Freestyle skiing is a skiing discipline comprising aerials, moguls,
cross, half-pipe and slopestyle as part of the Winter Olympics. It can
consist of a skier performing aerial flips and spins, and can include
skiers sliding rails and boxes on their skis. It is also commonly
referred to as freeskiing, jibbing, as well as many other names around
2 Forms of freestyle skiing
2.1 Aerial skiing
2.2 Mogul skiing
Ski ballet (Acroski)
4 See also
6 External links
Ski acrobatics have been practiced since the 1930s. Aerial skiing
was popularized in the 1950s by Olympic gold medalist Stein Eriksen.
Early US competitions were held in the mid-1960s. The
International Ski Federation
International Ski Federation (FIS) recognized freestyle skiing as a
sport in 1979 and brought in new regulations regarding certification
of athletes and jump techniques in an effort to curb the dangerous
elements of the competitions. The first FIS Freestyle
Skiing World Cup
was staged in 1980 and the first FIS Freestyle World
took place in 1986 in Tignes, France.
Freestyle skiing was a
demonstration event at the 1988
Winter Olympics in Calgary. Mogul
skiing was added as an official medal event at the 1992 Winter
Olympics in Albertville, and the aerials event was added for the 1994
Winter Olympics in Lillehammer. In 2011, the International Olympic
Committee (IOC) approved both halfpipe and slopestyle freeskiing
events to be added to the 2014
Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.
Forms of freestyle skiing
Skier performing an Aerial
Aerialists ski off 2-4 meter jumps, that propel them up to 6 meters in
the air (which can be up to 20 meters above the landing height, given
the landing slope). Once in the air, aerialists perform multiple flips
and twists before landing on a 34 to 39-degree inclined landing hill
about 30 meters in length. The top male aerialists can currently
perform triple back flips with up to four or five twists.
Aerial skiing is a judged sport, and competitors receive a score based
on jump takeoff (20%), jump form (50%) and landing (30%). A degree of
difficulty (DOD) is then factored in for a total score. Skiers are
judged on a cumulative score of LIMA two jumps. These scores do not
generally carry over to the next round.
Aerialists train for their jumping maneuvers during the summer months
by skiing on specially constructed water ramps and landing in a large
swimming pool. An example of this is the
Utah Olympic Park
Utah Olympic Park training
facility. A water ramp consists of a wooden ramp covered with a
special plastic mat that when lubricated with sprinklers allows an
athlete to ski down the ramp towards a jump. The skier then skis off
the wooden jump and lands safely in a large swimming pool. A burst of
air is sent up from the bottom of the pool just before landing to
break up the surface tension of the water, thus softening the impact
of the landing. Skiers sometimes reinforce the skis that they use for
water-ramping with 6mm of fiberglass or cut holes in the front and
back in order to soften the impact when landing properly on their
Summer training also includes training on trampolines, diving boards,
and other acrobatic or gymnastic training apparatus.
Main article: Mogul skiing
Moguls are a series of bumps on a trail formed when skiers push the
snow into mounds or piles as they execute short-radius turns. Mouguls
can also be formed on purpose, by piling mounds of snow.
Ski ballet (Acroski)
Ski ballet, later renamed acroski (or "acro"), was a competitive
discipline in the formative years of freestyle skiing and was similar
to ice dancing. Competitors devised routines lasting 3 to 5 minutes
and executed to music. The routines consisted of spins, jumps, and
flips on a prepared flat course. The routines were scored by judges
who assessed the choreography, technical difficulty, and mastery of
skills demonstrated by the competitors. Early innovators in the sport
were Jan Bucher, Park Smalley, and Hermann Reitberger. The
International Ski Federation
International Ski Federation ceased all formal competition of this
event after 2000.
Ski cross is based on the snowboarding boardercross. Despite it being
a timed racing event, it is often considered part of freestyle skiing
because it incorporates terrain features traditionally found in
Half-pipe skiing is the sport of riding snow skis on a half-pipe.
