Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the
largest cities in
Fujian province, China. Along with the many
counties of Ningde, those of
Fuzhou are considered to constitute the
Mindong (lit. Eastern Fujian) linguistic and cultural area.
Fuzhou lies on the north (left) bank of the estuary of Fujian's
largest river, the Min River. All along its northern border lies
Ningde, and Ningde's
Gutian County lies upriver. Its population was
7,115,370 inhabitants as of the 2010 census, of whom 4,408,076
inhabitants are urban representing around 61.95%, while rural
population is at 2,707,294 representing around 38.05 percent.
Fuzhou is listed as No.20 in
China Integrated City Index 2016's total
ranking, a study conducted by National Development and Reform
2.1 Pre-Qin History (before 221 BC)
2.2 Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–206 AD)
2.3 Three Kingdoms to
Sui dynasty (200–618)
2.4 Tang to the ten kingdoms era (618–960)
2.5 Song era (960–1279)
Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
Qing dynasty (1644-1912)
2.8 Republic of China
2.8.1 Revolutionary Republic
2.8.2 Japanese occupation
2.9 People's Republic of China
4 Administrative divisions
5.1 Language and art
5.3 Local cuisine
7.4.1 History of
8.1 Economic and Technological Zones
10 Tourist attractions
10.1 Historical / cultural
11 Notable people
12.1 Colleges and universities
12.2 High Schools
13 See also
15 External links
Fuzhou in Chinese is "有福之州” (yǒufúzhīzhōu), meaning
"good luck city." The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and
Counties, a Chinese geographical treatise published in the 9th
century, says that Fuzhou's name came from Mount Futo, a mountain
northwest of the city. The mountain's name was then combined with
-zhou, meaning "settlement" or "prefecture," in a manner similar to
many other Chinese cities. During the Warring States period, area of
Fuzhou was sometimes referred to as Ye (Chinese: 冶), and
China proper during Qin dynasty. The city's name was
changed numerous times between the 3rd and 9th centuries before
finally settling on
Fuzhou in 948. In Chinese, the city is
sometimes referred to by the poetic nickname Rongcheng (Chinese:
榕城; Foochow Romanized: Ṳ̀ng-siàng), literally: "The Banyan
In older English publications, the name is variously romanized as
Foochow, Foo-Chow, Fuchow, Fūtsu, Fuh-Chow, Hock Chew, and
See also: Timeline of
Pre-Qin History (before 221 BC)
Yue peoples and Minyue
The remains of two
Neolithic cultures—the Huqiutou Culture
(虎丘頭文化), from around 5000 BC, and the Tanshi Mountain
Culture (曇石山文化), from around 3000 BC—have been discovered
and excavated in the
Fuzhou area. During the
Warring States period
Warring States period (c.
Han Chinese began referring to the modern
as Min Yue (閩越), suggesting that the native inhabitants of the
area were a branch of the Yue peoples, a family of non-Han tribes who
once inhabited most of southern China. In 306 BC, the Yue Kingdom
(present-day Zhejiang) fell to the state of Chu.
Han Dynasty historian
Sima Qian wrote that the surviving members of the Yue royal family
fled south to what is now Fujian, where they settled alongside the
native Yue people, joining Han and Yue culture to create Minyue.
Their major centre was not at Fuzhou's modern location, but further up
the Min watershed near Wuyishan City.
Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–206 AD)
Southward expansion of the Han dynasty
Southward expansion of the Han dynasty and Qin dynasty
The First Emperor of Qin unified ancient
China in 221 BC and desired
to bring the southern and southeast regions under Chinese rule. The
Qin dynasty organized its territory into "Commanderies" (Chinese: 郡;
pinyin: jùn)—roughly equivalent to a province or prefecture—and
Fujian area was organized as Minzhong Commandery (閩中郡). The
area seems to have continued mostly independent of Chinese control for
the next century. The
Han dynasty followed the short-lived Qin, and
Emperor Gaozu of Han
Emperor Gaozu of Han declared both
Minyue and neighboring
Nanyue to be
autonomous vassal kingdoms. In 202 BC, Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed a
leader named Wuzhu (無諸; Old Chinese: Matya) as King of Minyue, and
a walled city called Ye (冶; Old Chinese: Lya; literally: Beautiful)
was built. The founding of Ye in 202 BC has become the traditional
founding date of the city of Fuzhou.
In 110 BC, the armies of
Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han defeated the Minyue
kingdom's armies during the Han–
Minyue War and annexed its territory
and people into China. Many
Minyue citizens were forcibly relocated
Jiangnan area, and the Yue ethnic group was mostly
assimilated into the Chinese, causing a sharp decline in Ye's
inhabitants. The area was eventually re-organized as a county in 85
Three Kingdoms to
Sui dynasty (200–618)
"Fuzhou" calligraphy. "Fuzhou" literally means "Blessed Settlement" or
During the Three Kingdoms Period, southeast
China was nominally under
the control of Eastern Wu, and the
Fuzhou area had a shipyard for the
Yangtze River fleets. In 282, during the Jin dynasty, two
artificial lakes known simply as the East Lake and West Lake were
constructed in Ye, as well as a canal system. The core of modern
Fuzhou grew around these three water systems, though the East and West
Lakes no longer exist. In 308, during the
War of the Eight Princes
War of the Eight Princes at
the end of the Jin dynasty, the first large-scale migration of Han
Chinese immigrants moved to the south and southeast of
followed by subsequent waves during later periods of warfare or
natural disaster in the Chinese heartland. The administrative and
economic center of the
Fujian area began to shift to the Ye area
Sui dynasty (581 - 618).
