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Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian
Fujian
province, China.[2] Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
are considered to constitute the Mindong
Mindong
(lit. Eastern Fujian) linguistic and cultural area. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
lies on the north (left) bank of the estuary of Fujian's largest river, the Min River. All along its northern border lies Ningde, and Ningde's Gutian County
Gutian County
lies upriver. Its population was 7,115,370 inhabitants as of the 2010 census, of whom 4,408,076 inhabitants are urban representing around 61.95%, while rural population is at 2,707,294 representing around 38.05 percent.[1] Fuzhou
Fuzhou
is listed as No.20 in China
China
Integrated City Index 2016's total ranking, a study conducted by National Development and Reform Commission.[3]

Contents

1 Names 2 History

2.1 Pre-Qin History (before 221 BC) 2.2 Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–206 AD) 2.3 Three Kingdoms to Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
(200–618) 2.4 Tang to the ten kingdoms era (618–960) 2.5 Song era (960–1279) 2.6 Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(1368–1644) 2.7 Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1644-1912) 2.8 Republic of China

2.8.1 Revolutionary Republic 2.8.2 Japanese occupation

2.9 People's Republic of China

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Administrative divisions 5 Culture

5.1 Language and art 5.2 Religion 5.3 Local cuisine 5.4 Special
Special
crafts

6 Media 7 Transportation

7.1 Airports 7.2 Railways 7.3 Subway 7.4 Seaport

7.4.1 History of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
port

8 Economy

8.1 Economic and Technological Zones

9 Cityscape 10 Tourist attractions

10.1 Historical / cultural 10.2 Recreational

11 Notable people 12 Education

12.1 Colleges and universities 12.2 High Schools

13 See also 14 References

14.1 Sources

15 External links

Names[edit] Fuzhou
Fuzhou
in Chinese is "有福之州” (yǒufúzhīzhōu), meaning "good luck city." The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties, a Chinese geographical treatise published in the 9th century, says that Fuzhou's name came from Mount Futo, a mountain northwest of the city. The mountain's name was then combined with -zhou, meaning "settlement" or "prefecture," in a manner similar to many other Chinese cities. During the Warring States period, area of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
was sometimes referred to as Ye (Chinese: 冶), and Fuzhou
Fuzhou
was incorporated into China
China
proper during Qin dynasty. The city's name was changed numerous times between the 3rd and 9th centuries before finally settling on Fuzhou
Fuzhou
in 948.[4] In Chinese, the city is sometimes referred to by the poetic nickname Rongcheng (Chinese: 榕城; Foochow Romanized: Ṳ̀ng-siàng), literally: "The Banyan City". In older English publications, the name is variously romanized as Foochow, Foo-Chow,[5] Fuchow, Fūtsu, Fuh-Chow, Hock Chew, and Hokchew. History[edit] See also: Timeline of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
history Pre-Qin History (before 221 BC)[edit] See also: Yue peoples
Yue peoples
and Minyue The remains of two Neolithic
Neolithic
cultures—the Huqiutou Culture (虎丘頭文化), from around 5000 BC, and the Tanshi Mountain Culture (曇石山文化), from around 3000 BC—have been discovered and excavated in the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
area. During the Warring States period
Warring States period
(c. 475–221 BC), Han Chinese
Han Chinese
began referring to the modern Fujian
Fujian
area as Min Yue (閩越), suggesting that the native inhabitants of the area were a branch of the Yue peoples, a family of non-Han tribes who once inhabited most of southern China.[6] In 306 BC, the Yue Kingdom (present-day Zhejiang) fell to the state of Chu. Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
historian Sima Qian
Sima Qian
wrote that the surviving members of the Yue royal family fled south to what is now Fujian, where they settled alongside the native Yue people, joining Han and Yue culture to create Minyue.[7] Their major centre was not at Fuzhou's modern location, but further up the Min watershed near Wuyishan City. Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–206 AD)[edit] Main articles: Southward expansion of the Han dynasty
Southward expansion of the Han dynasty
and Qin dynasty The First Emperor of Qin unified ancient China
China
in 221 BC and desired to bring the southern and southeast regions under Chinese rule. The Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
organized its territory into "Commanderies" (Chinese: 郡; pinyin: jùn)—roughly equivalent to a province or prefecture—and the Fujian
Fujian
area was organized as Minzhong Commandery (閩中郡). The area seems to have continued mostly independent of Chinese control for the next century. The Han dynasty
Han dynasty
followed the short-lived Qin, and Emperor Gaozu of Han
Emperor Gaozu of Han
declared both Minyue and neighboring Nanyue
Nanyue
to be autonomous vassal kingdoms. In 202 BC, Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed a leader named Wuzhu (無諸; Old Chinese: Matya) as King of Minyue, and a walled city called Ye (冶; Old Chinese: Lya; literally: Beautiful) was built. The founding of Ye in 202 BC has become the traditional founding date of the city of Fuzhou. In 110 BC, the armies of Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
defeated the Minyue kingdom's armies during the Han– Minyue War and annexed its territory and people into China.[8] Many Minyue citizens were forcibly relocated into the Jiangnan
Jiangnan
area, and the Yue ethnic group was mostly assimilated into the Chinese, causing a sharp decline in Ye's inhabitants.[6] The area was eventually re-organized as a county in 85 BC. Three Kingdoms to Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
(200–618)[edit]

"Fuzhou" calligraphy. "Fuzhou" literally means "Blessed Settlement" or "Blessed Prefecture".

