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Fuzhou, alternately
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and ...
as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest
cities A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...
in
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province on the southeastern coast of China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital ...
province, China. Along with the many counties of
Ningde Ningde (; Foochow Romanized: Nìng-dáik), also known as Mindong (; Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng; lit. East of Fujian), is a prefecture-level city located along the northeastern coast of Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders t ...
, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong (lit. Eastern Fujian) linguistic and cultural area. Fuzhou lies on the north (left) bank of the estuary of Fujian's largest river, the Min River. All along its northern border lies Ningde, and Ningde's
Gutian County (; Foochow Romanized: ''Kŭ-chèng Gâing'') is a county lying in the northeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Ningde City and is located in the southwest part of the municipality. It is also kno ...
lies upriver. Its population was 7,115,370 inhabitants as of the 2010 census, of whom 4,408,076 inhabitants are urban representing around 61.95%, while rural population is at 2,707,294 representing around 38.05%. As of 31 December 2018, the total population was estimated at 7,740,000 whom 4,665,000 lived in the built-up (''or metro'') area made of 5 urban districts plus Minhou County. In 2015, Fuzhou was ranked as the 10th fastest growing metropolitan area in the world by
Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American research group founded in 1916 on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics (and tax policy ...
. Fuzhou is listed as No. 20 in China Integrated City Index 2016's total ranking, a study conducted by
National Development and Reform Commission The National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China (NDRC), formerly State Planning Commission and State Development Planning Commission, is a macroeconomic management agency under the State Council, which has bro ...
. Fuzhou is also a major city for scientific research, appearing in the global top List of cities by scientific output, 100 cities as tracked by the Nature Index. The city is home to List of universities and colleges in Fujian, several major universities, notably Fuzhou University, one of List of universities in China, China's most prestigious universities under the Project 211.


Names

Fuzhou in Chinese is "" (), meaning "a city with good luck." The ''Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties'', a Chinese geographical treatise published in the 9th century, says that Fuzhou's name came from Mount ''Futo'' a mountain northwest of the city. The mountain's name was then combined with ''-zhou (country subdivision), zhou'', meaning "settlement" or "prefecture," in a manner similar to many other Chinese cities. During the Warring States period, area of Fuzhou was sometimes referred to as ''Ye'' (), and Fuzhou was incorporated into China proper during Qin dynasty. The city's name was changed numerous times between the 3rd and 9th centuries before finally settling on Fuzhou in 948. In Chinese, the city is sometimes referred to by the poetic nickname ''Rongcheng'' (; Foochow Romanized: ), . In older English publications, the name is variously romanized as Foochow, Foo-Chow, Fuchow, Fūtsu, Fuh-Chow, Hock Chew, and Hokchew.


History


Pre-Qin history (before 221 BC)

The remains of two Neolithic cultures—the Huqiutou Culture (), from around 5000 BC, and the Tanshi Mountain Culture (), from around 3000 BC—have been discovered and excavated in the Fuzhou area. During the Warring States period (c. 475–221 BC), Chinese began referring to the modern Fujian area as Min Yue (), suggesting that the native inhabitants of the area were a branch of the Yue peoples, a diverse population of non-Chinese tribes who once inhabited most of southern China. In 306 BC, the Yue (state), Yue Kingdom (present-day Zhejiang) fell to the Chu (state), state of Chu. Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian wrote that the surviving members of the Yue royal family fled south to what is now Fujian, where they settled alongside the native Yue people, joining Chinese and Yue culture to create Minyue. Their major centre was not at Fuzhou's modern location, but further up the Min watershed near Wuyishan City.


Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–AD 206)

The Qin Shi Huang, First Emperor of Qin unified ancient China in 221 BC and desired to bring the southern and southeast regions under Chinese rule. The Qin dynasty organized its territory into "Commanderies" ()—roughly equivalent to a province or prefecture—and the Fujian area was organized as Minzhong Commandery (). The area seems to have continued mostly independent of Chinese control for the next century. The Han dynasty followed the short-lived Qin, and Emperor Gaozu of Han declared both Minyue and neighboring Nanyue to be autonomous vassal kingdoms. In 202 BC, Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed a leader named Wuzhu (; Old Chinese: ') as King of Minyue, and a walled city called Ye (; Old Chinese: '; literally: Beautiful) was built. The founding of Ye in 202 BC has become the traditional founding date of the city of Fuzhou. In 110 BC, the armies of Emperor Wu of Han defeated the Minyue kingdom's armies during the Han campaigns against Minyue, Han–Minyue War and annexed its territory and people into China. Many Minyue citizens were forcibly relocated into the Jianghuai area, and the Yue ethnic group was mostly assimilated into the Chinese, causing a sharp decline in Ye's inhabitants. The area was eventually re-organized as a county in 85 BC.


