In academic terms, FRENCH LAW can be divided into two main
categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit
public"). This differs from the traditional common law conception in
which the main distinction is between
Private law governs relationships between individuals. It includes, in particular:
* Civil law (droit civil). This branch refers to the field of
private law in common law systems. This branch encompasses the fields
of inheritance law, civil law , family law , property law , and
contract law .
Public law defines the structure and the workings of the government as well as relationships between the state and individuals. It includes, in particular:
* criminal law ("droit pénal") * administrative law ("droit administratif") * constitutional law ("droit constitutionnel")
Together, these two distinctions form the backbone of legal studies in France, such that it has become a classical distinction
* 8 References
* 8.1 Notes * 8.2 Sources
* 9 Further reading * 10 External links
The legal system especially underwent changes after the French revolution. Also, during the colonial era some Muslim-dominated societies began to blend the sharia legal system with the French legal system as represented in local law.
The announcement in November 2005 by the
As mentioned, the term civil law in
French criminal law is governed first and foremost by the Code pénal, or penal code, which for example formally prohibits violent offences, e.g., homicide, assault, etc., and many pecuniary offences such as theft or money laundering, and provides general punishment guidelines. However, a number of criminal offenses, e.g., slander and libel, have not been codified but are instead addressed by legislation.
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July 2008)
* Human rights * Constitution and functioning of the public authorities and the government and, in particular the relationship between the three constitutional powers, executive, legislative and judiciary. * Relationship between citizens and public authorities, in particular the participation of French citizens to the exercise of public powers.
It fixes the hierarchy of laws and rules within the French legal
system and the relationship between these different norms.
In France, most claims against local or national governments are handled by the administrative courts, for which the Conseil d'État (Council of State) is a court of last resort. The main administrative courts are the tribunaux administratifs and cours administratives d'appel for appeals. The French body of administrative law is called droit administratif.
EUROPEAN UNION LAW
Traditionally, the law of the European Union (EU) has been viewed as a body of rules which are transposed either automatically (in the case of a regulation) or by national legislation (in the case of a directive) into French domestic law, whether in civil, criminal, administrative or constitutional law.
However, in November 2005 the Commission SADOS announced a proposed
directive based on a somewhat controversial European Court of Justice
(ECJ) decision holding that the EU had the right to require its member
states to introduce criminal laws because, in the case at hand, this
was necessary in order to implement and uphold EU legislation on
combatting pollution. The commission intended to create a dozen or so
EU criminal offences, similar to the relationship of federal to state
law in the United States of America. Indeed, led by its
then-Commissioner for Justice and Home Affairs
In May 2006, the Commission formally submitted to the EU Parliament and EU Council (which have co-decision powers) the first draft directive aiming to put this into effect. The draft concerns counterfeiting (for example, of car parts, drugs, or children's toys) and requires each Member State to set the following penalties for what it terms "organised counterfeiters": a period of imprisonment of up to four years and a fine of up to €300,000. The Parliament began its consideration of the draft directive in March 2007.
French judicial system in post-Napoleonic France
Legal systems of the world
* ^ A B Cornu, Gérard (2014). Vocabulaire Juridique (in French) (10 ed.). Paris: PUF. * ^ A B Terré, François (2009). Introduction générale au droit. Précis (in French) (8 ed.). Paris: Dalloz. pp. 91–95. * ^ Kabir, Nahid (2010). Young British Muslims. p. 170. * ^ Link to Civil Code * ^ Link to Penal Code
* Clavier, Sophie M. (July 1997). "Perspectives on French Criminal
San Francisco State University
* Aubert, Jean-Luc. INTRODUCTION AU DROIT (Presses Universitaires de France, 2002) ISBN 2-13-053181-4 , 127 pages (many editions)
* One of the ' Que sais-je? ' series of "pocketbook" volumes, which provide readable short summaries
* Cairns, Walter. INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LAW (London: Cavendish, 1995) ISBN 1-85941-112-6 . * Elliott, Catherine. FRENCH LEGAL SYSTEM (Harlow, England: Longman, 2000) ISBN 0-582-32747-4 . * Starck, Boris. INTRODUCTION AU DROIT 5. éd. (Paris: Litec, c2000) ISBN 2-7111-3221-8 . * Bell, John. PRINCIPLES OF FRENCH LAW (Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) ISBN 0-19-876394-8 , ISBN 0-19-876395-6 . * Dadomo, Christian. THE FRENCH LEGAL SYSTEM 2nd ed. (London: Sweet 24 cm. ; Series: AALL publications series 33 ; Contents v. 1. The Western hemisphere—v. 2. Western and Eastern Europe—v. 3. Africa, Asia and Australia. ISBN 0-8377-0134-1 ; http://www.foreignlawguide.com/
* For both an overview and pointers toward further study, see the excellent introduction to the "France" section
* David, René. MAJOR LEGAL SYSTEMS IN THE WORLD TODAY: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LAW 3rd ed. (London: Stevens, 1985) ISBN 0-420-47340-8 , ISBN 0-420-47350-5 ; (Birmingham, AL: Gryphon Editions, 1988) ISBN 0-420-47340-8 .
* Brissaud, Jean. A HISTORY OF FRENCH PUBLIC LAW (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1915) Series: The Continental legal history series v. 9 ; Note: A translation of pt. II (omitting the first two sections of the introduction) of the author's MANUEL D\'HISTOIRE DU DROIT FRANçAIS.
* French legal history appears throughout most of the above.
* Brissaud, Jean. A HISTORY OF FRENCH PRIVATE LAW (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1912) Series: The Continental legal history series v. 3. Note: Translation of pt. III (with the addition of one chapter from pt. II) of the author's MANUEL D\'HISTOIRE DU DROIT FRANçAIS.
* Brissaud, Jean, 1854-1904. MANUEL D\'HISTOIRE DU DROIT FRANçAIS (Paris: Albert Fontemoing, 1908).
* the original French text
* Castaldo, André. INTRODUCTION HISTORIQUE AU DROIT 2. éd. (Paris: Dalloz, c2003) ISBN 2-247-05159-6 . * Rigaudière, Albert. INTRODUCTION HISTORIQUE à L\'éTUDE DU DROIT ET DES INSTITUTIONS (Paris: Economica, 2001) ISBN 2-7178-4328-0 . * Thireau, Jean-Louis. INTRODUCTION HISTORIQUE AU DROIT (Paris: Flammarion, c2001) ISBN 2-08-083014-7 . * Bart, Jean. HISTOIRE DU DROIT (Paris: Dalloz, c1999) ISBN 2-247-03738-0 . * Carbasse, Jean-Marie. INTRODUCTION HISTORIQUE AU DROIT 2. éd. corr. (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1999, c1998) ISBN 2-13-049621-0 .
* History of