FREEDOM HOUSE is a U.S.-based
U.S. Government -funded
non-governmental organization (
NGO ) that conducts research and
advocacy on democracy , political freedom , and human rights .
Freedom House was founded in October 1941.
Wendell Willkie and Eleanor
Roosevelt served as its first honorary chairpersons. It describes
itself as a "clear voice for democracy and freedom around the world".
The organization was 66–85% funded by grants from the U.S.
government from 2006–15.
The organization's annual
Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World report , which
assesses each country's degree of political freedoms and civil
liberties, is frequently cited by political scientists, journalists,
and policymakers. Freedom of the Press and Freedom of the Net, which
monitor censorship, intimidation and violence against journalists, and
public access to information, are among its other signature reports.
* 1 History
* 2 Organization
* 3 Reports
Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World
* 3.2 Freedom of the Press
* 3.3 Freedom on the Net
* 3.4 Other annual reports
* 4 Other activities
* 5 Criticism
* 5.1 Relationship with the
* 5.2 Cuban, Sudanese and Chinese criticism
* 5.4 Alleged partiality toward
* 5.5 Overemphasis on formal aspects of democracy
* 6 Systematic evaluations
* 7 Recognition
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 10 External links
Freedom House was incorporated October 31, 1941. :293 Among its
Eleanor Roosevelt ,
Wendell Willkie , Mayor Fiorello La
Elizabeth Cutter Morrow ,
Dorothy Thompson , George Field,
Herbert Agar ,
Herbert Bayard Swope ,
Ralph Bunche , Father George B.
Roscoe Drummond and
Rex Stout . George Field (1904–2006) was
executive director of the organization until his retirement in 1967.
According to its website,
Freedom House "emerged from an amalgamation
of two groups that had been formed, with the quiet encouragement of
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, to encourage popular support for
American involvement in World War II at a time when isolationist
sentiments were running high in the United States." Several groups,
in fact, were aggressively supporting U.S. entry into the war and in
early autumn 1941, when various group activities began to overlap, the
Fight for Freedom Committee began exploring a mass merger. George
Field then conceived the idea of all of the groups maintaining their
separate identities under one roof—Freedom House—to promote the
concrete application of the principles of freedom. :293
Freedom House had physical form in a New York City building that
represented the organization's goals. A converted residence at 32 East
51st Street opened January 22, 1942, :293 as a centre "where all who
love liberty may meet, plan their programs and encourage one another".
Furnished as a gift of the Allied nations , the 19-room building
included a broadcasting facility.
Freedom House sponsored influential radio programs including The
Voice of Freedom (1942–43) and
Our Secret Weapon (1942–43), a
CBS radio series created to counter Axis shortwave radio propaganda
broadcasts. Rex Stout, chairman of the Writers\' War Board and
representative of Freedom House, would rebut the most entertaining
lies of the week. The series was produced by Paul White , founder of
CBS News . :305 :529
In 1945 an elegant building at 20 West 40th Street was purchased to
house the organization. It was named the Willkie Memorial Building.
After the war, as its website states, "
Freedom House took up the
struggle against the other twentieth century totalitarian threat,
Communism.... The organization's leadership was convinced that the
spread of democracy would be the best weapon against totalitarian
Freedom House supported the
Marshall Plan and the
Freedom House also supported the Johnson
Vietnam War policies.
Freedom House was highly critical of
McCarthyism . During the 1950s
and 1960s, it supported the
Civil Rights Movement in the United States
and its leadership included several prominent civil rights
activists—though it was critical of civil rights leaders such as
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. for their anti-war activism . It supported
Andrei Sakharov , other Soviet dissidents, and the Solidarity movement
Freedom House assisted the post-Communist societies in
the establishment of independent media, non-governmental think tanks,
and the core institutions of electoral politics.
The organization describes itself currently as a clear voice for
democracy and freedom around the world.
Freedom House states that it:
has vigorously opposed dictatorships in Central America and Chile,
apartheid in South Africa, the suppression of the Prague Spring, the
Soviet war in Afghanistan, genocide in Bosnia and Rwanda, and the
brutal violation of human rights in Cuba, Burma, the People's Republic
of China, and Iraq. It has championed the rights of democratic
activists, religious believers, trade unionists, journalists, and
proponents of free markets.
Freedom House absorbed Books USA, which had been created
several years earlier by
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow , as a joint venture
Peace Corps and the
United States Information Service .
