May 2000. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Kirton, John. "A Summit of Substantial Success: The Performance of the 2008 G8"; page 88 and 89 G8 Information Centre – University of Toronto
Toronto
17 July 2008. ^ " Denver
Denver
Summit of the Eight". State.gov. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 12 December 1998. Archived from the original on 12 December 1998. Retrieved 21 May 2011.  ^ "1999 G8 summit documents". Web.archive.org. 26 February 2005. Archived from the original on 26 February 2005. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ "Kyushu- Okinawa
Okinawa
Summit". MOFA. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ "Vertice di Genova 2001". Web.archive.org. 6 August 2001. Archived from the original on 6 August 2001. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ Italy
Italy
officials convicted over G8, BBC
BBC
News, 15 July 2008 ^ "UT G8 Info. Centre. Kananaskis Summit 2002. Summit Contents". G8.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ "Sea Island Summit 2004". Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ " Special
Special
Reports G8_Gleneagles". BBC
BBC
News. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ David Miller "Spinning the G8" Archived 28 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Zednet, 13 May 2005. ^ https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/02/weodata/weoselgr.aspx ^ "Hokkaido Toyako
Toyako
Summit – TOP". Mofa.go.jp. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ "BERLUSCONI PROPOSES RELOCATION OF G8 SUMMIT TO L'AQUILA". Running in heels. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2016.  ^ "G8 Summit 2009 – official website – Other Countries". G8italia2009.it. Archived from the original on 6 April 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ "G8 Summit 2009 – official website – International Organizations". G8italia2009.it. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ "Canada's G8 Plans" (PDF). Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ "Prime Minister of Canada: Prime Minister announces Canada
Canada
to host 2010 G8 Summit in Huntsville". Pm.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ "2010 Muskoka Summit". Canadainternational.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.  ^ Participants at the 2010 Muskoka Summit. G8 Information Centre. Retrieved 29 June 2010. ^ "Le prochain G20
G20
aura lieu à Cannes," Le point. 12 November 2010. ^ The City of Deauville
Deauville
Official 2011 G8 website. Retrieved 7 February 2011. Archived 19 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kirton, John (26 May 2011). "Prospects for the 2011 G8 Deauville Summit". G8 Information Centre. Retrieved 27 May 2011.  ^ "2012 G8 Summit Relocation". G8.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ " White House
White House
Moves G8 Summit From Chicago
Chicago
To Camp David". CBS Chicago. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ " BBC News
BBC News
Lough Erne
Lough Erne
resort in Fermanagh to host G8 summit". Bbc.co.uk. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ "As it happened: G8 summit". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 18 June 2013.  ^ " Russia
Russia
out in the cold after suspension from the G8". The Scotsman. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.  ^ "G-7 Agrees to Exclude Russia, Increase Sanctions/World Powers to Meet in Brussels
Brussels
in June Without Russia". The Wall Street Journal. 25 March 2014.  ^ Germany
Germany
to hold 2015 G8 summit at Alpine spa Elmau in Bavaria ^ "German G7 presidency – Key topics for the summit announced". 19 November 2014.  ^ Carrington, Damian. "Global Apollo programme seeks to make clean energy cheaper than coal". The Guardian
The Guardian
(2 June 2015). Guardian News Media. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ " Japan
Japan
announced to host G7 summit in 2016 in Shima". prepsure.com. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.  ^ " Japan
Japan
Announces Dates for G7 Summit in 2016". NDTV. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.  ^ "来年のサミット 三重県志摩市で開催へ (Next Year's Summit To Be Held in Shima City, Mie Prefecture)" (in Japanese). 5 June 2015. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.  ^ Asthana, Anushka (27 May 2016). "Brexit would pose 'serious risk' to global growth, say G7 leaders". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 May 2016.  ^ "Renzi announces to host G7 summit in 2017 in Taormina". RaiNews24. 26 May 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.  ^ Redazione (1 April 2016). "G7 a Taormina, è ufficiale. Renzi chiama da Boston il sindaco Giardina: «Il vertice si farà nella Perla»".  ^ "G7 Taormina
Taormina
Leaders' Communiqué" (PDF). G7 Italy
Italy
2017. 27 May 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ " Canada
Canada
to host 2018 G7 Summit in Charlevoix, Quebec". pm.gc.ca. Prime Minister of Canada. 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.  ^ Walker, T.R, Xanthos, D. (2018). A call for Canada
Canada
to move toward zero plastic waste by reducing and recycling single-use plastics. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 133, 99-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.02.014 ^ a b "G7 Summit in Brussels, 4 – 5 June 2014: Background note and facts about the EU's role and action". 3 June 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2015.  ^ http://www.g7italy.it/cose-g7 ^ a b "Van Rompuy and Barroso to both represent EU at G20". EUobserver.com. 19 March 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2012. "The permanent president of the EU Council, former Belgian premier Herman Van Rompuy, also represents the bloc abroad in foreign policy and security matters...in other areas, such as climate change, President Barroso will speak on behalf of the 27-member club." ^ a b c d "Gross domestic product". IMF
IMF
World Economic Outlook. October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ "World Economic Outlook data". IMF. 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.  ^ Crédit Suisse
Crédit Suisse
factsheet. ^ https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/02/weodata/weoselgr.aspx ^ http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=A8BD95FB-A213-1EE7-59CC7F2F001A11AF ^ Global wealth, Crédit Suisse. ^ Crédit Suisse
Crédit Suisse
publication 2. ^ "CIA World Fact Country Rankings".  ^ "exports". cia factbook.  ^ "Sovereign Wealth Fund Rankings". SWF Institute. Retrieved 16 February 2012.  ^ "Status of Nuclear Forces". Federation of American Scientists. 26 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2012.  ^ "Which countries have nuclear weapons?". BBC
BBC
News. 26 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2012.  ^ Malcolm Chalmers & Simon Lunn (March 2010), NATO's Tactical Nuclear Dilemma, Royal United Services Institute, retrieved 16 March 2010  ^ "Der Spiegel: ''Foreign Minister Wants US Nukes out of Germany'". Der Spiegel. 10 April 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2014.  ^ "Germany: Nuclear power plants to close by 2022". BBC. 30 May 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2011.  ^ "Tomari shutdown leaves Japan
Japan
without nuclear power". BBC
BBC
News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.  ^ "11 countries with perfect credit". USA Today. 16 October 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2014.  ^ "Der Spiegel: Proteste um Schloss Elmau
Schloss Elmau
– Demonstranten wandern bis zum G7-Zaun". Der Spiegel. 7 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ "Bild: 7 Kilometer lang, 3 Meter hoch, auf ganzer Länge beleuchtet". Bild. 3 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Group of Seven.