During the Three Kingdoms Period, southeast China
China
was nominally under the control of Eastern Wu, and the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
area had a shipyard for the coastal and Yangtze River
Yangtze River
fleets. In 282, during the Jin dynasty, two artificial lakes known simply as the East Lake and West Lake were constructed in Ye, as well as a canal system. The core of modern Fuzhou
Fuzhou
grew around these three water systems, though the East and West Lakes no longer exist. In 308, during the War of the Eight Princes
War of the Eight Princes
at the end of the Jin dynasty, the first large-scale migration of Han Chinese immigrants moved to the south and southeast of China
China
began, followed by subsequent waves during later periods of warfare or natural disaster in the Chinese heartland. The administrative and economic center of the Fujian
Fujian
area began to shift to the Ye area during the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
(581 - 618). Tang to the ten kingdoms era (618–960)[edit] In 725, the city was formally renamed "Fuzhou". Throughout the mid-Tang dynasty, Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to the modern-day Fujian
Fujian
and Guangdong
Guangdong
areas. In 879, a large part of the city was captured by the army of Huang Chao
Huang Chao
during their rebellion against the Tang government. In 893, the warlord brothers Wang Chao and Wang Shenzhi captured Fuzhou
Fuzhou
in a rebellion against the Tang dynasty, successfully gaining control of the entire Fujian
Fujian
Province and eventually proclaiming their founding of an independent kingdom they called the Min Kingdom in 909. The Wang brothers enticed more immigrants from the north, though their kingdom only survived until 945. In 978, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
was incorporated into the newly founded Song dynasty, though their control of the mountainous regions was tenuous. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
prospered during the Tang dynasty. Buddhism
Buddhism
was quickly adopted by the citizens who quickly built many Buddhist temples in the area. Song era (960–1279)[edit] Fuzhou
Fuzhou
underwent a major resurgence as Fuzhou
Fuzhou
culture and educational institutions advanced and flourished immensely throughout the Song Dynasty as a native of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
topped the imperial examinations 6 times, a considerably large number for a small city in China. The Hualin Temple
Hualin Temple
(華林寺, not to be confused with the temple of the same name in Guangzhou), founded in 964, is one of the oldest surviving wooden structures in China. New city walls were built in 282, 901, 905, and 974, so the city had many layers of walls — more so than the Chinese capital. Emperor Taizong of the Song dynasty ordered the destruction of all the walls in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
in 978 but new walls were rebuilt later. The latest was built in 1371. During the Southern Song dynasty, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
became more prosperous; many scholars came to live and work. Among them were Zhu Xi, the most celebrated Chinese philosopher after Confucius, and Xin Qiji, the greatest composer of the ci form of poetry. Marco Polo, an Italian guest of the Emperor Kubilai, transcribed, after the conventions of Italian orthography, the place name as Fugiu. This was not the local Min pronunciation but that of the mandarin administrative class. Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(1368–1644)[edit] Between 1405 and 1433, a fleet of the Ming Imperial navy under Admiral Zheng He
Zheng He
sailed from Fuzhou
Fuzhou
to the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
seven times; on three occasions the fleet landed on the east coast of Africa. Before the last sailing, Zheng erected a stele dedicated to the goddess Tian-Fei (Matsu) near the seaport. The Ming government gave a monopoly over Philippine
Philippine
trade to Fuzhou, which at times was shared with Quanzhou.[9] Galeote Pereira, a Portuguese soldier and trader, was taken prisoner during the pirate extermination campaign of 1549 and imprisoned in Fuzhou. Later transferred to a form of internal exile elsewhere in the province, Pereira escaped to Langbaijiao
Langbaijiao
in 1553. The record of his experiences in the Ming Empire, logged by the Jesuits at Goa
Goa
in 1561, was the first non-clerical account of China
China
to reach the West since Marco Polo.[10] The Ryukyu Kingdom
Ryukyu Kingdom
established an embassy in Fuzhou. Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1644-1912)[edit] In 1839, Lin Zexu, who himself was a Fuzhou
Fuzhou
native, was appointed by the Daoguang Emperor
Daoguang Emperor
to enforce the imperial ban on the opium trade in Canton. His unsuccessful actions, however, precipitated the disastrous First Opium War
First Opium War
with Great Britain, and Lin, who had become a scapegoat for China's failure in war, was exiled to the northwestern section of the empire. The Treaty of Nanjing
Treaty of Nanjing
(1842), which put an end to the conflict, made Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(then known to Westerners as Foochow) one of five Chinese treaty ports, and it became completely open to Western merchants and missionaries.

The Eastward View of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
from Black Stone Hill (circa 1880)

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
was one of the most important Protestant
Protestant
mission fields in China. On January 2, 1846, the first Protestant
Protestant
missionary, Rev. Stephen Johnson (missionary) from ABCFM
ABCFM
(美國公理會差會), entered the city and soon set up the first missionary station there. ABCFM
ABCFM
was followed by the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society
Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society
that was led by Revs. M. C. White
M. C. White
and J. D. Collins, who reached Fuzhou
Fuzhou
in early September 1847. The Church Missionary Society
Church Missionary Society
also arrived in the city in May 1850. These three Protestant
Protestant
agencies remained in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
until the communist revolution in China
China
in the 1950s, leaving a rich heritage in Fuzhou's Protestant
Protestant
culture. They supported the creation of hospitals and schools, including the Woolston Memorial Hospital, run by the American-trained Hü King Eng.[11] On August 23, 1884, the Battle of Fuzhou
Battle of Fuzhou
broke out between the French Far East Fleet and the Fujian
Fujian
Fleet of the Qing dynasty. As the result, the Fujian
Fujian
Fleet, one of the four Chinese regional fleets, was destroyed completely in Mawei Harbor. Republic of China[edit] On November 8, 1911, revolutionaries staged an uprising in Fuzhou. After an overnight street battle, the Qing army surrendered. Revolutionary Republic[edit]