Tang to the ten kingdoms era (618–960)
In 725, the city was formally renamed "Fuzhou". Throughout the
mid-Tang dynasty, Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and
developed. The later years of the Tang saw a number of political
upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese
to immigrate to the modern-day
Guangdong areas. In 879, a
large part of the city was captured by the army of
Huang Chao during
their rebellion against the Tang government. In 893, the warlord
brothers Wang Chao and Wang Shenzhi captured
Fuzhou in a rebellion
against the Tang dynasty, successfully gaining control of the entire
Fujian Province and eventually proclaiming their founding of an
independent kingdom they called the Min Kingdom in 909. The Wang
brothers enticed more immigrants from the north, though their kingdom
only survived until 945. In 978,
Fuzhou was incorporated into the
newly founded Song dynasty, though their control of the mountainous
regions was tenuous.
Fuzhou prospered during the Tang dynasty.
Buddhism was quickly adopted
by the citizens who quickly built many Buddhist temples in the area.
Song era (960–1279)
Fuzhou underwent a major resurgence as
Fuzhou culture and educational
institutions advanced and flourished immensely throughout the Song
Dynasty as a native of
Fuzhou topped the imperial examinations 6
times, a considerably large number for a small city in China.
Hualin Temple (華林寺, not to be confused with the temple of
the same name in Guangzhou), founded in 964, is one of the oldest
surviving wooden structures in China. New city walls were built in
282, 901, 905, and 974, so the city had many layers of walls — more
so than the Chinese capital. Emperor Taizong of the Song dynasty
ordered the destruction of all the walls in
Fuzhou in 978 but new
walls were rebuilt later. The latest was built in 1371. During the
Southern Song dynasty,
Fuzhou became more prosperous; many scholars
came to live and work. Among them were Zhu Xi, the most celebrated
Chinese philosopher after Confucius, and Xin Qiji, the greatest
composer of the ci form of poetry.
Marco Polo, an Italian guest of the Emperor Kubilai, transcribed,
after the conventions of Italian orthography, the place name as Fugiu.
This was not the local Min pronunciation but that of the mandarin
Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
Between 1405 and 1433, a fleet of the Ming Imperial navy under Admiral
Zheng He sailed from
Fuzhou to the
Indian Ocean seven times; on three
occasions the fleet landed on the east coast of Africa. Before the
last sailing, Zheng erected a stele dedicated to the goddess Tian-Fei
(Matsu) near the seaport.
The Ming government gave a monopoly over
Philippine trade to Fuzhou,
which at times was shared with Quanzhou.
Galeote Pereira, a Portuguese soldier and trader, was taken prisoner
during the pirate extermination campaign of 1549 and imprisoned in
Fuzhou. Later transferred to a form of internal exile elsewhere in the
province, Pereira escaped to
Langbaijiao in 1553. The record of his
experiences in the Ming Empire, logged by the Jesuits at
Goa in 1561,
was the first non-clerical account of
China to reach the West since
Ryukyu Kingdom established an embassy in Fuzhou.
Qing dynasty (1644-1912)
In 1839, Lin Zexu, who himself was a
Fuzhou native, was appointed by
Daoguang Emperor to enforce the imperial ban on the opium trade in
Canton. His unsuccessful actions, however, precipitated the disastrous
First Opium War
First Opium War with Great Britain, and Lin, who had become a
scapegoat for China's failure in war, was exiled to the northwestern
section of the empire. The
Treaty of Nanjing
Treaty of Nanjing (1842), which put an end
to the conflict, made
Fuzhou (then known to Westerners as Foochow) one
of five Chinese treaty ports, and it became completely open to Western
merchants and missionaries.
The Eastward View of
Fuzhou from Black Stone Hill (circa 1880)
Fuzhou was one of the most important
Protestant mission fields in
China. On January 2, 1846, the first
Protestant missionary, Rev.
Stephen Johnson (missionary) from
entered the city and soon set up the first missionary station there.
ABCFM was followed by the
Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society
Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society that
was led by Revs.
M. C. White
M. C. White and J. D. Collins, who reached
early September 1847. The
Church Missionary Society
Church Missionary Society also arrived in
the city in May 1850. These three
Protestant agencies remained in
Fuzhou until the communist revolution in
China in the 1950s, leaving a
rich heritage in Fuzhou's
Protestant culture. They supported the
creation of hospitals and schools, including the Woolston Memorial
Hospital, run by the American-trained Hü King Eng.