Three Kingdoms to Sui dynasty (200–618)

During the Three Kingdoms Period, southeast China was nominally under the control of Eastern Wu, and the Fuzhou area had a shipyard for the coastal and Yangtze River fleets. In 282, during the Jin dynasty (265–420), Jin dynasty, two artificial lakes known simply as the East Lake and West Lake were constructed in Ye, as well as a canal system. The core of modern Fuzhou grew around these three water systems, though the East and West Lakes no longer exist. In 308, during the War of the Eight Princes at the end of the Jin dynasty, the first large-scale migration of Chinese immigrants moved to the south and southeast of China began, followed by subsequent waves during later periods of warfare or natural disaster in the Central Plain (China), Chinese heartland. The administrative and economic center of the Fujian area began to change to the Ye area during the Sui dynasty (581–618).


Tang to the ten kingdoms era (618–960)

In 725, the city was formally renamed "Fuzhou". Throughout the mid-Tang dynasty, Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland such as the An Lushan Rebellion and Huang Chao Rebellion, prompting another wave of northerners to immigrate to the modern-day Northern Min and Eastern Min areas. In 879, a large part of the city was captured by the army of Huang Chao during their rebellion against the Tang government. In 893, the warlord brothers Wang Chao (Tang dynasty), Wang Chao and Wang Shenzhi captured Fuzhou in a rebellion against the Tang dynasty, successfully gaining control of the entire Fujian Province and eventually proclaiming their founding of an independent kingdom they called the Min (Ten Kingdoms), Min Kingdom in 909. The Wang brothers enticed more immigrants from the north, though their kingdom only survived until 945. In 978, Fuzhou was incorporated into the newly founded Song dynasty, though their control of the mountainous regions was tenuous. Fuzhou prospered during the Tang dynasty. Buddhism was quickly adopted by citizens who quickly built many Buddhist temples in the area.


Song era (960–1279)

Fuzhou underwent a major dramatic surge in its refined culture and educational institutions throughout the Song Dynasty as Fuzhou produced 10 Fuzhounese zhuangyuan scholars (scholar who is ranked the top first place in the imperial examinations zh:状元), a large number for a small city in the country during that dynasty. The "Hualin" Temple (, not to be confused with the temple of the same name in Guangzhou), founded in 964, is one of the oldest and surviving wooden structures in China. New city walls were built in 282, 901, 905, and 974, so the city had many layers of walls – more so than the Chinese capital. Emperor Taizong of Song, Emperor Taizong of the Song dynasty ordered the destruction of all the walls in Fuzhou in 978 but new walls were rebuilt later. The latest was built in 1371. During the Southern Song dynasty, Fuzhou became more prosperous; many scholars came to live and work. Among them were Zhu Xi, the most celebrated Chinese philosopher after Confucius, and Xin Qiji, the greatest composer of the Ci (poetry), ci form of poetry. Marco Polo, an Italian guest of the Emperor Kubilai, Transcription (linguistics), transcribed, after the conventions of Italian language, Italian orthography, the place name as ''Fugiu''. This was not the local Min Chinese, Min pronunciation but that of the Mandarin (bureaucrat), mandarin administrative class. According to Odoric of Pordenone, Fuzhou had the biggest chickens in the world.


Ming dynasty (1368–1644)

Between 1405 and 1433, a fleet of the Ming dynasty, Ming Imperial navy under Admiral Zheng He sailed from Fuzhou to the Indian Ocean seven times; on three occasions the fleet landed on the east coast of Africa. Before the last sailing, Zheng erected a stele dedicated to the goddess Matsu (goddess), Tian-Fei (Matsu) near the seaport. The Ming government gave a monopoly over Philippine trade to Fuzhou, which at times was shared with Quanzhou. Galeote Pereira, a Portuguese soldier and trader, was taken prisoner during the Jiajing wokou raids, pirate extermination campaign of 1549 and imprisoned in Fuzhou. Later transferred to a form of Exile#Personal exile, internal exile elsewhere in the province, Pereira escaped to Langbaijiao in 1553. The record of his experiences in the Ming Empire, logged by the Jesuits at Goa in 1561, was the first non-clerical account of China to reach the West since Marco Polo. The Ryukyu Kingdom established Ryūkyū-kan, an embassy in Fuzhou.