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Jinshan Temple

On November 22, 1933, Eugene Chen
Eugene Chen
and the leaders of the National Revolutionary Army's 19th Army set up the short-lived People's Revolutionary Government of Republican China.[12] Blockaded by Chiang Kai-shek and left to twist in the wind by the nearby Soviet Republic of China, the PRGRC collapsed within two months.[13] Japanese occupation[edit] With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, hostilities commenced in Fujian
Fujian
Province. Xiamen
Xiamen
(Amoy) fell to a Japanese landing force on May 13, 1938. The fall of Amoy instantly threatened the security of Foochow. On May 23, Japanese ships bombarded Mei-Hua, Huang-chi and Pei-Chiao while Japanese planes continued to harass the Chinese forces. Between May 31 and June 1, Chinese gunboats Fu-Ning, Chen-Ning and Suming defending the blockade line in the estuary of the Min River were successively bombed and sunk. Meanwhile, the Chinese ship Chu-Tai berthed at Nan-Tai was damaged. The Chinese Navy's Harbor Command School, barracks, shipyard, hospital and marine barracks at Ma-Wei were successively bombed.[14] Fuzhou
Fuzhou
is recorded as having fallen to Japanese forces in 1938.[15] The extent of Japanese command and control of the city of Fuzhou itself as opposed to the port at Mawei and the Min River Estuary is uncertain. By 1941 (date unknown), the city is recorded as having returned to Nationalist control. The British Consulate in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
is noted as operational from 1941–1944 after the United Kingdom Declaration of War on Japan
Japan
in December 1941. Western visitors to Fuzhou
Fuzhou
in the period 1941–1944 include the Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett in 1942.[16] and the British scientist Dr Joseph Needham in May 1944.[17] Both visitors record the presence of a British Consul and a Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Club comprising western businessmen. In The Man Who Loved China: The Fantastic Story of the Eccentric Scientist Who Unlocked the Mysteries of the Middle Kingdom, author Simon Winchester
Simon Winchester
relates the visit of Dr Needham in 1944. Needham encountered the American government agent (John Caldwell) and the British SIS agent ( Murray MacLehose
Murray MacLehose
working undercover as the British Vice-Consul in Fuzhou) involved in aid to the Nationalist resistance to Japanese forces in Fujian
Fujian
Province.[17] As part of Operation Ichi-Go
Operation Ichi-Go
(1944), the last large-scale Japanese offensive in China
China
in World War 2, the Japanese intended to isolate Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and the Fujian
Fujian
Province corridor to Nationalist forces in western China
China
and the wartime capital of Chongqing. One account of the Japanese re-taking of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
city itself is narrated by American naval officer, Houghton Freeman.[18] The date is given as October 5, 1944.[19] Fuzhou
Fuzhou
remained under Japanese control until the surrender of Japan and its armed forces in China
China
in September 1945. Following the restitution of Republic control (1946), the administration divisions of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
were annexed, and administration level was promoted from county-level to city-level officially. People's Republic of China[edit]

Foochow Mosque in Fuzhou.

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
was occupied by People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
with little resistance on 17 August 1949.[20] In the 1950s, the city was on the front line of the conflict with KMT in Taiwan, as hostile KMT
KMT
aircraft frequently bombed the city. The bombing on 20 January 1955 was the most serious one, killing hundreds of people.[21] Fuzhou
Fuzhou
was also involved in violent mass chaos during the Cultural revolution. Different groups of Red Guards fought with each other using guns on the streets of the city, and even attacking the People's Liberation Army.[22] Under the reform and opening policy since the late 1970s, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
has developed rapidly. In 1982, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
became the first city in China where the stored program control was introduced, which marked a milestone in the history of telecommunications in China.[23] In 1984, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
was chosen as one of the first branches of Open Coastal Cities by the Central Government.[24] On December 13, 1993, a raging fire swept through a textile factory in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and claimed the lives of 60 workers.[25] On October 2, 2005, floodwaters from Typhoon Longwang
Typhoon Longwang
swept away a military school, killing at least 80 paramilitary officers.[25] Geography[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2013)

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
is located in the northeast coast of Fujian
Fujian
province, connects jointly northwards with Ningde
Ningde
and Nanping, southwards with Quanzhou and Putian, westwards with Sanming
Sanming
respectively. Climate[edit] Fuzhou
Fuzhou
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) influenced by the East Asian Monsoon; the summers are long, very hot and humid, and the winters are short, mild and dry. In most years, torrential rain occurs during the monsoon in the second half of May. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
is also liable to typhoons in late summer and early autumn. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 10.9 °C (51.6 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 19.84 °C (67.7 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24 percent in March to 54 percent in July, the city receives 1,607 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −1.9 °C (29 °F) on 25 January 2016 to 41.7 °C (107 °F) on 26 July 2003.[26][27]

Climate data for Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 23.6 (74.5) 28.5 (83.3) 30.3 (86.5) 36.2 (97.2) 37.5 (99.5) 39.1 (102.4) 41.7 (107.1) 40.6 (105.1) 38.2 (100.8) 36.7 (98.1) 33.4 (92.1) 26.5 (79.7) 41.7 (107.1)

Average high °C (°F) 15.2 (59.4) 15.2 (59.4) 18.1 (64.6) 23.2 (73.8) 26.7 (80.1) 30.5 (86.9) 34.1 (93.4) 33.3 (91.9) 30.2 (86.4) 26.4 (79.5) 22.0 (71.6) 17.7 (63.9) 24.4 (75.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 11.2 (52.2) 11.6 (52.9) 14.0 (57.2) 18.5 (65.3) 22.7 (72.9) 26.2 (79.2) 29.2 (84.6) 28.8 (83.8) 26.2 (79.2) 22.4 (72.3) 18.2 (64.8) 13.4 (56.1) 20.2 (68.4)

