Friedrich Hölderlin (German: [ˈjoːhan
ˈkʁɪsti.aːn ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈhœldɐliːn]; 20 March
1770 – 7 June 1843) was a German poet. Described by Norbert von
Hellingrath as "the most German of Germans", Hölderlin was a key
figure of German Romanticism. Particularly due to his early
association with and philosophical influence on Hegel and Schelling,
he was also an important thinker in the development of German
Born in Lauffen am Neckar, Hölderlin's childhood was marked by
bereavement. His mother intended for him to enter the Lutheran
ministry, and he attended the Tübinger Stift, where he was friends
with Hegel and Schelling. He graduated in 1793 but could not devote
himself to the Christian faith, instead becoming a tutor. Two years
later, he briefly attended the University of Jena, where he interacted
with Fichte and Novalis, before resuming his career as a tutor. He
struggled to establish himself as a poet, and was plagued by mental
illness. He was sent to a clinic in 1805 but deemed incurable and
instead given lodging by a carpenter, Ernst Zimmer. He spent the final
36 years of his life in Zimmer's residence, and died in 1843 at the
age of 73.
Hölderlin followed the tradition of Goethe and Schiller as an admirer
Greek mythology and
Ancient Greek poets such as
Sophocles, and melded Christian and Hellenic themes in his works.
Martin Heidegger, whom Hölderlin had a great influence on, said:
"Hölderlin is one of our greatest, that is, most impending thinkers
because he is our greatest poet. The poetic understanding of his
poetry is possible only as a philosophical confrontation with the
manifestation of being achieved in his work."
1.1 Early life
1.4 Mental breakdown
1.5 Later life and death
3 Dissemination and influence
4 English translations
7 Further reading
8 External links
Friedrich Hölderlin's birthplace, Lauffen am Neckar
Friedrich Hölderlin was born on 20 March 1770 in
Lauffen am Neckar, then a part of the Duchy of Württemberg. He was
the first child of Johanna Christiana Heyn and Heinrich Friedrich
Hölderlin. His father, the manager of a church estate, died when he
was two years old, and Friedrich and his sister, Heinrike, were
brought up by their mother.
In 1774, his mother moved the family to
Nürtingen when she married
Johann Christoph Gok. Two years later, Johann Gok became the
burgomaster of Nürtingen, and Hölderlin's half-brother, Karl
Christoph Friedrich Gok, was born. In 1779, Johann Gok died at the age
of 30. Hölderlin later expressed how his childhood was scarred by
grief and sorrow, writing in a 1799 correspondence with his mother:
"When my second father died, whose love for me I shall never forget,
when I felt, with an incomprehensible pain, my orphaned state and saw,
each day, your grief and tears, it was then that my soul took on, for
the first time, this heaviness that has never left and that could only
grow more severe with the years."
Hölderlin began his education in 1776, and his mother planned for him
to join the Lutheran church. In preparation for entrance exams into a
monastery, he received additional instruction in Greek, Hebrew, Latin
and rhetoric, starting in 1782. During this time, he struck a
friendship with Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, who was five years
Hölderlin's junior. On account of the age difference, Schelling was
"subjected to universal teasing" and Hölderlin protected him from
abuse by older students. Also during this time, Hölderlin began
playing the piano and developed an interest in travel literature
through exposure to Georg Forster's A Voyage Round the World.
In 1784, Hölderlin entered the Lower Monastery in Denkendorf and
started his formal training for entry into the Lutheran ministry. At
Denkendotf, he discovered the poetry of
Friedrich Schiller and
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, and took tentative steps in composing
his own verses. The earliest known letter of Hölderlin's is dated
1784 and addressed to his former tutor Nathanael Köstlin. In the
letter, Hölderlin hinted at his wavering faith in Christianity and
anxiety about his mental state.
Hölderlin progressed to the Higher Monastery at
Maulbronn in 1786.
There he fell in love with Luise Nast, the daughter of the monastery's
administrator, and began to doubt his desire to join the ministry; he
composed Mein Vorsatz in 1787, in which he states his intention to
attain "Pindar's light" and reach "Klopstock-heights". In 1788, he
read Schiller's Don Carlos on Luise Nast's recommendation. Hölderlin
later wrote a letter to Schiller regarding Don Carlos, stating: "It
won't be easy to study Carlos in a rational way, since he was for so
many years the magic cloud in which the good god of my youth enveloped
me so that I would not see too soon the pettiness and barbarity of the
Hölderlin attended the
Tübinger Stift (pictured) from 1788 to 1793.