Wikinews has related news: Economic policy makers conclude Washington meetings

G7/8 Information Centre – University of Toronto

v t e

Group of Seven
Group of Seven
(G7)

G6 G8 G8+5 G14

Member countries

G7

 Canada  France  Germany  Italy  Japan  United Kingdom  United States

G8

 Canada  France  Germany  Italy  Japan  Russia  United Kingdom  United States

Representative

 European Union

G8+5

G8  Brazil  China  India  Mexico  South Africa

G7+1

G7  Russia

G6

 France  Germany  Italy  Japan  United Kingdom  United States

Current politicians

Leaders

Trudeau Macron Merkel Gentiloni Abe May Trump Tusk Juncker

Foreign ministers

Freeland Le Drian Gabriel Alfano Kōno Johnson Tillerson Mogherini

Finance ministers

Morneau Le Maire Schäuble Padoan Asō Hammond Mnuchin Moscovici

Defence ministers

Sajjan Parly von der Leyen Pinotti Onodera Fallon Mattis

Justice ministers

Wilson-Raybould Belloubet Maas Orlando Kamikawa Truss Sessions Jourová

Interior ministers

Goodale Collomb de Maizière Minniti Noda Rudd Kelly Avramopoulos

Central bank
Central bank
governors

Poloz Villeroy de Galhau Weidmann Visco Kuroda Carney Yellen Draghi

Summits

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Agreements

Louvre Accord Heiligendamm
Heiligendamm
Process Muskoka Initiative Gleneagles Dialogue Climate Change Roundtable

Lists

Leaders

Longest serving

Summit resorts Junior 8

See also

G-20 G-2 OECD

Category Multimedia

v t e

G6 / G7 / G8 summits

G6

1975 1st G6 summit
1st G6 summit
(Rambouillet)

