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Freestyle skiing
Freestyle skiing
is a skiing discipline comprising aerials, moguls, cross, half-pipe and slopestyle as part of the Winter Olympics. It can consist of a skier performing aerial flips and spins, and can include skiers sliding rails and boxes on their skis. It is also commonly referred to as freeskiing, jibbing, as well as many other names around the world.

Contents

1 History 2 Forms of freestyle skiing

2.1 Aerial skiing 2.2 Mogul skiing 2.3 Ski ballet (Acroski) 2.4 Ski
Ski
cross 2.5 Half-pipe
Half-pipe
skiing 2.6 Slopestyle

3 Equipment 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] Ski
Ski
acrobatics have been practiced since the 1930s.[1] Aerial skiing was popularized in the 1950s by Olympic gold medalist Stein Eriksen. Early US competitions were held in the mid-1960s.[2][3] The International Ski Federation
International Ski Federation
(FIS) recognized freestyle skiing as a sport in 1979 and brought in new regulations regarding certification of athletes and jump techniques in an effort to curb the dangerous elements of the competitions. The first FIS Freestyle Skiing
Skiing
World Cup was staged in 1980 and the first FIS Freestyle World Ski
Ski
Championships took place in 1986 in Tignes, France. Freestyle skiing
Freestyle skiing
was a demonstration event at the 1988 Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
in Calgary. Mogul skiing was added as an official medal event at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, and the aerials event was added for the 1994 Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
in Lillehammer. In 2011, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) approved both halfpipe and slopestyle freeskiing events to be added to the 2014 Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
in Sochi, Russia.[4][5] Forms of freestyle skiing[edit] Aerial skiing[edit]

Skier performing an Aerial

Aerialists ski off 2-4 meter jumps, that propel them up to 6 meters in the air (which can be up to 20 meters above the landing height, given the landing slope). Once in the air, aerialists perform multiple flips and twists before landing on a 34 to 39-degree inclined landing hill about 30 meters in length. The top male aerialists can currently perform triple back flips with up to four or five twists. Aerial skiing
Aerial skiing
is a judged sport, and competitors receive a score based on jump takeoff (20%), jump form (50%) and landing (30%). A degree of difficulty (DOD) is then factored in for a total score. Skiers are judged on a cumulative score of LIMA two jumps. These scores do not generally carry over to the next round. Aerialists train for their jumping maneuvers during the summer months by skiing on specially constructed water ramps and landing in a large swimming pool. An example of this is the Utah Olympic Park
Utah Olympic Park
training facility. A water ramp consists of a wooden ramp covered with a special plastic mat that when lubricated with sprinklers allows an athlete to ski down the ramp towards a jump. The skier then skis off the wooden jump and lands safely in a large swimming pool. A burst of air is sent up from the bottom of the pool just before landing to break up the surface tension of the water, thus softening the impact of the landing. Skiers sometimes reinforce the skis that they use for water-ramping with 6mm of fiberglass or cut holes in the front and back in order to soften the impact when landing properly on their skis. Summer training also includes training on trampolines, diving boards, and other acrobatic or gymnastic training apparatus. Mogul skiing[edit] Main article: Mogul skiing Moguls are a series of bumps on a trail formed when skiers push the snow into mounds or piles as they execute short-radius turns. Mouguls can also be formed on purpose, by piling mounds of snow. Ski ballet (Acroski)[edit] Main article: Ski
Ski
ballet Ski
Ski
ballet, later renamed acroski (or "acro"), was a competitive discipline in the formative years of freestyle skiing and was similar to ice dancing. Competitors devised routines lasting 3 to 5 minutes and executed to music. The routines consisted of spins, jumps, and flips on a prepared flat course. The routines were scored by judges who assessed the choreography, technical difficulty, and mastery of skills demonstrated by the competitors. Early innovators in the sport were Jan Bucher, Park Smalley, and Hermann Reitberger. The International Ski Federation
International Ski Federation
ceased all formal competition of this event after 2000. Ski
Ski
cross[edit] Main article: Ski
Ski
cross Ski cross
Ski cross
is based on the snowboarding boardercross. Despite it being a timed racing event, it is often considered part of freestyle skiing because it incorporates terrain features traditionally found in freestyle. Half-pipe
Half-pipe
skiing[edit] Main article: Half-pipe
Half-pipe
skiing Half-pipe skiing
Half-pipe skiing
is the sport of riding snow skis on a half-pipe. Competitors gradually ski to the end of the pipe by doing flips and tricks. It became an Olympic event for the first time at the 2014 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in Sochi, Russia. Slopestyle[edit] Main article: Slopestyle In slopestyle, athletes ski or snowboard down a course including a variety of obstacles including rails, jumps, and other terrain park features. Points are scored for amplitude, originality and quality of tricks.[6] Twin-tip skis are used and are particularly useful if the skier lands backwards. Slopestyle
Slopestyle
tricks fall mainly into four categories: spins, grinds, grabs and flips. Slopestyle
Slopestyle
became an Olympic event, in both skiing and snowboarding forms, at the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi, Russia.[7] Equipment[edit] Twin-tip skis are used in events such as slopestyle and halfpipe. Mogul skis are used in moguls and sometimes in aerials. Specially designed racing skis are used in ski cross. Ski bindings
Ski bindings
took a major design change to include plate bindings mounted to the bottom of the skiers boot to allow for multi-directional release. See also[edit]