Freedom House has supported citizens involved in
challenges to the existing regimes in Serbia, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan,
Egypt, Tunisia and elsewhere. The organization states, "From South
Africa to Jordan, Kyrgyzstan to Indonesia,
Freedom House has partnered
with regional activists in bolstering civil society; worked to support
women's rights; sought justice for victims of torture; defended
journalists and free expression advocates; and assisted those
struggling to promote human rights in challenging political
Freedom House was critical of
Saudi Arabia and Chile
Augusto Pinochet , classifying them as "Not Free". It was also
strongly critical of the apartheid in South Africa and military
dictatorships in Latin America.
Freedom House had income of around $11m, increasing to over
$26m in 2006. Much of the increase was due to an increase between
2004 and 2005 in US government federal funding, from $12m to $20m.
Federal funding fell to around $10m in 2007, but still represented
around 80% of Freedom House's budget. As of 2010, grants awarded from
the US government accounted for most of Freedom House's funding; the
grants were not earmarked by the government but allocated through a
Freedom House headquarters in Dupont Circle ,
Freedom House is a nonprofit organization. Headquartered in
Washington, D.C., it has field offices in about a dozen countries,
Mexico , and also
Central Asia .
Freedom House states that its Board of Trustees is composed of
"business and labor leaders, former senior government officials,
scholars, writers, and journalists". All board members are current
residents of the United States. It does not identify itself with
either of the American Republican or the Democratic parties. Members
of the organization's board of directors include
Kenneth Adelman ,
Farooq Kathwari ,
Azar Nafisi ,
Mark Palmer , P.J. O\'Rourke and
Lawrence Lessig , while past board-members have included Zbigniew
Jeane Kirkpatrick , Samuel Huntington ,
Mara Liasson ,
Otto Reich ,
Donald Rumsfeld ,
Whitney North Seymour , Paul Wolfowitz
Steve Forbes and
Bayard Rustin .
FREEDOM IN THE WORLD
Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World Country ratings from Freedom
Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World 2017 survey, concerning the state of
world freedom in 2016. Free (86) Partly Free (59) Not Free (50)
Countries highlighted in BLUE are designated "electoral
democracies" in Freedom House's 2017 survey Freedom in the World,
covering the year 2016. Percentage of countries in each category
over time, from Freedom House's 1973 through 2013 reports. Free
Partly Free Not Free
Since 1972 (1978 in book form),
Freedom House publishes an annual
report, Freedom in the World, on the degree of democratic freedoms in
nations and significant disputed territories around the world, by
which it seeks to assess the current state of civil and political
rights on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free).
Until 2003, states where the average for political and civil
liberties differed from 1.0 to 2.5 were considered "free". States with
values from 3.0 to 5.5 were considered "partly free" and those with
values between 5.5 and 7.0 as "not free". Since 2003 the scope of the
"partly free" ranges from 3.0 to 5.0, "not free" from 5.5 to 7.0.
These reports are often used by political scientists when doing
research. The ranking is highly correlated with several other ratings
of democracy also frequently used by researchers.
In its 2003 report, for example,
The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom (judged as fully
free and democratic) got a perfect score of a "1" in civil liberties
and a "1" in political rights, earning it the designation of "free."
Nigeria got a "5" and a "4," earning it the designation of "partly
North Korea scored the lowest rank of "7-7," and was thus
dubbed "not free." Nations are scored from 0 to 4 on several questions
and the sum determines the rankings. Example questions: "Is the head
of state and/or head of government or other chief authority elected
through free and fair elections?", "Is there an independent
judiciary?", "Are there free trade unions and peasant organizations or
equivalents, and is there effective collective bargaining? Are there
free professional and other private organizations?" Freedom House
states that the rights and liberties of the survey are derived in
large measure from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The research and ratings process involved two dozen analysts and more
than a dozen senior-level academic advisors. The eight members of the
core research team headquartered in New York, along with 16 outside
consultant analysts, prepared the country and territory reports. The
analysts used a broad range of sources of information—including
foreign and domestic news reports, academic analyses, nongovernmental
organizations, think tanks, individual professional contacts, and
visits to the region—in preparing the reports.
The country and territory ratings were proposed by the analyst
responsible for each related report. The ratings were reviewed
individually and on a comparative basis in a series of six regional
meetings—Asia-Pacific, Central and Eastern Europe and the Former
Soviet Union, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North
Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Western Europe—involving the
analysts, academic advisors with expertise in each region, and Freedom
House staff. The ratings were compared to the previous year's
findings, and any major proposed numerical shifts or category changes
were subjected to more intensive scrutiny. These reviews were followed
by cross-regional assessments in which efforts were made to ensure
comparability and consistency in the findings. Many of the key country
reports were also reviewed by the academic advisers.