Qing dynasty (1644–1912)

In 1839, Lin Zexu, who himself was a Fuzhou native, was appointed by the Daoguang Emperor to enforce the imperial ban on the opium trade in Guangzhou, Canton. His unsuccessful actions, however, precipitated the disastrous First Opium War with Great Britain, and Lin, who had become a scapegoat for China's failure in war, was exiled to the northwestern section of the empire. The Treaty of Nanjing (1842), which put an end to the conflict, made Fuzhou (then known to Westerners as Foochow) one of five Chinese treaty ports, and it became completely open to Western merchants and missionaries. Fuzhou was one of the most important Protestant mission fields in China. On January 2, 1846, the first Protestant missionary, Rev. Stephen Johnson (missionary) from ABCFM, entered the city and soon set up the first missionary station there. ABCFM was followed by the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society that was led by Revs. M. C. White and Judson Dwight Collins, J. D. Collins, who reached Fuzhou in early September 1847. The Church Missionary Society also arrived in the city in May 1850. These three Protestant agencies remained in Fuzhou until the Chinese Revolution (1949), communist revolution in China in the 1950s, leaving a rich heritage in Fuzhou's Protestant culture. They supported the creation of hospitals and schools, including the Woolston Memorial Hospital, run by the American-trained Hü King Eng. On August 23, 1884, the Battle of Fuzhou broke out between the French Far East Fleet and the Fujian Fleet of the Qing dynasty. As the result, the Fujian Fleet, one of the four Chinese regional fleets, was destroyed completely in Mawei Harbor.


Republic of China

On November 8, 1911, revolutionaries staged an uprising in Fuzhou. After an overnight street battle, the Qing dynasty, Qing army surrendered.


Revolutionary Republic

On November 22, 1933, Eugene Chen and the leaders of the National Revolutionary Army's 19th Army set up the short-lived Fujian People's Government, People's Revolutionary Government of Republican China. Blockaded by Chiang Kai-shek and left without support from the nearby Soviet Republic of China, the PRGRC collapsed within two months.


Japanese occupation

With the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Sino-Japanese War in 1937, hostilities commenced in Fujian Province. Xiamen (Amoy) fell to a Japanese landing force on May 13, 1938. The fall of Amoy instantly threatened the security of Fuzhou. On May 23, Japanese ships bombarded Mei-Hua, Huang-chi and Pei-Chiao while Japanese planes continued to harass the Chinese forces. Between May 31 and June 1, Chinese gunboats ''Fu-Ning'', ''Chen-Ning'' and ''Suming'' defending the blockade line in the estuary of the Min River were successively bombed and sunk. Meanwhile, the Chinese ship ''Chu-Tai'' berthed at Nan-Tai was damaged. The Chinese Navy's Harbor Command School, barracks, shipyard, hospital and marine barracks at Ma-Wei were successively bombed. Fuzhou is recorded as having fallen to Japanese forces in 1938. The extent of Japanese command and control of the city of Fuzhou itself as opposed to the port at Mawei and the Min River Estuary is uncertain. By 1941 (5/7), the city is recorded as having returned to Nationalist control. The British Consulate in Fuzhou is noted as operational from 1941 to 1944 after the United Kingdom Declaration of War on Japan in December 1941. Western visitors to Fuzhou in the period 1941–1944 include the Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett in 1942. and the British scientist Joseph Needham, Dr Joseph Needham in May 1944. Both visitors record the presence of a British Consul and a Fuzhou Club comprising western businessmen. In ''The Man Who Loved China: The Fantastic Story of the Eccentric Scientist Who Unlocked the Mysteries of the Middle Kingdom'', author Simon Winchester relates the visit of Dr Needham in 1944. Needham encountered the American government agent (John Caldwell) and the British SIS agent (Murray MacLehose working undercover as the British Vice-Consul in Fuzhou) involved in aid to the Nationalist resistance to Japanese forces in Fujian Province. As part of Operation Ichi-Go (1944), the last large-scale Japanese offensive in China in World War 2, the Japanese intended to isolate Fuzhou and the Fujian Province corridor to Nationalist forces in western China and the wartime capital of Chongqing. One account of the Japanese re-taking of Fuzhou city itself is narrated by American naval officer, Houghton Freeman. The date is given as October 5, 1944. Fuzhou remained under Japanese control until the surrender of Japan and its armed forces in China in September 1945. Following the restitution of Republic control (1946), the administration divisions of Fuzhou were annexed, and administration level was promoted from county-level to city-level officially.