In October 1788, Hölderlin began his theological studies at the
Tübinger Stift, where his fellow students included Georg Wilhelm
Isaac von Sinclair
Isaac von Sinclair and Schelling. It has been
speculated that it was Hölderlin who, during their time in Tübingen,
brought to Hegel's attention the ideas of
Heraclitus regarding the
unity of opposites, which Hegel would later develop into his concept
of dialectics. In 1789, Hölderlin broke off his engagement with
Luise Nast, writing to her: "I wish you happiness if you choose one
more worthy than me, and then surely you will understand that you
could never have been happy with your morose, ill-humoured, and sickly
friend," and expressed his desire to transfer out and study law but
succumbed to pressure from his mother to remain in the Stift.
During his time in the Stift, Hölderlin was an enthusiastic supporter
of the French Revolution; he and some colleagues from a "republican
club" planted a "Tree of Freedom" in the
Tübingen market square,
prompting Charles Eugene, the Duke of Württemberg himself, to
admonish the students at the seminary.
After obtaining his magister degree in 1793, his mother expected him
to enter the ministry. However, Hölderlin found no satisfaction in
the prevailing Protestant theology, and worked instead as a private
tutor. In 1794, he met
Friedrich Schiller and Johann Wolfgang Goethe
and began writing his epistolary novel Hyperion. In 1795 he enrolled
for a while at the
University of Jena
University of Jena where he attended Johann
Gottlieb Fichte's classes and met Novalis.
There is a seminal manuscript, dated 1797, now known as the Das
älteste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus ("The Oldest
Systematic Program of German Idealism"). Although the document is in
Hegel's handwriting, it is thought to have been written by either
Hegel, Schelling, Hölderlin, or an unknown fourth person.
As a tutor in
Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main from 1796 to 1798 he fell in love with
Susette Gontard, the wife of his employer, the banker Jakob Gontard.
The feeling was mutual, and this relationship became the most
important in Hölderlin's life. After a while, their affair was
discovered, and Hölderlin was harshly dismissed. He then lived in
Homburg from 1798 to 1800, meeting Susette in secret once a month and
attempting to establish himself as a poet, but his life was plagued by
financed worries and had to accept a small allowance from his mother.
His mandated separation from Susette Gontard also worsened
Hölderlin's doubts about himself and his value as a poet; he wished
to transform German culture but did not have the influence he needed.
From 1797 to 1800, he produced three versions—all unfinished—of a
tragedy in the Greek manner, The Death of Empedocles, and composed
odes in the vein of the Ancient Greeks Alcaeus and Asclepiades of
In the late 1790s, Hölderlin was diagnosed as suffering from
schizophrenia, then referred to as "hypochondrias", a condition that
would worsen after his last meeting with Susette Gontard in 1800.
After a sojourn in
Stuttgart at the end of 1800, likely to work on his
translations of Pindar, he found further employment as a tutor in
Hauptwyl, Switzerland and then at the household of the
in Bordeaux, in 1802. His stay in the French city is celebrated in
Andenken ("Remembrance"), one of his greatest poems. In a few months,
however, he returned home on foot via Paris (where he saw authentic
Greek sculptures, as opposed to Roman or modern copies, for the only
time in his life). He arrived at his home in
physically and mentally exhausted in late 1802, and learned that
Susette Gontard had died from influenza in Frankfurt at around the
At his home in
Nürtingen with his mother, a devout Christian,
Hölderlin melded his Hellenism with Christianity and sought to unite
ancient values with modern life; in Hölderlin's elegy Brod und Wein
("Bread and Wine"), Christ is seen as sequential to the Greek gods,
bringing bread from the earth and wine from Dionysus. After two years
in Nürtingen, Hölderlin was taken to the court of Homburg by Isaac
von Sinclair, who found a sinecure for him as court librarian, but in
1805 von Sinclair was denounced as a conspirator and tried for
treason. Hölderlin was in danger of being tried too but was declared
mentally unfit to stand trial. On 11 September 1805, Hölderlin was
delivered into the clinic at
Tübingen run by Dr. Johann Heinrich
Ferdinand von Autenrieth, the inventor of a mask for the prevention of
screaming in the mentally ill.