On August 23, 1884, the
Battle of Fuzhou
Battle of Fuzhou broke out between the French
Far East Fleet and the
Fujian Fleet of the Qing dynasty. As the
Fujian Fleet, one of the four Chinese regional fleets, was
destroyed completely in Mawei Harbor.
Republic of China
On November 8, 1911, revolutionaries staged an uprising in Fuzhou.
After an overnight street battle, the Qing army surrendered.
Fuzhou Jinshan Temple
On November 22, 1933,
Eugene Chen and the leaders of the National
Revolutionary Army's 19th Army set up the short-lived People's
Revolutionary Government of Republican China. Blockaded by Chiang
Kai-shek and left to twist in the wind by the nearby Soviet Republic
of China, the PRGRC collapsed within two months.
With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, hostilities
Xiamen (Amoy) fell to a Japanese landing
force on May 13, 1938. The fall of Amoy instantly threatened the
security of Foochow. On May 23, Japanese ships bombarded Mei-Hua,
Huang-chi and Pei-Chiao while Japanese planes continued to harass the
Chinese forces. Between May 31 and June 1, Chinese gunboats Fu-Ning,
Chen-Ning and Suming defending the blockade line in the estuary of the
Min River were successively bombed and sunk. Meanwhile, the Chinese
ship Chu-Tai berthed at Nan-Tai was damaged. The Chinese Navy's Harbor
Command School, barracks, shipyard, hospital and marine barracks at
Ma-Wei were successively bombed.
Fuzhou is recorded as having
fallen to Japanese forces in 1938.
The extent of Japanese command and control of the city of Fuzhou
itself as opposed to the port at Mawei and the Min River Estuary is
uncertain. By 1941 (date unknown), the city is recorded as having
returned to Nationalist control. The British Consulate in
noted as operational from 1941–1944 after the United Kingdom
Declaration of War on
Japan in December 1941. Western visitors to
Fuzhou in the period 1941–1944 include the Australian journalist
Wilfred Burchett in 1942. and the British scientist Dr Joseph
Needham in May 1944. Both visitors record the presence of a
British Consul and a
Fuzhou Club comprising western businessmen.
In The Man Who Loved China: The Fantastic Story of the Eccentric
Scientist Who Unlocked the Mysteries of the Middle Kingdom, author
Simon Winchester relates the visit of Dr Needham in 1944. Needham
encountered the American government agent (John Caldwell) and the
British SIS agent (
Murray MacLehose working undercover as the British
Vice-Consul in Fuzhou) involved in aid to the Nationalist resistance
to Japanese forces in
As part of
Operation Ichi-Go (1944), the last large-scale Japanese
China in World War 2, the Japanese intended to isolate
Fuzhou and the
Fujian Province corridor to Nationalist forces in
China and the wartime capital of Chongqing. One account of the
Japanese re-taking of
Fuzhou city itself is narrated by American naval
officer, Houghton Freeman. The date is given as October 5,
Fuzhou remained under Japanese control until the surrender of Japan
and its armed forces in
China in September 1945.
Following the restitution of Republic control (1946), the
administration divisions of
Fuzhou were annexed, and administration
level was promoted from county-level to city-level officially.
People's Republic of China
Foochow Mosque in Fuzhou.
Fuzhou was occupied by
People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army with little resistance
on 17 August 1949.
In the 1950s, the city was on the front line of the conflict with KMT
in Taiwan, as hostile
KMT aircraft frequently bombed the city. The
bombing on 20 January 1955 was the most serious one, killing hundreds
Fuzhou was also involved in violent mass chaos during the Cultural
revolution. Different groups of Red Guards fought with each other
using guns on the streets of the city, and even attacking the People's
Under the reform and opening policy since the late 1970s,
developed rapidly. In 1982,
Fuzhou became the first city in China
where the stored program control was introduced, which marked a
milestone in the history of telecommunications in China. In 1984,
Fuzhou was chosen as one of the first branches of Open Coastal Cities
by the Central Government.
On December 13, 1993, a raging fire swept through a textile factory in
Fuzhou and claimed the lives of 60 workers.
On October 2, 2005, floodwaters from
Typhoon Longwang swept away a
military school, killing at least 80 paramilitary officers.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2013)
Fuzhou is located in the northeast coast of
Fujian province, connects
jointly northwards with
Ningde and Nanping, southwards with Quanzhou
and Putian, westwards with
Fuzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) influenced by the
East Asian Monsoon; the summers are long, very hot and humid, and the
winters are short, mild and dry. In most years, torrential rain occurs
during the monsoon in the second half of May.