Average low °C (°F) 8.2 (46.8) 8.3 (46.9) 10.6 (51.1) 15.0 (59) 19.2 (66.6) 23.0 (73.4) 25.5 (77.9) 25.1 (77.2) 23.0 (73.4) 19.3 (66.7) 14.8 (58.6) 10.1 (50.2) 16.8 (62.3)

Record low °C (°F) −1.9 (28.6) −1.7 (28.9) 0.0 (32) 6.2 (43.2) 10.9 (51.6) 18.9 (66) 20.7 (69.3) 20.3 (68.5) 18.3 (64.9) 12.2 (54) 4.6 (40.3) −0.8 (30.6) −1.9 (28.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.0 (1.89) 86.6 (3.409) 145.4 (5.724) 166.5 (6.555) 193.7 (7.626) 208.9 (8.224) 98.8 (3.89) 179.7 (7.075) 145.0 (5.709) 47.6 (1.874) 41.3 (1.626) 32.0 (1.26) 1,393.5 (54.862)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.7 14.4 17.5 17.8 18.2 15.9 10.4 12.1 11.6 7.1 7.2 7.1 149.0

Average relative humidity (%) 74 78 81 80 81 82 77 77 76 71 70 70 76.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.6 79.2 89.1 111.0 114.4 141.9 225.6 199.2 153.7 144.2 120.3 126.9 1,607.1

Percent possible sunshine 31 25 24 29 28 35 54 49 42 40 37 39 36.1

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration

Administrative divisions[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

2000[1] 6,386,013 —    

2010[1] 7,115,370 +11.4%

Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

The administrative divisions of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
have been changed frequently throughout history. From 1983, the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
current administrative divisions were formed officially, namely, 5 districts and 8 counties respectively. In 1990 and 1994, Fuqing
Fuqing
(Foochow Romanized: Hók-chiăng) and Changle
Changle
(Foochow Romanized: Diòng-lŏ̤h) counties were promoted to county-level cities. Despite these changes, the administrative image of "5 districts and 8 counties" is still held popularly among local residents. Fuzhou's entire area only covers 9.65 percent of Fujian
Fujian
Province. The city of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts, 1 county-level cities, and 6 counties:

Map

1 2 Cangshan Mawei Jin'an Changle Minhou County Lianjiang County Luoyuan County Minqing County Yongtai County Pingtan County Fuqing (city) 1. Gulou 2. Taijiang PRC claims, but has never controlled, Mazu Township (as part of Lianjiang County) and Baiquan Islands (as part of Changle).

Name Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 census)[1] Area (km²) Density (/km²)

City proper 2,921,763 1,015.07 2878.39

Gulou District 鼓楼区 Gǔlóu Qū 687,706 36.60 18,790

Taijiang District 台江区 Táijiāng Qū 446,891 18.28 24,447

Cangshan District 仓山区 Cāngshān Qū 762,746 139.41 5,471

Mawei District 马尾区 Mǎwěi Qū 231,929 254.33 912

Jin'an District 晋安区 Jìn'ān Qū 792,491 566.45 1,399 Changle
Changle
District 长乐区 Chánglè Qū 682,626 717.54 951

Suburban and Rural

Minhou County 闽侯县 Mǐnhóu Xiàn 662,118 2,133.03 310

Lianjiang County 连江县 Liánjiāng Xiàn 561,490 1,190.67 472

Luoyuan County 罗源县 Luōyuán Xiàn 207,677 1,081.17 192

Minqing County 闽清县 Mǐnqīng Xiàn 237,643 1,468.90 162

Yongtai County 永泰县 Yǒngtài Xiàn 249,455 2,243.41 111

Pingtan County 平潭县 Píngtán Xiàn 357,760 371.09 964

Satellite cities

Fuqing 福清市 Fúqīng Shì 1,234,838 1,932.43 639

Total 7,115,370 12,153.31 585.47

Culture[edit]

Banyan King in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
National Forest Park (福州國家森林公園).

The City of Banyans is distinct from the mainstream inland cultures of central China, and in details vary from other areas of the Chinese coast Language and art[edit] Besides Mandarin Chinese, the majority local residents of Fuzhou ( Fuzhou
Fuzhou
people) also speak Fuzhou dialect
Fuzhou dialect
(福州話), the prestige form of Eastern Min. Unlike Mandarin or Cantonese
Cantonese
languages which have many words with the same pronunciation but different meanings, Fuzhounese has a much lesser number of homonyms. Min opera, also known as Fuzhou
Fuzhou
drama, is one of the major operas in Fujian
Fujian
Province. It enjoys popularity in the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
area and in neighboring parts of Fujian
Fujian
such as the northeast and northwest areas where the Fuzhou dialect
Fuzhou dialect
is spoken, as well as in Taiwan
Taiwan
and the Malay Archipelago. It became a fixed opera in the early 20th century. There are more than 1,000 plays of Min opera, most of which originate from folk tales, historical novels, or ancient legends, including such traditional plays as "Making Seal", "The Purple Jade Hairpin" and "Switching Fairy Peach with Litchi".[28] Religion[edit] The two traditional mainstream religions practiced in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
are Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
and Taoism. Traditionally, many people practice both religions simultaneously. The city is also home to many Buddhist monasteries, Taoist temples and Buddhist monks. Apart from mainstream religions, a number of religious worship sites of various local religions are situated in the streets and lanes of Fuzhou. The origins of local religion can be dated back centuries. These diverse religions incorporated elements such as gods and doctrines from other religions and cultures, such as totem worship and traditional legends. For example, Monkey King, originated to monkey worship among local ancients, gradually came to embody the God of Wealth in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
after the novel Journey to the West
Journey to the West
was issued in Ming dynasty. As the most popular religion in the Min River Valley, the worship of Lady Linshui is viewed as one of the three most influential local religions in Fujian, the other two being the worship of Mazu and Baosheng Dadi
Baosheng Dadi
(保生大帝). Local cuisine[edit]