The first floor of the yellow tower (now known as the Hölderlinturm)
was Hölderlin's place of residence from 1807 until his death in 1843.
The clinic was attached to the University of
Tübingen and the poet
Justinus Kerner, then a student of medicine, was assigned to look
after Hölderlin. The following year Hölderlin was discharged as
incurable and given three years to live, but was taken in by the
carpenter Ernst Zimmer (a cultured man, who had read Hyperion) and
given a room in his house in Tübingen, which had been a tower in the
old city wall with a view across the
Neckar river. The tower would
later be named the Hölderlinturm, after the poet's 36-year-long stay
in the room. His residence in the building made up the second half of
his life and is also referred to as the Turmzeit (or "Tower period").
Later life and death
Sketch of Hölderlin by Luise Keller, 1842.
In the tower, Hölderlin continued to write poetry of a simplicity and
formality quite unlike what he had been writing up to 1805. As time
went on he became a minor tourist attraction and was visited by
curious travelers and autograph-hunters. Often he would play the piano
or spontaneously write short verses for such visitors, pure in
versification but almost empty of affect—although a few of these
(such as the famous Die Linien des Lebens ("The Lines of Life"), which
he wrote out for his carer Zimmer on a piece of wood) have a piercing
beauty and have been set to music by many composers.
Hölderlin's own family did not financially support him but petitioned
successfully for his upkeep to be paid by the state. His mother and
sister never visited him, and his stepbrother only once did so. His
mother died in 1828: his sister and stepbrother quarreled over the
inheritance, arguing that too large a share had been allotted to
Hölderlin, and unsuccessfully tried to have the will overturned in
court. Neither of them attended his funeral in 1843, nor had the
friends of his childhood, Hegel and Schelling, had anything to do with
him for years; the Zimmer family were his only mourners. His
inheritance, including the patrimony left to him by his father when he
was two, had been kept from him by his mother and was untouched and
continually accruing interest. He died a rich man, but did not know
The poetry of Hölderlin, widely recognized today as one of the
highest points of German literature, was little known or understood
during his lifetime, and slipped into obscurity shortly after his
death; his illness and reclusion made him fade from his
contemporaries' consciousness – and, even though selections of
his work were published by his friends during his lifetime, it was
largely ignored for the rest of the 19th century.
Hölderlin's autograph of the first three stanzas of his ode
Like Goethe and Schiller, his older contemporaries, Hölderlin was a
fervent admirer of ancient Greek culture, but for him the Greek gods
were not the plaster figures of conventional classicism, but
wonderfully life-giving actual prescenses, yet at the same time
terrifying. Much later,
Friedrich Nietzsche would recognize Hölderlin
as the poet who first acknowledged the Orphic and Dionysian Greece of
the mysteries, which he would fuse with the
Pietism of his native
Swabia in a highly original religious experience. He understood and
sympathised with the Greek idea of the tragic fall, which he expressed
movingly in the last stanza of his "Hyperions Schicksalslied"
("Hyperion's Song of Destiny").
In the great poems of his maturity, Hölderlin would generally adopt a
large-scale, expansive and unrhymed style. Together with these long
hymns, odes and elegies – which included "Der Archipelagus"
("The Archipelago"), "Brod und Wein" ("Bread and Wine") and
"Patmos" – he also cultivated a crisper, more concise manner in
epigrams and couplets, and in short poems like the famous "Hälfte des
Lebens" ("The Middle of Life").
In the years after his return from Bordeaux, he completed some of his
greatest poems but also, once they were finished, returned to them
repeatedly, creating new and stranger versions sometimes in several
layers on the same manuscript, which makes the editing of his works
troublesome. Some of these later versions (and some later poems) are
fragmentary, but they have astonishing intensity. He seems sometimes
also to have considered the fragments, even with unfinished lines and
incomplete sentence-structure, to be poems in themselves. This
obsessive revising and his stand-alone fragments were once considered
evidence of his mental disorder, but they were to prove very
influential on later poets such as Paul Celan. In his years of
madness, Hölderlin would occasionally pencil ingenuous rhymed
quatrains, sometimes of a childlike beauty, which he would sign with
fantastic names (most often "Scardanelli") and give fictitious dates
from previous or future centuries.
Dissemination and influence
Friedrich Hölderlin Memorial in Lauffen am Neckar
Hölderlin's major publication in his lifetime was his novel Hyperion,
which was issued in two volumes (1797 and 1799). Various individual
poems were published but attracted little attention. In 1799 he
produced a periodical, Iduna.