Fuzhou is also liable to
typhoons in late summer and early autumn. The monthly 24-hour average
temperature ranges from 10.9 °C (51.6 °F) in January to
28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in July, while the annual mean is
19.84 °C (67.7 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine
ranging from 24 percent in March to 54 percent in July, the city
receives 1,607 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951
have ranged from −1.9 °C (29 °F) on 25 January 2016 to
41.7 °C (107 °F) on 26 July 2003.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
China Meteorological Administration
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative
The administrative divisions of
Fuzhou have been changed frequently
throughout history. From 1983, the
Fuzhou current administrative
divisions were formed officially, namely, 5 districts and 8 counties
respectively. In 1990 and 1994,
Fuqing (Foochow Romanized:
Changle (Foochow Romanized: Diòng-lŏ̤h) counties
were promoted to county-level cities. Despite these changes, the
administrative image of "5 districts and 8 counties" is still held
popularly among local residents. Fuzhou's entire area only covers 9.65
The city of
Fuzhou has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts, 1
county-level cities, and 6 counties:
PRC claims, but has never controlled,
Mazu Township (as part of Lianjiang County) and Baiquan Islands (as
part of Changle).
Suburban and Rural
Banyan King in
Fuzhou National Forest Park (福州國家森林公園).
The City of Banyans is distinct from the mainstream inland cultures of
central China, and in details vary from other areas of the Chinese
Language and art
Besides Mandarin Chinese, the majority local residents of Fuzhou
Fuzhou people) also speak
Fuzhou dialect (福州話), the prestige
form of Eastern Min. Unlike Mandarin or
Cantonese languages which have
many words with the same pronunciation but different meanings,
Fuzhounese has a much lesser number of homonyms.
Min opera, also known as
Fuzhou drama, is one of the major operas in
Fujian Province. It enjoys popularity in the
Fuzhou area and in
neighboring parts of
Fujian such as the northeast and northwest areas
Fuzhou dialect is spoken, as well as in
Taiwan and the Malay
Archipelago. It became a fixed opera in the early 20th century. There
are more than 1,000 plays of Min opera, most of which originate from
folk tales, historical novels, or ancient legends, including such
traditional plays as "Making Seal", "The Purple Jade Hairpin" and
"Switching Fairy Peach with Litchi".
The two traditional mainstream religions practiced in
Buddhism and Taoism. Traditionally, many people practice both
religions simultaneously. The city is also home to many Buddhist
monasteries, Taoist temples and Buddhist monks.
Apart from mainstream religions, a number of religious worship sites
of various local religions are situated in the streets and lanes of
The origins of local religion can be dated back centuries. These
diverse religions incorporated elements such as gods and doctrines
from other religions and cultures, such as totem worship and
traditional legends. For example, Monkey King, originated to monkey
worship among local ancients, gradually came to embody the God of
Fuzhou after the novel
Journey to the West
Journey to the West was issued in
As the most popular religion in the Min River Valley, the worship of
Lady Linshui is viewed as one of the three most influential local
religions in Fujian, the other two being the worship of Mazu and
Baosheng Dadi (保生大帝).
Fuzhou's local dish Litchi Pork(荔枝肉), famous for its sweet and
Fuzhou cuisine is most notably one of the four traditional cooking
Fujian cuisine, which in turn is one of the eight Chinese
regional cuisines. Dishes are light but flavorful, with particular
emphasis on umami taste, known in Chinese cooking as xianwei
(simplified Chinese: 鲜味; traditional Chinese: 鮮味; pinyin:
xiānwèi), as well as retaining the original flavor of the main
ingredients instead of masking them. In
Fuzhou cuisine, the taste is
light compared to that of some other Chinese cooking styles, and often
have a mixed sweet and sour taste. Soup, served as an indispensable
dish in meals, is cooked in various ways with local seasonal fresh
vegetables and seafood and often added with local cooking wine
Fuzhou is famous for its street food and snacks. Some notable street
food dishes include
Fuzhou fish balls (魚丸), meat-pastry dumplings
(扁肉燕), rice scroll soup （鼎邊糊），gong pian (光餅）-
a kind of mildly savoury pastry，pork floss (肉鬆) etc. Many of
these street food dishes have a long history, for example rice scroll
soup became popular in
Fuzhou in the early part of the Qing dynasty.
Fuzhou residents settled overseas,
Fuzhou dishes spread to
Taiwan, South East Asia and the U.S.. For example, one is able to find
gong pian and
Fuzhou fish balls in Sitiawan in Ipoh, Malaysia while
Fuzhou fish balls, meat-pastry dumplings and rice scroll soup can be
found in New York's Chinatown.
Fuzhou residents also enjoy eating festival foods during traditional
Chinese holidays. For example, red and white rice cakes (年糕) are
served over Chinese New Year, stuffed yuanxiao (元宵) during the
Lantern Festival, zongzi during Dragon Boat Festival, and sweet soy
bean powder-covered plain yuanxiao over the winter solstice.
Bodiless lacquerware (脫胎漆器), paper umbrellas and horn combs
(角梳) are the "Three Treasures" of
Fuzhou traditional arts. In
addition, bodiless lacquerware, together with cork pictures
(軟木畫) and Shoushan stone sculptures (壽山石雕) are called
"Three Superexcellences" of Fuzhou.
Fuzhou Evening News(福州晚报), Strait News(海峡都市报) and
Southeast Express(东南快报) are the three most primary newspapers
in the city.