People's Republic of China

Fuzhou was occupied by People's Liberation Army with little resistance on 17 August 1949. In the 1950s, the city was on the front line of the conflict with KMT in Taiwan, as hostile KMT aircraft frequently bombed the city. The bombing on 20 January 1955 was the most serious one, killing hundreds of people. Fuzhou was also involved in violent mass chaos during the Cultural revolution. Different groups of Red Guards (China), Red Guards fought with each other using guns on the streets of the city, and even attacking the People's Liberation Army. Under the reform and opening policy since the late 1970s, Fuzhou has developed rapidly. In 1982, Fuzhou became the first city in China where the stored program control was introduced, which marked a milestone in the history of telecommunications in China. In 1984, Fuzhou was chosen as one of the first branches of Special economic zones of China, Open Coastal Cities by the Central Government. On December 13, 1993, a raging fire swept through a textile factory in Fuzhou and claimed the lives of 60 workers.Major Events Across The Taiwan Straits
On October 2, 2005, floodwaters from Typhoon Longwang swept away a military school, killing at least 80 paramilitary officers.


Geography

Fuzhou is located in the northeast coast of Fujian province, connects jointly northwards with Ningde and Nanping, southwards with Quanzhou and Putian, westwards with Sanming respectively.


Climate

Fuzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen ''Cfa'') influenced by the East Asian Monsoon; the summers are long, very hot and humid, and the winters are short, mild and dry. In most years, torrential rain occurs during the monsoon in the second half of May. Fuzhou is also liable to typhoons in late summer and early autumn. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from in January to in July, while the annual mean is . With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24 percent in March to 54 percent in July, the city receives 1,607 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from on 25 January 2016 to on 26 July 2003. Snow is very rare, having covered the ground last times in February 1957, December 1975 and December 1991.


Administrative divisions

The administrative divisions of Fuzhou have been changed frequently throughout history. From 1983, the Fuzhou current administrative divisions were formed officially, namely, 5 districts and 8 counties. In 1990 and 1994, Fuqing (Foochow Romanized: ') and Changle (Foochow Romanized: ') counties were promoted to County-level city, county-level cities; Changle became a district in 2017. Despite these changes, the administrative image of "5 districts and 8 counties" is still held popularly among local residents. Fuzhou's entire area only covers 9.65 percent of Fujian Province. The city of Fuzhou has direct jurisdiction over 6 District of China, districts, 1 county-level city, and 6 County (People's Republic of China), counties:


Culture

The ''City of Banyans'' is distinct from the mainstream inland cultures of central China, and in details vary from other areas of the Chinese coast


Language and art

Besides Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, the majority local residents of Fuzhou (Fuzhou people) also speak Fuzhou dialect (), the prestige form of Eastern Min. Min opera, also known as Fuzhou drama, is one of the major operas in
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province on the southeastern coast of China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital ...
Province. It enjoys popularity in the Fuzhou area and in neighboring parts of Fujian such as the northeast and northwest areas where the Fuzhou dialect is spoken, as well as in Taiwan and the Malay Archipelago. It became a fixed opera in the early 20th century. There are more than 1,000 plays of Min opera, most of which originate from folk tales, historical novels, or ancient legends, including such traditional plays as "Making Seal", "The Purple Jade Hairpin" and "Switching Fairy Peach with Litchi".


Architecture


Religion

The two traditional mainstream religions practiced in Fuzhou are Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. Traditionally, many people practice both religions simultaneously. The city is also home to many Buddhist monasteries, Taoist temples and Buddhist monks. Apart from mainstream religions, a number of religious worship sites of various local religions are situated in the streets and lanes of Fuzhou. The origins of local religion can be dated back centuries. These diverse religions incorporated elements such as gods and doctrines from other religions and cultures, such as totem worship and traditional legends. For example, Monkey King, originated to monkey worship among local ancients, gradually came to embody the God of Wealth in Fuzhou after the novel ''Journey to the West'' was issued in Ming dynasty. As the most popular religion in the Min River Valley, the worship of Lady Linshui is viewed as one of the three most influential local religions in Fujian, the other two being the worship of Mazu (goddess), Mazu and Baosheng Dadi ().