Fuzhou's local dish Litchi Pork(荔枝肉), famous for its sweet and sour flavor

Fuzhou cuisine is most notably one of the four traditional cooking styles of Fujian
Fujian
cuisine, which in turn is one of the eight Chinese regional cuisines. Dishes are light but flavorful, with particular emphasis on umami taste, known in Chinese cooking as xianwei (simplified Chinese: 鲜味; traditional Chinese: 鮮味; pinyin: xiānwèi), as well as retaining the original flavor of the main ingredients instead of masking them. In Fuzhou
Fuzhou
cuisine, the taste is light compared to that of some other Chinese cooking styles, and often have a mixed sweet and sour taste. Soup, served as an indispensable dish in meals, is cooked in various ways with local seasonal fresh vegetables and seafood and often added with local cooking wine (福建老酒). Fuzhou
Fuzhou
is famous for its street food and snacks. Some notable street food dishes include Fuzhou
Fuzhou
fish balls (魚丸), meat-pastry dumplings (扁肉燕), rice scroll soup (鼎邊糊),gong pian (光餅)- a kind of mildly savoury pastry,pork floss (肉鬆) etc. Many of these street food dishes have a long history, for example rice scroll soup became popular in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
in the early part of the Qing dynasty. As more Fuzhou
Fuzhou
residents settled overseas, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dishes spread to Taiwan, South East Asia and the U.S.. For example, one is able to find gong pian and Fuzhou
Fuzhou
fish balls in Sitiawan in Ipoh, Malaysia while Fuzhou
Fuzhou
fish balls, meat-pastry dumplings and rice scroll soup can be found in New York's Chinatown. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
residents also enjoy eating festival foods during traditional Chinese holidays. For example, red and white rice cakes (年糕) are served over Chinese New Year, stuffed yuanxiao (元宵) during the Lantern Festival, zongzi during Dragon Boat Festival, and sweet soy bean powder-covered plain yuanxiao over the winter solstice. Special
Special
crafts[edit] Bodiless lacquerware (脫胎漆器), paper umbrellas and horn combs (角梳) are the "Three Treasures" of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
traditional arts. In addition, bodiless lacquerware, together with cork pictures (軟木畫) and Shoushan stone sculptures (壽山石雕) are called "Three Superexcellences" of Fuzhou. Media[edit] Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Evening News(福州晚报), Strait News(海峡都市报) and Southeast Express(东南快报) are the three most primary newspapers in the city. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Daily(福州日报) is the official newspaper of the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Committee of Communist Party of China.[29] FZTV, the local municipal television station has four channels.[30] As the capital, the provincial state-owned Fujian
Fujian
Media Group, Fujian
Fujian
Daily Newspaper Group and Straits Publishing & Distributing Group also headquarter here. Transportation[edit] Airports[edit] Main article: Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Changle
Changle
International Airport The city is served by Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Changle
Changle
International Airport, which replaces Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Yixu Airport, the old airfield. The former is its main international airport and an air-hub in southeast China, while the latter was turned into a PLA airbase after 1997. Railways[edit]

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Rail Station

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
is a railway hub in northern Fujian. The Wenzhou– Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Fuzhou– Xiamen
Xiamen
Railways form part of the Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor and can accommodate high-speed trains at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph). The Hefei– Fuzhou
Fuzhou
High-Speed Railway links the city to Beijing
Beijing
through its nearby inner land province Jiangxi
Jiangxi
at speeds up to 350km/h. The Nanping–Fuzhou Railway and Xiangtang–Putian Railway
Xiangtang–Putian Railway
provide rail access inland. The latter line can carry trains at speeds of 200 km/h (124 mph). The regional Fuzhou-Mawei Cargo Railway runs from the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Railway Station eastward to the port in Mawei District. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
has two main railway stations, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
North and Fuzhou
Fuzhou
South. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
North station is often just referred to as Fuzhou
Fuzhou
station given its central location. Subway[edit] Main article: Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Metro The first metro line opened linking the South of the city and the North above the river, and two lines under construction.[31] The line 1 links the two Railway stations of the city. The Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Rail Station is located north of city center, near the North Second Ring Road. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
South Railway Station, located in Cangshan district, is a key landmark of the New City development scheme, began in 2007 and was completed in 2010. Seaport[edit]

The dock in Luoyuan Bay, Fuzhou, China. The construction of a new industrial park is still in progress[when?].

The passenger liners regularly sail between ROC's Matsu Islands
Matsu Islands
and the port in Mawei District.[32][33] The high speed ferry sails across Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait between the port in Pingtan County, mainland's closest point to Taiwan, to Taipei
Taipei
and Taichung, spending about 3 hours.[34] History of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
port[edit] In 1867 the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
seaport was the site of one of China's first major experiments with Western technology, when the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Navy Yard was established: A shipyard and an arsenal were built under French guidance and a naval school was opened. A naval academy was also established at the shipyard, and it became a center for the study of European languages and technical sciences. The academy, which offered courses in English, French, engineering, and navigation, produced a generation of Western-trained officers, including the famous scholar-reformer Yan Fu
Yan Fu
(1854–1921). The yard was established as part of a program to strengthen China
China
in the wake of the country's disastrous defeat in the Second Opium
Opium
War (1856–60). But most talented students continued to pursue a traditional Confucian
Confucian
education, and by the mid-1870s the government began to lose interest in the shipyard, which had trouble securing funds and declined in importance. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
remained essentially a commercial center and a port until World War II; it had relatively little industry. The port was occupied by the Japanese during 1940–45. Since 1949, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
has grown considerably. Transportation has been improved by the dredging of the Min River for navigation by medium-sized craft upstream to Nanping. In 1956 the railway linking Fuzhou
Fuzhou
with the interior of the province and with the main Chinese railway system began operation. The port has also been improved; Fuzhou
Fuzhou
itself is no longer accessible to seagoing ships, but Luoxingta anchorage and the outer harbor at Guantou on the coast of the East China
China
Sea have been modernized and improved. The chief exports are timber, fruits, paper, and foodstuffs. Economy[edit]

Fuzhou's GDP
GDP
(Nominal) trend[1]

Year GDP (billions of CN¥) Growth (%)

2005 172.000 9.8

2006 165.694 12.2

2007 197.459 15.1

2008 228.416 13.0

2009 252.428 12.8

2010 306.821 14.0

2011 373.478 13.0

Taijiang District
Taijiang District
(Financial District) of Fuzhou.