In 1804, his translations of the dramas of
Sophocles were published
but were generally met with derision over their apparent artificiality
and difficulty, which according to his critics were caused by
transposing Greek idioms into German. However, 20th-century theorists
of translation such as
Walter Benjamin have vindicated them, showing
their importance as a new—and greatly influential—model of poetic
translation. Der Rhein and Patmos, two of the longest and most densely
charged of his hymns, appeared in a poetic calendar in 1808.
Wilhelm Waiblinger, who visited Hölderlin in his tower repeatedly in
1822–23 and depicted him in the protagonist of his novel Phaëthon,
stated the necessity of issuing an edition of his poems, and the first
collection of his poetry was released by
Ludwig Uhland and Christoph
Theodor Schwab in 1826. However, Uhland and Schwab omitted anything
they suspected might be "touched by insanity", which included much of
Hölderlin's fragmented works. A copy of this collection was given to
Hölderlin, but later was stolen by an autograph-hunter. A second,
enlarged edition with a biographical essay appeared in 1842, the year
before Hölderlin's death.
Only in 1913 did Norbert von Hellingrath, a member of a literary
circle around poet Stefan George, publish the first two volumes of
what eventually became a six-volume edition of Hölderlin's poems,
prose and letters (the "Berlin Edition", Berliner Ausgabe). For the
first time, Hölderlin's hymnic drafts and fragments were published
and it became possible to gain some overview of his work in the years
between 1800 and 1807, which had been only sparsely covered in earlier
editions. The Berlin edition and von Hellingrath's perfervid advocacy
of Hölderlin's work shifted the emphasis of appraisal from his
earlier elegies to the enigmatic and grandiose later hymns.
Already in 1912, before the Berlin Edition began to appear, Rainer
Maria Rilke composed his first two
Duino Elegies whose form and spirit
draw strongly on the hymns and elegies of Hölderlin. Rilke had met
von Hellingrath a few years earlier and had seen some of the hymn
drafts, and the
Duino Elegies heralded the beginning of a new
appreciation of Hölderlin's late work. Although his hymns can hardly
be imitated, they have become a powerful influence on modern poetry in
German and other languages, and are sometimes cited as the very crown
of German lyric poetry.
Hölderlin Monument in the Alter Botanischer Garten Tübingen.
The Berlin Edition was to some extent superseded by the Stuttgart
Edition (Grosse Stuttgarter Ausgabe), which began to be published in
1943 and eventually saw completion in 1986. This undertaking was much
more rigorous in textual criticism than the Berlin Edition and solved
many issues of interpretation raised by Hölderlin's unfinished and
undated texts (sometimes several versions of the same poem with major
differences). Meanwhile, a third complete edition, the Frankfurt
Critical Edition (Frankfurter Historisch-kritische Ausgabe), began
publication in 1975 under the editorship of Dietrich Sattler.
Though Hölderlin's hymnic style—dependent as it is on a genuine
belief in the divine—creates a deeply personal fusion of Greek
mythic figures and romantic mysticism about nature, which can appear
both strange and enticing, his shorter and sometimes more fragmentary
poems have exerted wide influence too on later German poets, from
Georg Trakl onwards. He also had an influence on the poetry of Hermann
Hesse and Paul Celan. (Celan wrote a poem about Hölderlin, called
"Tübingen, January" which ends with the word Pallaksch —
according to Schwab, Hölderlin's favourite neologism "which sometimes
meant Yes, sometimes No".)
Hölderlin was also a thinker who wrote, fragmentarily, on poetic
theory and philosophical matters. His theoretical works, such as the
essays "Das Werden im Vergehen" ("Becoming in Dissolution") and
"Urteil und Sein" ("Judgement and Being") are insightful and important
if somewhat tortuous and difficult to parse. They raise many of the
key problems also addressed by his
Tübingen roommates Hegel and
Schelling, and, though his poetry was never "theory-driven", the
interpretation and exegesis of some of his more difficult poems has
given rise to profound philosophical speculation by thinkers such as
Martin Heidegger, Theodor Adorno, Jacques Derrida,
Michel Foucault and
Hölderlin's poetry has inspired many composers, generating vocal
music and instrumental music.