Local cuisine

Fuzhou cuisine is most notably one of the four traditional cooking styles of Fujian cuisine, which in turn is one of the eight Chinese regional cuisines. Dishes are light but flavorful, with particular emphasis on umami taste, known in Chinese cooking as ''xianwei'' (), as well as retaining the original flavor of the main ingredients instead of masking them. In Fuzhou cuisine, the taste is light compared to that of some other Chinese cooking styles, and often have a mixed sweet and sour taste. Soup, served as an indispensable dish in meals, is cooked in various ways with local seasonal fresh vegetables and seafood and often added with local cooking wine (). Fuzhou is famous for its street food and snacks. Some notable street food dishes include Fuzhou fish balls (), meat-pastry dumplings (), oyster cake (海蛎饼), rice scroll soup (), guong bian (; a kind of mildly savory pastry), and pork floss (). Many of these street food dishes have a long history and their own local legend; an example would be the oyster cake, according Fuzhou local folklore, in the early Qing dynasty, there was a young man who inherited his father's dim sum business, despite all his hard works, he only managed to earn enough money to feed himself, not enough to raise and feed a family of his own. One night, he dreamt of a silver-haired elderly man, who told him that he has very good fortune, the young man then asked him what he can do to obtain good luck, the elderly man then floated away. That's when the young man notice the setting moon, and after the moon sank under the clouds, rose from the east a golden sun. he was inspired by the dream and invented oyster cake, which is white like the moon before being lowered into hot grease and coming out golden as the morning sun. According to the legend, after the young man made a fortune out of his invention and his oyster cake was imitated by many others, which was passed down till this day. another example of a Fuzhou street food with a long history is rice scroll soup, which became popular in Fuzhou in the early part of the Qing dynasty. As more Fuzhou residents settled overseas, Fuzhou dishes spread to Taiwan, Southeast Asia and the U.S.. For example, one is able to find guong bian and Fuzhou fish balls in Sitiawan in Ipoh, Malaysia while Fuzhou fish balls, meat-pastry dumplings and rice scroll soup can be found in New York's Chinatown. Fuzhou residents also enjoy eating festival foods during traditional Chinese holidays. For example, red and white rice cakes () are served over Chinese New Year, stuffed Tangyuan (food), yuanxiao () during the Lantern Festival, zongzi () during the Dragon Boat Festival, and sweet soy bean powder-covered plain yuanxiao over the winter solstice.


Special crafts

Bodiless lacquerware (), Oil-paper umbrella, paper umbrellas and horn combs () are the "Three Treasures" of Fuzhou traditional arts. In addition, bodiless lacquerware, together with cork pictures () and Shoushan stone sculptures () are called "Three Superexcellences" of Fuzhou.


Media

''Fuzhou Evening News'' (), ''Strait Metropolitan Post'' and ''Southeast Express'' () are the three most primary newspapers in the city. ''Fuzhou Daily'' () is the official newspaper of the Fuzhou Committee of Communist Party of China. FZTV, the local municipal television station has four channels. As the capital, the provincial state-owned Fujian Media Group, Fujian Daily Newspaper Group and Straits Publishing & Distributing Group also headquarter here.


Transportation


Airports

The city is served by Fuzhou Changle International Airport, which replaces Fuzhou Yixu Airport, the old airfield. The former is its main international airport and an air-hub in southeast China, while the latter was turned into a People's Liberation Army, PLA airbase after 1997.


Railways

Fuzhou is a railway hub in northern Fujian. The Wenzhou–Fuzhou Railway, Wenzhou–Fuzhou and Fuzhou–Xiamen Railways form part of the Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor and can accommodate high-speed trains at speeds of up to . The Hefei–Fuzhou High-Speed Railway links the city to Beijing through its nearby inner land province Jiangxi at speeds up to . The Nanping–Fuzhou Railway and Xiangtang–Putian Railway provide rail access inland. The latter line can carry trains at speeds of . The regional Fuzhou-Mawei Cargo Railway runs from the Fuzhou Railway Station eastward to the port in Mawei District. Fuzhou has two main railway stations, Fuzhou and Fuzhou South. Fuzhou station is often just referred to as Fuzhou station given its central location.


Metro

Fuzhou Metro is the first rapid transit system in Fujian province, has two metro lines in operation, the first line opened linking the south of the city and the north above the Min River, and five lines under construction. Line 1 (Fuzhou Metro), Line 1 links the two railway stations of the city. The Fuzhou railway station is located north of the city center, near the North Second Ring Road. Fuzhou South Railway Station, located in Cangshan district, is a key landmark of the New City development scheme, begun in 2007 and completed in 2010. Line 1 was opened on May 18, 2016. Line 2 (Fuzhou Metro), Line 2 runs in the east–west direction of the city, linking the university city and Fuzhou High-Tech Zone in Minhou county, Jinshan Industrial Zone in Cangshan district, and Gushan mountain in Jin'an district. Line 2 was opened on 26 April 2019.


Seaport

Passenger liners regularly sail between Taiwan, ROC's Matsu Islands and the port in Mawei District. A high-speed ferry sails across Taiwan Strait between the port in Pingtan County, the mainland's closest point to Taiwan, to Taipei and Taichung, a trip that takes about 3 hours.