Freestyle skiing
Freestyle skiing
at the Winter Olympics

References[edit]

^ Lund, Morten; Miller, Peter (1998) Roots of an Olympic Sport: Freestyle Skiing
Skiing
Heritage Vol 10 #1: 11-20 ^ Miller, Peter (1973) Cult, Philosophy, Sport, Art Form: Freestyle Skiing
Skiing
is American Made Ski
Ski
Vol 38 #2:47-49, 109, 111 ^ Levinson, David; Christensen, Karen (1999) Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present Oxford University Press ISBN 9780195131956 pg 360 ^ "Halfpipe Skiing
Skiing
Approved For 2014 Winter Olympics". Newschoolers.com. Retrieved 2016-11-29.  ^ " Slopestyle
Slopestyle
Skiing
Skiing
Approved for 2014 Olympics". Newschoolers.com. Retrieved 2016-11-29.  ^ "Slopestyle". Canadian Freestyle Ski
Ski
Association. Retrieved 12 November 2014.  ^ " Slopestyle
Slopestyle
Approved For Sochi
Sochi
2014". GamesBids.com. Retrieved 2011-10-15. 

Furrer, Art; Renggli, Sepp (1970) Skiakrobatik für jedermann Bern: Benteli OCLC 630830869 Broze, Matt Charles (1972) Freestyle skiing
Freestyle skiing
Seattle: Wildcat Books OCLC 42982990 Johnston, John; Daigle, Michel; Bowie, Darryl (1974) Freestyle Skiing: Technique Manual Vancouver: Winter Habit Productions OCLC 15753976 Luini, Mario; Brunner, André (1975) Akroski : alles über Skiakrobatik u. Skikunst Bern: Benteli ISBN 9783716500781 United States Ski
Ski
Association (1977) Official freestyle competition rules OCLC 746862658 Mohan, John; Hiltner, Walt (1978) Freestyle Skiing
Skiing
New York: Winchester Press ISBN 083291858X Wieman, Randy; Newman, Robbi (1979) Freestyle Skiing: A Complete Guide to the Fundamentals of Hot Dogging Angus & Robertson ISBN 9780207138560 Smalley, Park (1986) Skiing
Skiing
Freestyle: Official Training Guide of the U.S. Freestyle Ski
Ski
Team Taylor Publishing Company ISBN 9780878335206 Riess, Steven A. (2015) Sports in America from Colonial Times to the Twenty-First Century: An Encyclopedia Routledge ISBN 9781317459477

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Freestyle skiing.

FIS homepage Freestyle skiing
Freestyle skiing
– olympic.org wiki.fis-ski.com The resource of information and knowledge on Freestyle Skiing, Ski
Ski
Jumping, FIS World Ski
Ski
Championships freestylebc.ski The largest provincial sport organization for freestyle skiing in Canada. freestylecanada.ski The official site of the Canadian Freestyle Ski Association. Your source for moguls, aerials, halfpipe and slopestyle skiing in Canada. Digital Freestyle Skiing
Skiing
Digital Media Thesis project for Masters, multiple freestyle skiing videos of competitions from 1980's-2000's - moguls, aerials, ballet www.mogulskiing.net Mogul skiing
Mogul skiing
news, forums and discussion group

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