The survey's methodology is reviewed periodically by an advisory
committee of political scientists with expertise in methodological
Freedom House also produces annual reports on press freedom (Press
Freedom Survey), governance in the nations of the former Soviet Union
(Nations in Transit), and countries on the borderline of democracy
(Countries at the Crossroads). In addition, one-time reports have
included a survey of women's freedoms in the Middle East.
Freedom House's methods (around 1990) and other democracy-researchers
were mentioned as examples of an expert-based evaluation by
Kenneth A. Bollen , who is also an applied statistician .
Bollen writes that expert-based evaluations are prone to statistical
bias of an unknown direction, that is, not known either to agree with
U.S. policy or to disagree with U.S. policy: "Regardless of the
direction of distortions, it is highly likely that every set of
indicators formed by a single author or organization contains
systematic measurement error. The origin of this measure lies in the
common methodology of forming measures. Selectivity of information and
various traits of the judges fuse into a distinct form of bias that is
likely to characterize all indicators from a common publication."
FREEDOM OF THE PRESS
2015 FREEDOM OF THE PRESS CLASSIFICATIONS
Not Free Partly Free Free No Data Main article: Freedom of
the Press (report)
The Freedom of the Press index is an annual survey of media
independence that assesses the degree of print, broadcast, and
internet freedom throughout the world. It provides numerical rankings
and rates each country's media as "Free," "Partly Free," or "Not
Free." Individual country narratives examine the legal environment for
the media, political pressures that influence reporting, and economic
factors that affect access to information.
The annual survey, which provides analytical reports and numerical
ratings for 196 countries and territories in 2011, continues a process
conducted since 1980. The findings are widely used by governments,
international organizations, academics, and the news media in many
countries. Countries are given a total score from 0 (best) to 100
(worst) on the basis of a set of 23 methodology questions divided into
three subcategories: legal environment, political environment, and the
economic environment. Assigning numerical points allows for
comparative analysis among the countries surveyed and facilitates an
examination of trends over time. Countries scoring 0 to 30 are
regarded as having "Free" media; 31 to 60, "Partly Free" media; and 61
to 100, "Not Free" media. The ratings and reports included in each
annual report cover events that took place during the previous year,
for example Freedom of the Press 2011 covers events that took place
between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010.
The study is based on universal criteria and recognizes cultural
differences, diverse national interests, and varying levels of
economic development. The starting point is the smallest, most
universal unit of concern: the individual. The survey uses a
multilayered process of analysis and evaluation by a team of regional
experts and scholars, including an internal research team and external
consultants. The diverse nature of the methodology questions seeks to
encompass the varied ways in which pressure can be placed upon the
flow of information and the ability of print, broadcast, and
internet-based media to operate freely and without fear of
repercussions. The report provides a picture of the entire "enabling
environment" in which the media in each country operate. Degree of
news and information diversity available to the public is also
An independent review of press freedom studies, commissioned by the
Knight Foundation in 2006, found that FOP is the best in its class of
Press Freedom Indicators.
FREEDOM ON THE NET
The Freedom on the Net reports provide analytical reports and
numerical ratings regarding the state of
Internet freedom for
countries worldwide. The countries surveyed represent a sample with a
broad range of geographical diversity and levels of economic
development, as well as varying levels of political and media freedom.
The surveys ask a set of questions designed to measure each country's
level of Internet and digital media freedom, as well as the access and
openness of other digital means of transmitting information,
particularly mobile phones and text messaging services. Results are
presented for three areas:
* Obstacles to Access: infrastructural and economic barriers to
access; governmental efforts to block specific applications or
technologies; legal and ownership control over internet and mobile
phone access providers.
* Limits on Content: filtering and blocking of websites; other forms
of censorship and self-censorship; manipulation of content; the
diversity of online news media; and usage of digital media for social
and political activism.
* Violations of User Rights: legal protections and restrictions on
online activity; surveillance and limits on privacy; and repercussions
for online activity, such as legal prosecution, imprisonment, physical
attacks, or other forms of harassment.
The results from the three areas are combined into a total score for
a country (from 0 for best to 100 for worst) and countries are rated
as "Free" (0 to 30), "Partly Free" (31 to 60), or "Not Free" (61 to
100) based on the totals.