History of Fuzhou port

In 1867 the Fuzhou seaport was the site of one of China's first major experiments with Western technology, when the Foochow Arsenal, Fuzhou Navy Yard was established. A shipyard and an arsenal were built under French guidance and a naval school was opened. A naval academy was also established at the shipyard, and it became a center for the study of European languages and technical sciences. The academy, which offered courses in English, French, engineering, and navigation, produced a generation of Western-trained officers, including the famous scholar-reformer Yan Fu (1854–1921). The yard was established as part of a program to strengthen China in the wake of the country's disastrous defeat in the Second Opium War (1856–60). Most talented students nonetheless continued to pursue a traditional Confucian education, and by the mid-1870s the government began to lose interest in the shipyard, which had trouble securing funds and declined in importance. Fuzhou remained essentially a commercial center and a port until World War II; it had relatively little industry. The port was occupied by the Japanese during 1940–45. Since 1949, Fuzhou has grown considerably. Transportation has been improved by the dredging of the Min River for navigation by medium-sized craft upstream to Nanping. In 1956 the railway linking Fuzhou with the interior of the province and with the main Transport in the People's Republic of China, Chinese railway system began operation. The port has also been improved; Fuzhou itself is no longer accessible to seagoing ships, but Luoxingta anchorage and the outer harbor at Guantou on the coast of the East China Sea have been modernized and improved. The chief exports are timber, fruits, paper, and foodstuffs.


Economy

Industry is supplied with power by a grid running from the Gutian County, Gutian hydroelectric scheme in the mountains to the northwest. The city is a center for commercial banking, designer brands and timber-working, engineering, papermaking, printing, and textile industries. A small iron and steel plant was built in 1958. In 1984 Fuzhou was designated one of China's "open" cities in the new open-door policy inviting foreign direct investment, foreign investments. Handicrafts remain important in the rural areas, and the city is famous for its lacquer and wood products. Its GDP was ¥75,614 (c. US$12,140) per capita in 2015, List of cities in the People's Republic of China by GDP per capita, ranked no. 52 among 659 Chinese cities. Fuzhou is undoubtedly the province's political, economic and cultural center as well as an industrial center and seaport on the Min River. In 2008, Fuzhou's GDP amounted to ¥228.4 billion, an increase of 13 percent. Manufactured products include chemicals, silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel, and processed food. Among Fuzhou's exports are fine lacquerware and handcrafted fans and umbrellas. The city's trade is mainly with Chinese coastal ports. Its exports of timber, food products, and paper move through the harbor at Guantou located about downstream. In 2008, exports reached US$13.6 billion, a growth of 10.4 percent while imports amounted to US$6.8 billion. Total retail sales for the same period came to ¥113.4 billion and per capita GDP grew to ¥33,615. During the same period, Fuzhou approved 155 foreign-invested projects. Contracted foreign investment amounted to US$1.489 billion, while utilized foreign investment increased by 43 percent to US$1.002 billion.


Economic and Technological Zones

* Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone The Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in January 1985 by State Council, with a total planning area of and now has built. It is located close to Fuzhou Changle International Airport and Fuzhou Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, telecommunications equipment, trading and distribution, automobile production/assembly, medical equipment and supplies, shipping/warehousing/logistics and heavy industry. * Fuzhou Export Processing Zone The Fuzhou Export Processing Zone was founded on June 3, 2005, with the approval of the State Council and enjoys all the preferential policies. It is located inside the Chang'an Investment Zone of the Fuzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone (FETDZ) with a planned land area of . * Fuzhou Free Trade Zone The Fuzhou Free Trade Zone was established in 1992 by the State Council, with a planning area of . Industries encouraged in the free trade zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, heavy industry, instruments & industrial equipment production, shipping/warehousing/logistics, telecommunications equipment, trading, and distribution. *Fuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone The Fuzhou High-tech Development Zone was set up in 1988 and approved by the State Council in March 1991. In 1995, the Fuzhou Municipal Government decided to build Baiyi Electronic Information City, which covers in the zone, making it the lead electronic industrial zone in Fuzhou. The Administrative Commission of Mawei High-tech Park was set up in the zone in 1999. It covers an area of , and is in the area between Gushan Channel and Mawei Channel, Jiangbin Road and Fuma Road. * Fuzhou Science and Technology Park The Fuzhou Science and Technology Park was established in 1988 and was approved to be a national-level zone by the State Council in 1991. The planned area is and is divided into 3 parts: the Mawei portion, the Cangshan portion, and the Hongshan portion. The main industries are electronics, information technology, and biotechnology. The zone is away from the China National Highway 316 and away from the Fuzhou Changle International Airport. * Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area The Fuzhou Taiwan Merchants Development Zone was approved to be established in May 1989 by the State Council. The zone is located in the Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. The zone is a commercial base for Taiwan-related development. The current area is . The main industries are IT, metallurgy, food processing, and textiles. The zone is away from the 316 National Highway and away from Fuzhou Changle International Airport.