Fuzhou Daily(福州日报) is the official newspaper of
Fuzhou Committee of Communist Party of China. FZTV, the local
municipal television station has four channels. As the capital,
the provincial state-owned
Fujian Media Group,
Fujian Daily Newspaper
Group and Straits Publishing & Distributing Group also headquarter
Changle International Airport
The city is served by
Changle International Airport, which
Fuzhou Yixu Airport, the old airfield. The former is its main
international airport and an air-hub in southeast China, while the
latter was turned into a PLA airbase after 1997.
Fuzhou Rail Station
Fuzhou is a railway hub in northern Fujian. The Wenzhou–
Xiamen Railways form part of the Southeast Coast High-Speed
Rail Corridor and can accommodate high-speed trains at speeds of up to
250 km/h (155 mph). The Hefei–
Fuzhou High-Speed Railway
links the city to
Beijing through its nearby inner land province
Jiangxi at speeds up to 350km/h. The
Nanping–Fuzhou Railway and
Xiangtang–Putian Railway provide rail access inland. The latter line
can carry trains at speeds of 200 km/h (124 mph). The
regional Fuzhou-Mawei Cargo Railway runs from the
Station eastward to the port in Mawei District.
Fuzhou has two main
Fuzhou North and
Fuzhou North station
is often just referred to as
Fuzhou station given its central
The first metro line opened linking the South of the city and the
North above the river, and two lines under construction.
The line 1 links the two Railway stations of the city. The
Station is located north of city center, near the North Second Ring
Fuzhou South Railway Station, located in Cangshan district, is a
key landmark of the New City development scheme, began in 2007 and was
completed in 2010.
The dock in Luoyuan Bay, Fuzhou, China. The construction of a new
industrial park is still in progress[when?].
The passenger liners regularly sail between ROC's
Matsu Islands and
the port in Mawei District.
The high speed ferry sails across
Taiwan Strait between the port in
Pingtan County, mainland's closest point to Taiwan, to
Taichung, spending about 3 hours.
In 1867 the
Fuzhou seaport was the site of one of China's first major
experiments with Western technology, when the
Fuzhou Navy Yard was
established: A shipyard and an arsenal were built under French
guidance and a naval school was opened. A naval academy was also
established at the shipyard, and it became a center for the study of
European languages and technical sciences. The academy, which offered
courses in English, French, engineering, and navigation, produced a
generation of Western-trained officers, including the famous
Yan Fu (1854–1921).
The yard was established as part of a program to strengthen
the wake of the country's disastrous defeat in the Second
(1856–60). But most talented students continued to pursue a
Confucian education, and by the mid-1870s the government
began to lose interest in the shipyard, which had trouble securing
funds and declined in importance.
Fuzhou remained essentially a
commercial center and a port until World War II; it had relatively
little industry. The port was occupied by the Japanese during
Fuzhou has grown considerably. Transportation has been
improved by the dredging of the Min River for navigation by
medium-sized craft upstream to Nanping. In 1956 the railway linking
Fuzhou with the interior of the province and with the main Chinese
railway system began operation. The port has also been improved;
Fuzhou itself is no longer accessible to seagoing ships, but Luoxingta
anchorage and the outer harbor at Guantou on the coast of the East
China Sea have been modernized and improved. The chief exports are
timber, fruits, paper, and foodstuffs.
GDP (Nominal) trend
(billions of CN¥)
Taijiang District (Financial District) of Fuzhou.
Industry is supplied with power by a grid running from the Gutian
hydroelectric scheme in the mountains to the northwest. The city is a
center for commercial banking, designer brands and timber-working,
engineering, papermaking, printing, and textile industries. A small
iron and steel plant was built in 1958. In 1984
Fuzhou was designated
one of China's "open" cities in the new open-door policy inviting
Handicrafts remain important in the rural areas,
and the city is famous for its lacquer and wood products.
GDP was ¥602,815 (c. US$84,240) per capita in 2015, ranked no. 8
among 659 Chinese cities.
Fuzhou is undoubtedly the province’s political, economic and
cultural center as well as an industrial center and seaport on the Min
River. In 2008, Fuzhou’s
GDP amounted to ¥228.4 billion, an
increase of 13 percent.
Manufactured products include chemicals, silk and cotton textiles,
iron and steel, and processed food. Among Fuzhou's exports are fine
lacquerware and handcrafted fans and umbrellas. The city's trade is
mainly with Chinese coastal ports. Its exports of timber, food
products, and paper move through the harbor at Guantou located about
50 kilometres (31 mi) downstream.
In 2008, exports reached US$13.6 billion, a growth of 10.4 percent
while imports amounted to US$6.8 billion. Total retail sales for the
same period came to ¥113.4 billion and per capita
GDP grew to
¥33,615. During the same period,
Fuzhou approved 155
foreign-invested projects. Contracted foreign investment amounted to
US$1.489 billion, while utilized foreign investment increased by 43
percent to US$1.002 billion.