Industry is supplied with power by a grid running from the Gutian hydroelectric scheme in the mountains to the northwest. The city is a center for commercial banking, designer brands and timber-working, engineering, papermaking, printing, and textile industries. A small iron and steel plant was built in 1958. In 1984 Fuzhou
Fuzhou
was designated one of China's "open" cities in the new open-door policy inviting foreign investments. Handicrafts
Handicrafts
remain important in the rural areas, and the city is famous for its lacquer and wood products. Its GDP
GDP
was ¥602,815 (c. US$84,240) per capita in 2015, ranked no. 8 among 659 Chinese cities. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
is undoubtedly the province’s political, economic and cultural center as well as an industrial center and seaport on the Min River. In 2008, Fuzhou’s GDP
GDP
amounted to ¥228.4 billion, an increase of 13 percent.[35] Manufactured products include chemicals, silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel, and processed food. Among Fuzhou's exports are fine lacquerware and handcrafted fans and umbrellas. The city's trade is mainly with Chinese coastal ports. Its exports of timber, food products, and paper move through the harbor at Guantou located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) downstream.[36] In 2008, exports reached US$13.6 billion, a growth of 10.4 percent while imports amounted to US$6.8 billion. Total retail sales for the same period came to ¥113.4 billion and per capita GDP
GDP
grew to ¥33,615.[36] During the same period, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
approved 155 foreign-invested projects. Contracted foreign investment amounted to US$1.489 billion, while utilized foreign investment increased by 43 percent to US$1.002 billion.[36]

Taixi Central Business District

Economic and Technological Zones[edit]

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Economic & Technological Development Zone

The Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in January 1985 by State Council, with a total planning area of 22 square kilometres (8.5 sq mi) and now has 10.1 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) built. It is located close to Fuzhou Changle International Airport
Fuzhou Changle International Airport
and Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, telecommunications equipment, trading and distribution, automobile production/assembly, medical equipment and supplies, shipping/warehousing/logistics and heavy industry.[37]

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Export Processing Zone

The Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Export Processing Zone was founded on June 3, 2005 with the approval of the State Council and enjoys all the preferential policies. It is located inside the Chang'an Investment Zone of the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Economic and Technical Development Zone (FETDZ) with a planned land area of 1.14 square kilometres (0.44 sq mi).[38]

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Free Trade Zone

The Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Free Trade Zone was established in 1992 by the State Council, with a planning area of 1.8 square kilometres (0.69 sq mi). Industries encouraged in the free trade zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, heavy industry, instruments & industrial equipment production, shipping/warehousing/logistics, telecommunications equipment, trading, and distribution.[39]

Residential Buildings in Fuzhou

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

The Fuzhou
Fuzhou
High-tech Development Zone was set up in 1988 and approved by the State Council in March 1991. In 1995, the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Municipal Government decided to build Baiyi Electronic Information City, which covers 1.2 square kilometres (0.46 sq mi) in the zone, making it the lead electronic industrial zone in Fuzhou. The Administrative Commission of Mawei High-tech Park was set up in the zone in 1999. It covers an area of 5.6 square kilometres (2.2 sq mi), and is in the area between Gushan Channel and Mawei Channel, Jiangbin Road and Fuma Road.[40]

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Science and Technology Park

The Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Science and Technology Park was established in 1988 and was approved to be a national-level zone by the State Council in 1991. The planned area is 5.5 square kilometres (2.1 sq mi) and is divided into 3 parts: the Mawei portion, the Cangshan portion, and the Hongshan portion. The main industries are electronics, information technology, and biotechnology. The zone is 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) away from the China
China
National Highway 316 and 41 kilometres (25 mi) away from the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Changle
Changle
International Airport.[41]

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Taiwan
Taiwan
Merchant Investment Area

The Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Taiwan
Taiwan
Merchants Development Zone was approved to be established in May 1989 by the State Council. The zone is located in the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Economic and Technological Development Zone. The zone is a commercial base for Taiwan-related development. The current area is 6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi). The main industries are IT, metallurgy, food processing, and textiles. The zone is 11.5 kilometres (7.1 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and 52 kilometres (32 mi) away from Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Changle
Changle
International Airport.[42] Cityscape[edit]

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
skyline, the city hall is on the left, and the Financial District is on the right.

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Taixi Central Business District

Tourist attractions[edit] Historical / cultural[edit]

Sanfang Qixiang (三坊七巷) "Three Lanes and Seven Alleys" (A cluster of ancient residential buildings dating from the late Jin dynasty now features a pedestrian zone with shops along the street) Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu
Memorial Hall (林则徐纪念馆) (Aomen Rd) West Lake (福州西湖) (An artificial landscape-style lake built in 282) Hualin Temple
Hualin Temple
(华林寺) (Built in 964, Song dynasty) Its main hall is known as the oldest surviving wooden building in south China
China
and was confirmed as an important heritage site under state protection in 1982.