Cityscape


Tourist attractions


Historical / cultural

Sanfang Qixiang () "Three Lanes and Seven Alleys" is a cluster of ancient residential buildings dating from the late Jin dynasty now features a pedestrian zone with shops along the street. Situated at the centre of the city at Gulou District, Fuzhou, Gulou District, it is the most popular touristic destination in the city. Many buildings were revitalized recently to increase tourism. *Lin Zexu Memorial Hall () (Aomen Rd) * West Lake () (An artificial landscape-style lake built in 282) *Hualin Temple (Fuzhou), Hualin Temple () (Built in 964, Song dynasty) Its main hall is known as the oldest surviving wooden building in south China and was confirmed as an important heritage site under state protection in 1982. * Dizang Temple (The Temple of Sacrificing Guardian of the Earth, founded in 527) * Xichan Temple () (Founded in 867) * Wu Ta () "Black Pagoda" (Originally built in 799, rebuilt in 936) * Bai Ta () "White Pagoda" (On the top of Mount Yu, originally built in 905, 67 m in height, collapsed in 1534, rebuilt in 1548, 41 m in height) * Yongquan Temple () (Founded in 915, and located on the top of Mount Gu) * Mount Gu (), the tallest mountain in the area. Attracts many residents, especially in the weekends for hiking trips. * Mount Qi () (In Nanyu, Minhou County.) * Luoxing Tower () (In Mawei District and built in the Song dynasty. Was called "China Tower") * Tanshishan cultural relics () (In Ganzhe, Minhou County) *Saint Dominic's Cathedral, Fuzhou, Saint Dominic's Cathedral (福州圣多明我主教座堂) *St. John's Church, Fuzhou File:Fuzhou confucian temple.JPG, Fuzhou Confucian temple File:Saint Dominic's Cathedral.jpg, Saint Dominic's Cathedral File:St. John's Church, Fuzhou.jpg, St. John's Church, Fuzhou


Recreational

* Fujian Museum () (Near West Lake) * Wulongjiang Shidi Park () (A wetland park. However, the park is in distress due to ineffective environmental protection and construction) *Beach Park ()Chating Park () * Zuohai Park () * Minjiang Park () (On the two banks of the Min River) * Pingshan Park () * Mount Jinniu Park () (Near the Fuzhou West Long-Distance Bus Station) * Mount Jinji Park () * Fuzhou National Forest Park () * Sandiejing Forest Park () * Fuzhou Hot Spring Park () * Fuzhou Zoo () (This new zoo was built in 2008 after moving from its old location by West Lake)