Taixi Central Business District
Economic and Technological Zones
Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone
Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone was
established in January 1985 by State Council, with a total planning
area of 22 square kilometres (8.5 sq mi) and now has 10.1
square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) built. It is located close to
Fuzhou Changle International Airport
Fuzhou Changle International Airport and
Fuzhou Port. Industries
encouraged in the zone include electronics assembly &
manufacturing, telecommunications equipment, trading and distribution,
automobile production/assembly, medical equipment and supplies,
shipping/warehousing/logistics and heavy industry.
Fuzhou Export Processing Zone
Fuzhou Export Processing Zone was founded on June 3, 2005 with the
approval of the State Council and enjoys all the preferential
policies. It is located inside the Chang'an Investment Zone of the
Fuzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone (FETDZ) with a planned
land area of 1.14 square kilometres (0.44 sq mi).
Fuzhou Free Trade Zone
Fuzhou Free Trade Zone was established in 1992 by the State
Council, with a planning area of 1.8 square kilometres
(0.69 sq mi). Industries encouraged in the free trade zone
include electronics assembly & manufacturing, heavy industry,
instruments & industrial equipment production,
shipping/warehousing/logistics, telecommunications equipment, trading,
Residential Buildings in Fuzhou
Fuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Fuzhou High-tech Development Zone was set up in 1988 and approved
by the State Council in March 1991. In 1995, the
Government decided to build Baiyi Electronic Information City, which
covers 1.2 square kilometres (0.46 sq mi) in the zone,
making it the lead electronic industrial zone in Fuzhou. The
Administrative Commission of Mawei High-tech Park was set up in the
zone in 1999. It covers an area of 5.6 square kilometres
(2.2 sq mi), and is in the area between Gushan Channel and
Mawei Channel, Jiangbin Road and Fuma Road.
Fuzhou Science and Technology Park
Fuzhou Science and Technology Park was established in 1988 and was
approved to be a national-level zone by the State Council in 1991. The
planned area is 5.5 square kilometres (2.1 sq mi) and is
divided into 3 parts: the Mawei portion, the Cangshan portion, and the
Hongshan portion. The main industries are electronics, information
technology, and biotechnology. The zone is 7 kilometres (4.3 mi)
away from the
China National Highway 316 and 41 kilometres
(25 mi) away from the
Changle International Airport.
Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
Taiwan Merchants Development Zone was approved to be
established in May 1989 by the State Council. The zone is located in
Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. The zone is a
commercial base for Taiwan-related development. The current area is 6
square kilometres (2.3 sq mi). The main industries are IT,
metallurgy, food processing, and textiles. The zone is 11.5 kilometres
(7.1 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and 52 kilometres
(32 mi) away from
Changle International Airport.
Fuzhou skyline, the city hall is on the left, and the Financial
District is on the right.
Fuzhou Taixi Central Business District
Historical / cultural
Sanfang Qixiang (三坊七巷) "Three Lanes and Seven Alleys" (A
cluster of ancient residential buildings dating from the late Jin
dynasty now features a pedestrian zone with shops along the street)
Lin Zexu Memorial Hall (林则徐纪念馆) (Aomen Rd)
West Lake (福州西湖) (An artificial landscape-style lake built in
Hualin Temple (华林寺) (Built in 964, Song dynasty) Its main hall
is known as the oldest surviving wooden building in south
was confirmed as an important heritage site under state protection in
Dizang Temple (The Temple of Sacrificing Guardian of the Earth,
founded in 527)
Xichan Temple (西禅寺) (Founded in 867)
Wu Ta (乌塔) "Black Pagoda" (Originally built in 799, rebuilt in
Bai Ta (白塔) "White Pagoda" (On the top of Mount Yu, originally
built in 905, 67 m in height, collapsed in 1534, rebuilt in 1548, 41 m
Yongquan Temple (涌泉寺) (Founded in 915, and located on the top of
Mount Gu (鼓山)
Mount Qi (旗山) (In Nanyu, Minhou County.）
Luoxing Tower (罗星塔) (In
Mawei District and built in the Song
dynasty. Was called "
Tanshishan cultural relics (昙石山文化遗址) (In Ganzhe, Minhou
Saint Dominic's Cathedral
St. John's Church, Fuzhou
Saint Dominic's Cathedral
St. John's Church, Fuzhou
Fujian Museum (福建省博物院) (Near West Lake)
Wulongjiang Shidi Park (乌龙江湿地公园) (A wetland park.