Dizang Temple (The Temple of Sacrificing Guardian of the Earth, founded in 527) Xichan Temple (西禅寺) (Founded in 867) Wu Ta (乌塔) "Black Pagoda" (Originally built in 799, rebuilt in 936) Bai Ta (白塔) "White Pagoda" (On the top of Mount Yu, originally built in 905, 67 m in height, collapsed in 1534, rebuilt in 1548, 41 m in height) Yongquan Temple (涌泉寺) (Founded in 915, and located on the top of Mount Gu) Mount Gu (鼓山) Mount Qi (旗山) (In Nanyu, Minhou County.) Luoxing Tower (罗星塔) (In Mawei District
Mawei District
and built in the Song dynasty. Was called " China
China
Tower") Tanshishan cultural relics (昙石山文化遗址) (In Ganzhe, Minhou County) Saint Dominic's Cathedral St. John's Church, Fuzhou

Saint Dominic's Cathedral

St. John's Church, Fuzhou

Recreational[edit]

Fujian
Fujian
Museum (福建省博物院) (Near West Lake) Wulongjiang Shidi Park (乌龙江湿地公园) (A wetland park. However, the park is in distress due to ineffective environmental protection and construction) Beach Park (沙滩公园)

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Beach Park

Chating Park (茶亭公园) Zuohai Park (左海公园) Minjiang Park (闽江公园) (On the two banks of the Min River) Pingshan Park (屏山公园) Mount Jinniu Park (金牛山公园) (Near the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
West Long-Distance Bus Station) Mount Jinji Park (金鸡山公园) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
National Forest Park (福州国家森林公园) Sandiejing Forest Park (三叠井森林公园) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Hot Spring Park (福州温泉公园) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Zoo (福州动物园) (This new zoo was built in 2008 after moving from its old location by West Lake)

Notable people[edit]

Yao Jinnan (姚金男, 1995–present) Chinese artistic gymnast who represented China
China
at the London
London
2012 Olympic Games. She is the 2014 World Uneven Bars Champion and a 5 time world medallist at the 2011 World Gymnastics Championships and the 2014 World Gymnastics Championships.

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Memorial Hall of Lin Zexu

Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu
(林则徐, 1785–1850), scholar and official, considered a national hero for his strong opposition to the trade of opium before the First Anglo-Chinese War Shen Baozhen
Shen Baozhen
(沈葆桢, 1820–1879), Viceroy of Liangjiang
Viceroy of Liangjiang
from 1875 to 1879 Zhan Shi Chai
Zhan Shi Chai
(詹世釵, 1840s–1893), entertainer as "Chang the Chinese giant" Chen Baochen
Chen Baochen
(陈宝琛, 1848–1935), scholar and loyalist to the Qing dynasty Wong Nai Siong
Wong Nai Siong
(黄乃裳, 1849–1924), Christian scholar, and founding father of Malaysian town of Sibu, in the state of Sarawak Lin Shu
Lin Shu
(林纾, 1852–1924), scholar and translator, most famous for his translation of Alexandre Dumas' La Dame aux Camélias Yan Fu
Yan Fu
(严复, 1854–1921), scholar and translator, best known for introducing western ideas such as Darwinian evolution Sa Zhenbing
Sa Zhenbing
(萨镇冰, 1859–1952), high-ranking naval officer of Mongolian origin Lin Sen
Lin Sen
(林森, 1868–1943), President of the Republic of China
China
from 1931 to 1943 Lin Juemin
Lin Juemin
(林觉民, 1887–1911), one of 72 Revolutionary Martyrs at Huanghuagang, Guangzhou Hou Debang (侯德榜, 1890–1974), chemical engineer Lin Xiangqian (zh:林详谦, 1892–1923), a martyr, labor movement leader and an early member of the Communist Party of China
China
(CPC) Lu Yin (zh:廬隱, 1898–1934), writer Fan Tchunpi, painter and ceramicist Zheng Zhenduo
Zheng Zhenduo
(郑振铎, 1898–1958), journalist and literary scholar Bing Xin
Bing Xin
(冰心, 1900–1999), writer Watchman Nee (倪柝声, 1903–1972), Christian author and church leader Lin Huiyin
Lin Huiyin
(林徽因, 1904–1955), architect and writer Chen Jingrun
Chen Jingrun
(陈景润, 1933–1996), mathematician who made significant contributions to number theory Chen Zhangliang (陈章良, 1962–), biologist, elected as vice-governor of Guangxi
Guangxi
in 2007 Wu Qingyuan
Wu Qingyuan
(吳清源, 1914–2014), Chinese Weiqi/Go player, considered by many players to be the greatest player of the game in the 20th century and one of the greatest of all time.

Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit]

The old campus of Fujian
Fujian
Normal University

Fujian
Fujian
Normal University (福建师范大学; founded in 1907) Fuzhou University
Fuzhou University
(福州大学; founded in 1958) Fujian
Fujian
Agriculture and Forestry University(福建农林大学; founded in 1958)

Three Universities above take the leading position in the province, and they are supported by Fujian
Fujian
Government to build High-level University.[43][44]

Fujian
Fujian
Medical University Fujian
Fujian
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Minjiang University Fujian
Fujian
University of Technology Fujian
Fujian
Police College Fujian
Fujian
Commercial College

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed. High Schools[edit]

Fuzhou Foreign Language School
Fuzhou Foreign Language School
(福州外国语学校) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Gezhi High School(福州格致中学) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
No.1 Middle School(福州第一中学) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
No.3 Middle School(福州第三中学) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Senior High School(福州高级中学) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
No.4 Middle School(福州第四中学) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
No.8 Middle School(福州第八中学) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
No.2 Middle School(福州第二中学) The Affiliated Middle School Of Fujian
Fujian
Normal University (福建师大附中) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Pingdong Middle School(福州屏东中学)