Competitors gradually ski to the end of the pipe by doing flips and
tricks. It became an Olympic event for the first time at the 2014
Olympic Games in Sochi, Russia.
Main article: Slopestyle
In slopestyle, athletes ski or snowboard down a course including a
variety of obstacles including rails, jumps, and other terrain park
features. Points are scored for amplitude, originality and quality of
tricks. Twin-tip skis are used and are particularly useful if the
skier lands backwards.
Slopestyle tricks fall mainly into four
categories: spins, grinds, grabs and flips.
Slopestyle became an
Olympic event, in both skiing and snowboarding forms, at the 2014
Winter Games in Sochi, Russia.
Twin-tip skis are used in events such as slopestyle and halfpipe.
Mogul skis are used in moguls and sometimes in aerials. Specially
designed racing skis are used in ski cross.
Ski bindings took a major
design change to include plate bindings mounted to the bottom of the
skiers boot to allow for multi-directional release.
Freestyle skiing at the Winter Olympics
^ Lund, Morten; Miller, Peter (1998) Roots of an Olympic Sport:
Skiing Heritage Vol 10 #1: 11-20
^ Miller, Peter (1973) Cult, Philosophy, Sport, Art Form: Freestyle
Skiing is American Made
Ski Vol 38 #2:47-49, 109, 111
^ Levinson, David; Christensen, Karen (1999) Encyclopedia of World
Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present Oxford University Press
ISBN 9780195131956 pg 360
Skiing Approved For 2014 Winter Olympics".
Newschoolers.com. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
Skiing Approved for 2014 Olympics". Newschoolers.com.
^ "Slopestyle". Canadian Freestyle
Ski Association. Retrieved 12
Slopestyle Approved For
Sochi 2014". GamesBids.com. Retrieved
Furrer, Art; Renggli, Sepp (1970) Skiakrobatik für jedermann Bern:
Benteli OCLC 630830869
Broze, Matt Charles (1972)
Freestyle skiing Seattle: Wildcat Books
Johnston, John; Daigle, Michel; Bowie, Darryl (1974) Freestyle Skiing:
Technique Manual Vancouver: Winter Habit Productions
Luini, Mario; Brunner, André (1975) Akroski : alles über
Skiakrobatik u. Skikunst Bern: Benteli ISBN 9783716500781
Ski Association (1977) Official freestyle competition
rules OCLC 746862658
Mohan, John; Hiltner, Walt (1978) Freestyle
Skiing New York:
Winchester Press ISBN 083291858X
Wieman, Randy; Newman, Robbi (1979) Freestyle Skiing: A Complete Guide
to the Fundamentals of Hot Dogging Angus & Robertson
Smalley, Park (1986)
Skiing Freestyle: Official Training Guide of the
Ski Team Taylor Publishing Company
Riess, Steven A. (2015) Sports in America from Colonial Times to the
Twenty-First Century: An Encyclopedia Routledge
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Freestyle skiing.
Freestyle skiing – olympic.org
wiki.fis-ski.com The resource of information and knowledge on
Ski Jumping, FIS World
freestylebc.ski The largest provincial sport organization for
freestyle skiing in Canada.
freestylecanada.ski The official site of the Canadian Freestyle Ski
Association. Your source for moguls, aerials, halfpipe and slopestyle
skiing in Canada.
Skiing Digital Media Thesis project for Masters,
multiple freestyle skiing videos of competitions from 1980's-2000's -
moguls, aerials, ballet
Mogul skiing news, forums and discussion group
Skiing and snowboarding
History of skiing
Technique / learning
Equipment / venues
Resorts / amenities
Dry ski slope
Winter Olympic sports
Short track speed skating
Paralympic sports and Summer Olympic sports
Extreme and adventure sports
Free solo climbing
Downhill mountain biking
Aggressive inline skating