However, the park is in distress due to ineffective environmental
protection and construction)
Beach Park (沙滩公园)
Fuzhou Beach Park
Chating Park (茶亭公园)
Zuohai Park (左海公园)
Minjiang Park (闽江公园) (On the two banks of the Min River)
Pingshan Park (屏山公园)
Mount Jinniu Park (金牛山公园) (Near the
Long-Distance Bus Station)
Mount Jinji Park (金鸡山公园)
Fuzhou National Forest Park (福州国家森林公园)
Sandiejing Forest Park (三叠井森林公园)
Fuzhou Hot Spring Park (福州温泉公园)
Fuzhou Zoo (福州动物园) (This new zoo was built in 2008 after
moving from its old location by West Lake)
Yao Jinnan (姚金男, 1995–present) Chinese artistic gymnast who
China at the
London 2012 Olympic Games. She is the 2014
World Uneven Bars Champion and a 5 time world medallist at the 2011
World Gymnastics Championships and the 2014 World Gymnastics
Fuzhou Memorial Hall of Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu (林则徐, 1785–1850), scholar and official, considered a
national hero for his strong opposition to the trade of opium before
the First Anglo-Chinese War
Shen Baozhen (沈葆桢, 1820–1879),
Viceroy of Liangjiang
Viceroy of Liangjiang from 1875
Zhan Shi Chai
Zhan Shi Chai (詹世釵, 1840s–1893), entertainer as "Chang the
Chen Baochen (陈宝琛, 1848–1935), scholar and loyalist to the
Wong Nai Siong
Wong Nai Siong (黄乃裳, 1849–1924), Christian scholar, and
founding father of Malaysian town of Sibu, in the state of Sarawak
Lin Shu (林纾, 1852–1924), scholar and translator, most famous for
his translation of Alexandre Dumas' La Dame aux Camélias
Yan Fu (严复, 1854–1921), scholar and translator, best known for
introducing western ideas such as Darwinian evolution
Sa Zhenbing (萨镇冰, 1859–1952), high-ranking naval officer of
Lin Sen (林森, 1868–1943), President of the Republic of
1931 to 1943
Lin Juemin (林觉民, 1887–1911), one of 72 Revolutionary Martyrs
at Huanghuagang, Guangzhou
Hou Debang (侯德榜, 1890–1974), chemical engineer
Lin Xiangqian (zh:林详谦, 1892–1923), a martyr, labor movement
leader and an early member of the Communist Party of
Lu Yin (zh:廬隱, 1898–1934), writer
Fan Tchunpi, painter and ceramicist
Zheng Zhenduo (郑振铎, 1898–1958), journalist and literary
Bing Xin (冰心, 1900–1999), writer
Watchman Nee (倪柝声, 1903–1972), Christian author and church
Lin Huiyin (林徽因, 1904–1955), architect and writer
Chen Jingrun (陈景润, 1933–1996), mathematician who made
significant contributions to number theory
Chen Zhangliang (陈章良, 1962–), biologist, elected as
Guangxi in 2007
Wu Qingyuan (吳清源, 1914–2014), Chinese Weiqi/Go player,
considered by many players to be the greatest player of the game in
the 20th century and one of the greatest of all time.
Colleges and universities
The old campus of
Fujian Normal University
Fujian Normal University (福建师范大学; founded in 1907)
Fuzhou University (福州大学; founded in 1958)
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University(福建农林大学; founded
Three Universities above take the leading position in the province,
and they are supported by
Fujian Government to build High-level
Fujian Medical University
Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Fujian University of Technology
Fujian Police College
Fujian Commercial College
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
Fuzhou Foreign Language School
Fuzhou Foreign Language School (福州外国语学校)
Fuzhou Gezhi High School(福州格致中学)
Fuzhou No.1 Middle School(福州第一中学)
Fuzhou No.3 Middle School(福州第三中学)
Fuzhou Senior High School(福州高级中学)
Fuzhou No.4 Middle School(福州第四中学)
Fuzhou No.8 Middle School(福州第八中学)
Fuzhou No.2 Middle School(福州第二中学)
The Affiliated Middle School Of
Fujian Normal University
Fuzhou Pingdong Middle School(福州屏东中学)
List of cities in the People's Republic of
China by population
List of twin towns and sister cities in China
^ a b c d e f g "
Fuzhou Municipal Statistic Bureau". Fuzhou.gov.cn.
Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous
Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved
^ 2016中国城市综合发展指标发布 北上深位列三甲
^ Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian (中国古今地名大词典),
Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe, 2005), 3116.
^ Sladen, Douglas (1895), "Bits of China", The Japs at Home, 5th ed.,
New York: New Amsterdam Book Co., p. 279 .
^ a b Xu Xiaowang (徐曉望), 2006.
Fujian Tong Shi 福建通史,
Fujian People's Publishing 福建人民出版社.
^ Records of the Grand Historian, Yue Wang Goujian Shijia
^ Yu 1986, p. 456.
^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization (2,
illustrated, revised ed.).
Cambridge University Press. p. 420.
ISBN 0-521-49781-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Foochow was
reserved for trade with the Philippines (a similar role had been
assumed by Ch'iian- chou between 1368 and 1374 and again after 1403 in
the Yung-le era)
^ Spence, Jonathan D., The Chan's Great Continent:
China in Western
Minds, 1999, W.W.Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0-393-31989-7,
^ *Burton, Margaret E. (1912). Notable Women of Modern China. New
York: Fleming H. Revell. p. 42.