See also[edit]

China
China
portal

List of cities in the People's Republic of China
China
by population List of twin towns and sister cities in China

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g " Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Municipal Statistic Bureau". Fuzhou.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2012-04-06.  ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17.  ^ 2016中国城市综合发展指标发布 北上深位列三甲 ^ Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian (中国古今地名大词典), (Shanghai: Shanghai
Shanghai
Cishu Chubanshe, 2005), 3116. ^ Sladen, Douglas (1895), "Bits of China", The Japs at Home, 5th ed., New York: New Amsterdam Book Co., p. 279 . ^ a b Xu Xiaowang (徐曉望), 2006. Fujian
Fujian
Tong Shi 福建通史, Fujian
Fujian
People's Publishing 福建人民出版社. ^ Records of the Grand Historian, Yue Wang Goujian Shijia 越王勾踐世家. ^ Yu 1986, p. 456. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 420. ISBN 0-521-49781-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Foochow was reserved for trade with the Philippines (a similar role had been assumed by Ch'iian- chou between 1368 and 1374 and again after 1403 in the Yung-le era)  ^ Spence, Jonathan D., The Chan's Great Continent: China
China
in Western Minds, 1999, W.W.Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0-393-31989-7, pp.20–21 ^ *Burton, Margaret E. (1912). Notable Women of Modern China. New York: Fleming H. Revell. p. 42.  ^ 中華共和國人民革命政府; Zhōnghuá Gònghéguó Rénmín Gémìng Zhèngfǔ, also known as the Fujian
Fujian
People's Revolutionary Government (福建人民革命政府, Fújiàn Rénmín Zhèngfǔ). Compare 中華共和國 to the shorter, more ambiguous 中華民國 (Zhonghua Minguo, "Folk-state of China"), which was the one-party state under Kuomintang
Kuomintang
leader Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
against which Chen and the 19th rebelled (translated into English nonetheless as the "Republic of China"). ^ 晚清民國史 [History of the late Qing and the Republic]. 五南圖書出版股份有限公司. 2002. pp. 440–. ISBN 978-957-11-2898-6.  ^ Hu, Pu-yu (1974). A brief history of Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) (1st ed.). Taipei, Taiwan: Chung Wu Publishing Co. p. 142.  ^ Dreyer, Edward L. (1995). China
China
at War, 1901-1949. London, New York City: Longman. p. 107. ISBN 0-521480-01-9.  ^ Strahan, Lachlan (1996). Australia's China: Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s. Cambridge, New York City: Cambridge University Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-582051-25-8.  ^ a b Winchester, Simon. (2008). The Man Who Loved China: The Fantastic Story of the Eccentric Scientist Who Unlocked the Mysteries of the Middle Kingdom (1st ed.). New York: Harper. pp. 143–151. ISBN 978-0060884598.  ^ Smith, Nancy. "The Freeman Orientation". Wesleyan Alumni Magazine. Wesleyan University. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010.  ^ "League of Nations Timeline - 1944". Indiana University. Retrieved 5 July 2013.  ^ 福州有福,完好无损迎来解放. ^ “一·二○”大轰炸60周年 沙县退休职工忆尘封历史. ^ 1967,军队介入平息福州武斗乱局. ^ 福州万门程控电话开通25周年纪念专题. ^ OPENING TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD. China.org.cn ^ a b Major Events Across The Taiwan
Taiwan
Straits Archived April 28, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2014-11-12.  ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2010-12-02.  ^ "Min Opera". cultural-china.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-25.  ^ 福州的报纸 ^ 福州广播电视台本台介绍 ^ " Fuzhou Metro
Fuzhou Metro
merges sleek future with rich heritage". www.chinadaily.com.cn. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.  ^ Direct shipping services between Taiwan's Matsu and Mawei in mainland China, China
China
Daily, 2010-04-19 ^ 福州连江县黄岐至马祖白沙客运航线通航 ^ First high-speed ship to Taiwan
Taiwan
sails out of Pingtan ^ " China
China
Expat city Guide Dalian". China
China
Expat. 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-08.  ^ a b c " China
China
Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-08.  ^ " Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Economic & Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.  ^ " Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. 2005-06-03. Retrieved 2012-04-06.  ^ " Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Free Trade Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.  ^ " Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.  ^ " Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Science and Technology Park". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.  ^ " Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Taiwan
Taiwan
Merchants Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.  ^ 'High-level university construction' a hot phrase at Fujian
Fujian
two sessions, China
China
Daily, 2016-01-19 ^ 福州大学、福建师范大学、福建农林大学着手建设高水平大学, Fujian
Fujian
Daily, 2014-02-20

Sources[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Fuzhou

A Brief History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), Hu Pu-yu, (Chung Wu Publishing Co. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China, 1974) pg 142. China
China
at War 1901–1949, Edward L. Dreyer, (Longman, London
London
and New York, 1995) pg 235. Australia's China, Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s, Lachlan Strachan, ( Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press 1996) pg 107. Bomb, Book & Compass, Joseph Needham
Joseph Needham
and the Great Secrets of China, Simon Winchester, (Penguin *Group Australia, Camberwell, Victoria) pp 143–151. op.cit. wesleyan.edu indiana.edu politics.people.com.cn

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(category)

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Government website(in Chinese) Introduction to Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and local news on China
China
Daily website (in English) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Places to visit. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
News Net(in Chinese) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Municipal Television Station(in Chinese) An early history of Fujian
Fujian
and Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(in Chinese) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
travel guide from Wikivoyage Maritime Art - On the River Min(in English) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Daily, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Evening News and its Overseas Edition, the local newspapers(in Chinese) Historic US Army map of Fuzhou, 1945

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Fu'an
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Fuding
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Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta (YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Mid-Reaches ( Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 129019373 GND: 45050

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