One of the earliest settings of Hölderlin's poetry is Schicksalslied
by Johannes Brahms, based on Hyperions Schicksalslied. Other composers
of Hölderlin settings include Peter Cornelius, Hans Pfitzner, Richard
Strauss (Drei Hymnen),
Max Reger ("An die Hoffnung"), Alphons
Diepenbrock (Die Nacht),
Walter Braunfels ("Der Tod fürs Vaterland"),
Richard Wetz (Hyperion), Josef Matthias Hauer, Hermann Reutter, Stefan
Wolpe, Paul Hindemith,
Benjamin Britten (Sechs Hölderlin-Fragmente),
Hans Werner Henze,
Bruno Maderna (Hyperion, Stele an Diotima), Luigi
Heinz Holliger (the Scardanelli-Zyklus), Hans Zender
(Hölderlin lesen I-IV),
György Kurtág (who planned an opera on
György Ligeti (Three Fantasies after Friedrich
Hanns Eisler (Hollywood Liederbuch), Viktor Ullmann,
Wolfgang von Schweinitz,
Walter Zimmermann (Hyperion, an epistolary
opera) and Wolfgang Rihm.
Carl Orff used Hölderlin's German
Sophocles in his operas Antigone and Oedipus der
Wilhelm Killmayer based three song cycles, Hölderlin-Lieder, for
tenor and orchestra on Hölderlin's late poems; Kaija Saariaho's Tag
des Jahrs for mixed choir and electronics is based on four of these
poems. In 2003,
Graham Waterhouse composed a song cycle, Sechs
späteste Lieder, for voice and cello based on six of Hölderlin's
late poems. Several works by
Georg Friedrich Haas take their titles or
text from Hölderlin's writing, including Hyperion, Nacht, and the
solo ensemble "... Einklang freier Wesen ..." as well as its
constituent solo pieces each named “... aus freier Lust ...
The German progressive rock band
Hoelderlin is named after Hölderlin,
Finnish melodic death metal band
Insomnium has set Hölderlin's verses
to music in several of their songs, and many songs of Swedish
alternative rock band
ALPHA 60 also contain lyrical references to
Robert Schumann's late piano suite Gesänge der Frühe was inspired by
Hölderlin, as was Luigi Nono's string quartet Fragmente-Stille, an
Diotima and parts of his opera Prometeo.
Josef Matthias Hauer
Josef Matthias Hauer wrote
many piano pieces inspired by individual lines of Hölderlin's poems.
Paul Hindemith's First Piano Sonata is influenced by Hölderlin's poem
Der Main. Hans Werner Henze's Seventh Symphony is partly inspired by
A 1981–1982 television drama, Untertänigst Scardanelli (The Loyal
Scardanelli), directed by
Jonatan Briel in Berlin.
The 1985 film Half of life is named after a poem of Hölderlin and
deals with the secret relationship between Hölderlin and Susette
In 1986 and 1988, Danièle Huillet and Jean-Marie Straub shot two
films, Der Tod des Empedokles and Schwarze Sünde, in Sicily, which
were both based on the drama Empedokles (respectively for the two
films they used the first and third version of the text).
German director Harald Bergmann has dedicated several works to
Hölderlin; these include the movies Lyrische Suite/Das untergehende
Vaterland (1992), Hölderlin Comics (1994), Scardanelli (2000) and
Passion Hölderlin (2003)
A 2004 film, The Ister, is based on Martin Heidegger's 1942 lecture
course (published as Hölderlin's
Hymn "The Ister").
Some Poems of Friedrich Holderlin. Trans. Frederic Prokosch. (Norfolk,
CT: New Directions, 1943).
Alcaic Poems. Trans. Elizabeth Henderson. (London: Wolf, 1962; New
York: Unger, 1963). ISBN 0-85496-303-0
Friedrich Hölderlin: Poems & Fragments. Trans. Michael Hamburger.
(London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966; 4ed. London: Anvil Press,
2004). ISBN 0-85646-245-4
Friedrich Hölderlin, Eduard Mörike: Selected Poems. Trans.
Christopher Middleton (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1972).
Poems of Friedrich Holderlin: The Fire of the Gods Drives Us to Set
Forth by Day and by Night. Trans. James Mitchell. (San Francisco:
Hoddypodge, 1978; 2ed San Francisco: Ithuriel's Spear, 2004).