G7

1976 2nd G7 summit
2nd G7 summit
(Dorado) 1977 3rd G7 summit
3rd G7 summit
(London) 1978 4th G7 summit
4th G7 summit
(Bonn) 1979 5th G7 summit
5th G7 summit
(Tokyo) 1980 6th G7 summit
6th G7 summit
(Venice) 1981 7th G7 summit
7th G7 summit
(Montebello) 1982 8th G7 summit
8th G7 summit
(Versailles) 1983 9th G7 summit
9th G7 summit
(Williamsburg) 1984 10th G7 summit
10th G7 summit
(London) 1985 11th G7 summit
11th G7 summit
(Bonn) 1986 12th G7 summit
12th G7 summit
(Tokyo) 1987 13th G7 summit
13th G7 summit
(Venice) 1988 14th G7 summit
14th G7 summit
(Toronto) 1989 15th G7 summit
15th G7 summit
(Grande Arche) 1990 16th G7 summit
16th G7 summit
(Houston) 1991 1 7th G7 summit
7th G7 summit
(London) 1992 1 8th G7 summit
8th G7 summit
(Munich) 1993 1 9th G7 summit
9th G7 summit
(Tokyo) 1994 20th G7 summit
20th G7 summit
(Naples) 1995 21st G7 summit
21st G7 summit
(Halifax) 1996 2 2nd G7 summit
2nd G7 summit
(Lyon)

G8

1997 23rd G8 summit
23rd G8 summit
(Denver) 1998 24th G8 summit
24th G8 summit
(Birmingham) 1999 25th G8 summit
25th G8 summit
(Cologne) 2000 26th G8 summit
26th G8 summit
(Kyusyu-Okinawa) 2001 27th G8 summit
27th G8 summit
(Genoa) 2002 28th G8 summit
28th G8 summit
(Kananaskis) 2003 29th G8 summit
29th G8 summit
(Évian-les-Bains) 2004 30th G8 summit
30th G8 summit
(Sea Island) 2005 31st G8 summit
31st G8 summit
(Gleneagles) 2006 32nd G8 summit
32nd G8 summit
(Saint Petersburg) 2007 33rd G8 summit
33rd G8 summit
(Heiligendamm) 2008 34th G8 summit
34th G8 summit
(Hokkaido-Toyako) 2009 35th G8 summit
35th G8 summit
(L'Aquila) 2010 36th G8 summit
36th G8 summit
(Huntsville) 2011 37th G8 summit
37th G8 summit
(Deauville) 2012 38th G8 summit
38th G8 summit
(Camp David) 2013 39th G8 summit
39th G8 summit
(Lough Erne)

G7

2014 40th G7 summit (Brussels) 2015 41st G7 summit
41st G7 summit
(Schloss Elmau) 2016 4 2nd G7 summit
2nd G7 summit
(Ise-Shima) 2017 43rd G7 summit
43rd G7 summit
(Taormina) 2018 4 4th G7 summit
4th G7 summit
(La Malbaie)

v t e

Power in international relations

Types

Economic Energy Food Hard National Power politics Realpolitik Smart Soft Sharp

Status

Small Middle Regional Emerging Great Potential Super Hyper

Geopolitics

American Asian British Chinese Indian Pacific

History

List of ancient great powers List of medieval great powers List of modern great powers International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

Theory

Balance of power

European

Center of power Hegemonic stability theory Philosophy of power Polarity Power projection Power transition theory Second Superpower Sphere of influence Superpower
Superpower
collapse Superpower
Superpower
disengagement

Studies

Composite Index of National Capability Comprehensive National Power

Organizations and groups by region or regions affected

Africa

African Union Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–Asia

Arab League Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(GCC) Organization of Islamic Cooperation
Organization of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC)

Americas

Mercosur North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur)

Asia

Asia Cooperation Dialogue
Asia Cooperation Dialogue
(ACD) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summits Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
(SCO)

Europe

Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(CE) European Union
European Union
(EU) Nordic Council Visegrád Group

Eurasia

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EaEU) Turkic Council

North America–Europe

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Arctic Council

Africa–Asia–Europe

Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–South America

South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone

Oceania-Pacific

Australia–New Zealand– United States
United States
Security Treaty (ANZUS) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Melanesian Spearhead Group
Melanesian Spearhead Group
(MSG) Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF) Polynesian Leaders Group
Polynesian Leaders Group
(PLG)

Non-regional

Brazil–Russia–India–China– South Africa
South Africa
(BRICS) Commonwealth of Nations Francophonie Colombia–Indonesia–Vietnam–Egypt–Turkey–South Africa (CIVETS) E7 E9 G4 G7 G8 G8+5 G20 G24 G77 India–Brazil– South Africa
South Africa
Dialogue Forum (IBSA) Mexico–Indonesia–Nigeria–Turkey (MINT) Next Eleven
Next Eleven
(N-11) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) Uniting for Consensus

Global

United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

Authority control

.