^ 中華共和國人民革命政府; Zhōnghuá Gònghéguó Rénmín
Gémìng Zhèngfǔ, also known as the
Fujian People's Revolutionary
Government (福建人民革命政府, Fújiàn Rénmín Zhèngfǔ).
Compare 中華共和國 to the shorter, more ambiguous 中華民國
(Zhonghua Minguo, "Folk-state of China"), which was the one-party
Chiang Kai-shek against which Chen and
the 19th rebelled (translated into English nonetheless as the
"Republic of China").
^ 晚清民國史 [History of the late Qing and the Republic].
五南圖書出版股份有限公司. 2002. pp. 440–.
^ Hu, Pu-yu (1974). A brief history of Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)
(1st ed.). Taipei, Taiwan: Chung Wu Publishing Co. p. 142.
^ Dreyer, Edward L. (1995).
China at War, 1901-1949. London, New York
City: Longman. p. 107. ISBN 0-521480-01-9.
^ Strahan, Lachlan (1996). Australia's China: Changing Perceptions
from the 1930s to the 1990s. Cambridge, New York City: Cambridge
University Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-582051-25-8.
^ a b Winchester, Simon. (2008). The Man Who Loved China: The
Fantastic Story of the Eccentric Scientist Who Unlocked the Mysteries
of the Middle Kingdom (1st ed.). New York: Harper. pp. 143–151.
^ Smith, Nancy. "The Freeman Orientation". Wesleyan Alumni Magazine.
Wesleyan University. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010.
^ "League of Nations Timeline - 1944". Indiana University. Retrieved 5
^ OPENING TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD. China.org.cn
^ a b Major Events Across The
Taiwan Straits Archived April 28, 2006,
at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved
^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2010-12-02.
^ "Min Opera". cultural-china.com. Archived from the original on
Fuzhou Metro merges sleek future with rich heritage".
www.chinadaily.com.cn. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 10 February
^ Direct shipping services between Taiwan's Matsu and Mawei in
China Daily, 2010-04-19
^ First high-speed ship to
Taiwan sails out of Pingtan
China Expat city Guide Dalian".
China Expat. 2008. Retrieved
^ a b c "
China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009.
Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved
Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone".
RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
Fuzhou Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. 2005-06-03.
Fuzhou Free Trade Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved
Fuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia.
Fuzhou Science and Technology Park". RightSite.asia. Retrieved
Taiwan Merchants Development Zone". RightSite.asia.
^ 'High-level university construction' a hot phrase at
China Daily, 2016-01-19
Fujian Daily, 2014-02-20
See also: Bibliography of the history of Fuzhou
A Brief History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), Hu Pu-yu,
(Chung Wu Publishing Co. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China, 1974) pg
China at War 1901–1949, Edward L. Dreyer, (Longman,
London and New
York, 1995) pg 235.
Australia's China, Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s,
Lachlan Strachan, (
Cambridge University Press 1996) pg 107.
Bomb, Book & Compass,
Joseph Needham and the Great Secrets of
China, Simon Winchester, (Penguin *Group Australia, Camberwell,
Victoria) pp 143–151.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Fuzhou Government website(in Chinese)
Fuzhou and local news on
China Daily website (in
Fuzhou Places to visit.
Fuzhou News Net(in Chinese)
Fuzhou Municipal Television Station(in Chinese)
An early history of
Fuzhou (in Chinese)
Fuzhou travel guide from Wikivoyage
Maritime Art - On the River Min(in English)
Fuzhou Evening News and its Overseas Edition, the local
Historic US Army map of Fuzhou, 1945
Fuzhou (PRC capital)
Jincheng (ROC capital)
Xiamen University of Technology
Min Chinese language
Hokkien earthen buildings
Shoushan stone carvings
Tale of the Lychee Mirror
Gongfu tea ceremony
Fujian White Crane
Dog Kung Fu
Bak kut teh
Buddha jumps over the wall
South Putuo Temple
County-level divisions of
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
¹ — Jinmen (Kinmen/Quemoy) is administered as a county by the
Republic of China, but claimed by the PRC.
Metropolitan cities of China
Major Metropolitan regions
Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta (PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area
Yangtze River Delta (YRD)
Central Plain (Zhongyuan)
Cross-Strait Western Coast
Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (
Yangtze River Valley)
National Central Cities
Special Administrative Regions
Regional Central Cities
Autonomous regional capitals
Comparatively large cities
Prefecture-level cities by Province
Other cities (partly shown below)
(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot
Xinjiang - XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi
Former Prefecture-level cities
Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia
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County-level cities by Province
* Indicates this city has already occurred above.
aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as
provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special
Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities.
3Prefecture capital status established by
Heilongjiang Province and
not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen
Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir,
Inner Mongolia as part of it.
4Only administers islands and waters in South
China Sea and have no
urban core comparable to typical cities in China.
5The claimed province of
Taiwan no longer have any internal division
announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual
jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of
All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by
Largest cities or towns in China
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
Provincial capitals of China
Hohhot (Inner Mongolia)
Taiwan is claimed by the People's Republic of
administered by the Republic of
China (see Political status of