Hymns and Fragments. Trans. Richard Sieburth. (Princeton: Princeton
University, 1984). ISBN 0-691-01412-4
Friedrich Hölderlin: Essays and Letters on Theory. Trans. Thomas
Pfau. (Albany, NY: State University of New York, 1988).
Hyperion and Selected Poems. The German Library vol.22. Ed. Eric L.
Santner. Trans. C. Middleton, R. Sieburth, M. Hamburger. (New York:
Continuum, 1990). ISBN 0-8264-0334-4
Friedrich Hölderlin: Selected Poems. Trans. David Constantine.
(Newcastle upon Tyne: Bloodaxe, 1990; 2ed 1996)
Friedrich Hölderlin: Selected Poems and Fragments. Ed. Jeremy Adler.
Trans. Michael Hamburger. (London: Penguin, 1996).
What I Own: Versions of Hölderlin and Mandelshtam. Trans. John Riley
and Tim Longville. (Manchester: Carcanet, 1998).
Holderlin's Sophocles: Oedipus and Antigone. Trans. David Constantine.
(Newcastle upon Tyne: Bloodaxe, 2001). ISBN 1-85224-543-3
Odes and Elegies. Trans. Nick Hoff. (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan Press,
2008). ISBN 0-8195-6890-2
Hyperion. Trans. Ross Benjamin. (Brooklyn, NY: Archipelago Books,
2008) ISBN 978-0-9793330-2-6
Selected Poems of Friedrich Hölderlin. Trans.
Maxine Chernoff and
Paul Hoover. (Richmond, CA: Omnidawn, 2008).
Essays and Letters. Trans.
Jeremy Adler and Charlie Louth. (London:
Penguin, 2009). ISBN 978-0-14-044708-8
The Death of Empedocles: A Mourning-Play. Trans. David Farrell Krell.
(Albany, NY: State University of New York, 2009).
Internationale Hölderlin-Bibliographie (IHB). Hrsg. vom
Hölderlin-Archiv der Württembergischen Landesbibliothek Stuttgart.
1804–1983. Bearb. Von Maria Kohler.
Internationale Hölderlin-Bibliographie (IHB). Hrsg. vom
Hölderlin-Archiv der Württembergischen Landesbibliothek Stuttgart.
Bearb. Von Werner Paul Sohnle und Marianne Schütz, online 1984 ff
(after 1.1.2001: IHB online).
Homepage of Hölderlin-Archiv
^ Warminski, Andrzej (1987). Readings in Interpretation: Hölderlin,
Hegel, Heidegger. Theory and History of Literature. 26. U of Minnesota
Press. p. 209.
^ Beiser, Frederick C., ed. (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Hegel.
Cambridge University Press. p. 419. ISBN 1-13982495-3.
^ "Because of his small philosophical output, it is important to
indicate in what way Hölderlin’s ideas have influenced his
contemporaries and later thinkers. It was Hölderlin whose ideas
showed Hegel that he could not continue to work on the applications of
philosophy to politics without first addressing certain theoretical
issues. In 1801, this led Hegel to move to Jena where he was to write
the Phenomenology of Spirit.... Schelling’s early work amounts to a
development of Hölderlin’s concept of Being in terms of a notion of
a prior identity of thought and object in his Philosophy of Identity."
Christian J. Onof, "Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin", Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 15 Jan 2011.
^ "Hegel is completely dependent on Hölderlin – on his early
efforts to grasp speculatively the course of human life and the unity
of its conflicts, on the vividness with which Hölderlin's friends
made his insight fully convincing, and also certainly on the integrity
with which Hölderlin sought to use that insight to preserve his own
inwardly torn life." Dieter Henrich, The Course of Remembrance and
Other Essays on Hölderlin, Ed. Eckart Förster (Stanford: Stanford
University, 1997) p. 139.
^ "Indeed, the Pietistic Horizon extended for generations up to and
including the time when Hegel, together with his friends Hölderlin
and Schelling, spent quiet hours strolling along the banks of the
Neckar receiving the theological education they would eventually
challenge and transform through the grand tradition now known as
German Idealism." Alan Olson, Hegel and the Spirit. (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 39.
^ Dallmayr, Fred Reinhard (1989). Margins of Political Discourse. SUNY
Press. p. 213.
^ Mieth, Günter (2001). Friedrich Hölderlin: Dichter der
bürgerlich-demokratischen Revolution. Königshausen & Neumann.
^ Henrich, Dieter; Förster, Eckart (1997). The Course of Remembrance
and Other Essays on Hölderlin. Stanford University Press.