Notable people

* Sa Zhenbing (, 1859–1952), high-ranking naval officer of Mongols, Mongolian origin * Go Seigen (, 1914–2014), Weiqi/Go player, considered by many players to be the greatest player of the game in the 20th century and one of the greatest of all time * Lin Changmin (, 1876–1925), a high-rank governor in the Beiyang Government * Lin Huiyin (, 1904–1955), architect and writer * Lin Juemin (, 1887–1911), one of 72 Second Guangzhou Uprising, Revolutionary Martyrs at Huanghuagang, Guangzhou * Murong Shenxing (, 1934–2018), neuroscientist, researcher and doctor * Ingen (, 1592–1673), well known Buddhist monk, poet and calligrapher who lived during Ming Dynasty * Baizhang Huaihai (, 720–814), an influential master of Zen Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty * Huangbo Xiyun (, ?–850), an influential master of Zen Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty * Chen Youding (, 1330–1368), a prominent military leader during the Yuan Dynasty * Gao Bing (, 1350–1423), an author and poetry theorist during the Ming Dynasty * Zhang Jing (Ming dynasty), Zhang Jing (, 1492–1555), a prominent military leader during the Ming Dynasty * Zheng Xiaoxu (, 1860–1938), statesman, diplomat and calligrapher * Liang Hongzhi (, 1882–1946), a high-rank governor in the Beiyang Government * Chen Baochen (, 1848–1935), scholar and loyalist to the Qing dynasty * Chih-Tang Sah (, 1932–present), Chinese-American engineer of Mongols, Mongolian origin * Chen Shaokuan (, 1889–1969), Fleet Admiral who served as the senior commander of naval forces of the National Revolutionary Army * Bing Xin (, 1900–1999), writer * Zheng Zhenduo (, 1898–1958), journalist and literary scholar * Zou Taofen (, 1895–1944), journalist, media entrepreneur, and political activist * Zhan Shi Chai (, 1840s–1893), entertainer as "Chang the Chinese giant" * Wong Nai Siong, Huang Naishang (, 1849–1924), Christian scholar, and founding father of Malaysian town of Sibu, in the state of Sarawak * Lin Shu (, 1852–1924), scholar and translator, most famous for his translation of Alexandre Dumas, fils, Alexandre Dumas' ''La Dame aux Camélias'' * Yan Fu (, 1854–1921), scholar and translator, best known for introducing western ideas such as Charles Darwin, Darwinian evolution * Huang Jun (author), Huang Jun (, 1890–1937), writer * Lin Sen (, 1868–1943), President of the Republic of China from 1931 to 1943 * Sa Shijun (, 1896-1938), high-ranking naval officer of Mongols, Mongolian origin * Liu Buchan (, 1852-1895), naval officer of the Beiyang Fleet, the most prominent of China's naval units in the late Qing Dynasty * Lin Zexu (, 1785–1850), scholar and official, considered a national hero for his strong opposition to the trade of opium before the First Anglo-Chinese War * Hsien Wu (, 1893–1959), protein scientist * Shen Baozhen (, 1820–1879), Viceroy of Liangjiang from 1875 to 1879 * Hou Debang (, 1890–1974), chemical engineer * Lu Yin (writer), Lu Yin (廬隱, 1898–1934), writer * Hu Yepin (胡也頻, 1903-1931), writer * Zhu Qianzhi (, 1899–1972), intellectual, translator and historian * Zhang Yuzhe (, 1902–1986), astronomer and director of the Purple Mountain Observatory * Fan Tchunpi, painter and ceramicist * Watchman Nee (, 1903–1972), Christian author and church leader * Chen Jingrun (, 1933–1996), mathematician who made significant contributions to number theory * Chen Zhangliang (, 1962–present), biologist, elected as vice-governor of Guangxi in 2007 * Chia-Chiao Lin, Lin Jiaqiao (林家翹, 1916-2013), well-known mathematician * Shen-su Sun (, 1943–2005), geochemist * Chen Kaige (, 1952–present), film director * Kelly Lin (, 1973–present), Taiwanese actress and model * Lin Chi-ling (, 1974–present), Taiwanese actress and model * Chiang Tsu-ping (, 1978–present), Taiwanese actress and television host * Yao Jinnan (, 1995–present), artistic gymnast who represented China at the London 2012 Olympic Games * Eugene A. Coffin Sr., Eugene A. Coffin, (1888–1972), rear admiral in the United States Coast Guard
Zhou Zihe
(周子和, 1874–1926), possible shifu of Uechi Kanbun, founder of Uechi-ryū, Uechi Ryū * Sister Ping (, Real Name: ''Cheng Chui Ping'', 郑翠萍/鄭翠萍, 1949–2014), Chinese convicted human smuggler and Snakehead (gang), snakehead * Ludi Lin (, 1987–present), Chinese-Canadian actor and model * Jony J (, 1989–present), rapper and songwriter * Xu Bin (, 1989–present), actor and singer


Education


Colleges and universities

* Fujian Normal University (; founded in 1907) * Fuzhou University (; founded in 1958) * Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (; founded in 1958) Three Universities above take the leading position in the province, and they are supported by Fujian Government to build High-level University. * Fujian Medical University * Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine * Minjiang University * Fujian University of Technology * Fujian Police College * Fujian Commercial College Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.


High schools

* Fuzhou No.8 Middle School () * Fuzhou Foreign Language School () * Fuzhou Gezhi High School () * Fuzhou No.1 Middle School () * Fuzhou No.3 Middle School () * Fuzhou Senior High School () * Fuzhou No.4 Middle School () * Fuzhou No.2 Middle School () * The Affiliated High School Of Fujian Normal University () * Fuzhou Pingdong Middle School ()


See also

* Nantai Island * List of cities in the People's Republic of China by population * List of twin towns and sister cities in China * Fuzhou people, Fuzhounese people * Fuzhou dialect *
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province on the southeastern coast of China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital ...


References


Sources

* A Brief History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), Hu Pu-yu, (Chung Wu Publishing Co. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China, 1974) pg 142. * China at War 1901–1949, Edward L. Dreyer, (Longman, London and New York, 1995) pg 235. * Australia's China, Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s, Lachlan Strachan, (Cambridge University Press 1996) pg 107. * Bomb, Book & Compass, Joseph Needham and the Great Secrets of China, Simon Winchester, (Penguin *Group Australia, Camberwell, Victoria) pp 143–151. * op.cit. *
wesleyan.edu





External links


Fuzhou Government website


on ''China Daily'' website
Fuzhou Places to visit

Fuzhou News NetFuzhou Municipal Television Station


*


Fuzhou Daily, Fuzhou Evening News and its Overseas Edition, the local newspapers

Historic US Army map of Fuzhou, 1945
{{Authority control Fuzhou, Cities in Fujian Prefecture-level divisions of Fujian Provincial capitals in China Treaty of Nanking, Foochow