^ Altman, Matthew C. (2014). The Palgrave Handbook of German Idealism.
Palgrave Macmillan. p. 439.
^ Hölderlin, Friedrich (2007). Selected Poems and Fragments.
Michael Hamburger (bilingual ed.). London: Penguin UK.
p. 26. ISBN 978-0-141-96218-4.
^ Hayden-Roy, Priscilla A. (1994). A Foretaste of Heaven: Friedrich
Hölderlin in the Context of Württemberg Pietism. Rodopi.
^ Hölderlin, Friedrich (2009). Louth, Charlie; Adler, Jeremy, eds.
Essays and Letters. Penguin UK. p. 276.
^ Shelton, Roy C. (1973). The Young Hölderlin.
Pieterlen and Bern:
Peter Lang Publishing, Incorporated. p. 107.
ISBN 978-3-261-00315-7. ISBN 3-26100315-4.
^ Hölderlin, Friedrich (1990). Santner, Eric L., ed. Hyperion and
Selected Poems. The German Library. 22. A&C Black.
^ Kai Hammermeister, The German Aesthetic Tradition, Cambridge
University Press, 2002, p. 76.
^ Constantine (1990), p. 299.
^ Constantine (1990), p. 302.
^ a b Constantine (1990), p. 300.
Theodor W. Adorno, "Parataxis: On Hölderlin's Late Poetry." In Notes
to Literature, Volume II. Ed. Rolf Tiedemann. Trans. Shierry Weber
Nicholson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.
David Constantine, Hölderlin. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1988, corrected
1990. ISBN 0-19-815169-1.
Aris Fioretos (ed.) The Solid Letter: Readings of Friedrich
Hölderlin. Stanford: Stanford University, 1999.
Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert, "Heidegger and Hölderlin: The Over-Usage
of "Poets in an Impoverished Time"", Heidegger Studies (1990). pp.
Jennifer Anna Gosetti-Ferencei, Heidegger, Hölderlin, and the Subject
of Poetic Language. New York: Fordham University, 2004.
Dieter Henrich, Der Gang des Andenkens: Beobachtungen und Gedanken zu
Hölderlins Gedicht. Stuttgart: Cotta, 1986; The Course of Remembrance
and Other Essays on Hölderlin. Ed. Eckart Förster. Stanford:
Stanford University, 1997. ISBN 0-8047-2739-2.
Martin Heidegger, Erläuterungen zu Hölderlins Dichtung. Frankfurt am
Main: Klostermann, 1944; Elucidations of Hölderlin's Poetry. Trans.
Keith Hoeller. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2000.
Martin Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymne >>Der Ister<<.
Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann, 1984; Hölderlin's
Hymn "The Ister".
Trans. William McNeill and Julia Davis. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
David Michael Kleinberg-Levin, Gestures of Ethical Life: Reading
Hölderlin's Question of Measure After Heidegger. Stanford: Stanford
University, 2005. ISBN 0-8047-5087-4.
Jean Laplanche, Hölderlin and the Question of the Father (fr:
Hölderlin et la question du père, 1961), Translation: Luke Carson,
Victoria, BC: ELS Editions, 2007. ISBN 978-1-55058-379-3.
Gert Lernout, The poet as thinker: Hölderlin in France. Columbia
USA : Camden House, 1994.
James Luchte, Mortal Thought: Hölderlin and Philosophy. New York
& London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016.
Paul de Man, “Heidegger’s Exegeses of Hölderlin.” Blindness and
Insight. 2nd Ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1983,
Andrzej Warminski, Readings in Interpretation: Hölderlin, Hegel,
Heidegger. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1987.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Friedrich Hölderlin.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Friedrich Hölderlin
Friedrich Hölderlin at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Friedrich Hölderlin at Internet Archive
Friedrich Hölderlin at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Hölderlin Gesellschaft (in German, links to English, French, Spanish,
Selected Poems of Hölderlin – English translations
Poems by Friedrich Hölderlin – English translations
Selective list of Hölderlin's poems in German, with linked
texts – contains most of his major finished poems up to 1804,
but not complete
Friedrich Holderlin (1909). Gedichte (in German). Jena: Eugen
Friedrich Holderlin (1911). Hyperion (in German). Jena: Eugen
Friedrich Holderlin (1911). Empedokles (in German). Jena: Eugen
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