As of October 2015
Freedom House has produced six editions of the
report, the first in 2009 surveyed 15 countries, the second in 2011
surveyed 37 countries, the third in 2012 surveyed 47 countries, the
fourth in 2013 surveyed 60 countries, the fifth in 2014 and the sixth
in 2015 each surveyed 65 countries.
FREEDOM ON THE NET SURVEY RESULTS
In addition the 2012 report identified seven countries that were at
particular risk of suffering setbacks related to
Internet freedom in
late 2012 and in 2013:
Russia , and
Sri Lanka . At the time the Internet in most of
these countries was a relatively open and unconstrained space for free
expression, but the countries also typically featured a repressive
environment for traditional media and had recently considered or
introduced legislation that would negatively affect Internet freedom.
OTHER ANNUAL REPORTS
Freedom House also produces these annual reports:
* Nations in Transit: first published in 2003, deals with governance
in the nations of the former
Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
* Countries at the Crossroads: first published in 2004, covers
countries on the borderline of democracy.
* Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa: first
published in 2005, these multi-year reports provide a survey of
women's freedoms in the Middle East and North Africa.
Freedom House has produced more than 85 special reports since 2002,
* Worst of the Worst: The World's Most Repressive Societies: an
annual report of extracts from
Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World covering countries
that receive the lowest possible combined average score for political
rights and civil liberties, as well as countries "on the threshold,"
falling just short of the lowest possible rating.
* A New Multilateralism for Atrocities Prevention (2015)
* Voices in the Streets: Mass Social Protests and the Right to
* Today's American: How Free?: a special report which examines
whether Americans in 2008 were sacrificing essential values in the war
against terror, and scrutinizes other critical issues such as the
political process, criminal justice system, racial inequality and
* Freedom in Sub-Saharan Africa 2009
* Freedom of Association Under Threat: The New Authoritarians'
Offensive Against Civil Society (2007)
In addition to these reports,
Freedom House participates in advocacy
initiatives, currently focused on North Korea, Africa, and religious
freedom. It has offices in a number of countries, where it promotes
and assists local human rights workers and non-government
On January 12, 2006, as part of a crackdown on unauthorized
nongovernmental organizations, the Uzbek government ordered Freedom
House to suspend operations in Uzbekistan. Resource and Information
Centers managed by
Freedom House in
Namangan , and
Samarkand offered access to materials and books on human rights, as
well as technical equipment, such as computers, copiers and Internet
access. The government warned that criminal proceedings could be
brought against Uzbek staff members and visitors following recent
amendments to the criminal code and Code on Administrative Liability
of Uzbekistan. Other human rights groups have been similarly
threatened and obliged to suspend operations.
Freedom House is a member of the International Freedom of Expression
Exchange , a global network of more than 80 non-governmental
organizations that monitors free expression violations around the
world and defends journalists, writers and others who are persecuted
for exercising their right to freedom of expression. Freedom House
also publishes the China Media Bulletin, a weekly analysis on press
freedom in and related to the People's Republic of China. On 27 August
Freedom House released their official iPhone app, which was
created by British entrepreneur
Joshua Browder .
RELATIONSHIP WITH THE U.S. GOVERNMENT
In 2006, the
Financial Times reported that
Freedom House received
funding by the State Department for 'clandestine activities' inside
Iran . According to the Financial Times, "Some academics, activists
and those involved in the growing US business of spreading freedom and
democracy are alarmed that such semi-covert activities risk damaging
the public and transparent work of other organisations, and will
backfire inside Iran."
On December 7, 2004, former U.S. House Representative and Libertarian
Ron Paul criticized
Freedom House for allegedly
administering a U.S.-funded program in
Ukraine where "much of that
money was targeted to assist one particular candidate." Paul said that
"one part that we do know thus far is that the U.S. government,
through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), granted
millions of dollars to the Poland-America-
Initiative (PAUCI), which is administered by the U.S.-based Freedom
House. PAUCI then sent
U.S. Government funds to numerous Ukrainian
non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This would be bad enough and
would in itself constitute meddling in the internal affairs of a
sovereign nation. But, what is worse is that many of these grantee
Ukraine are blatantly in favor of presidential
candidate Viktor Yushchenko."
Noam Chomsky and
Edward S. Herman have criticized the organization
for excessively criticizing states opposed to US interests while being
unduly sympathetic to regimes supportive of US interests. For
Freedom House described the Rhodesian general election of
1979 as "fair", but described the Southern Rhodesian 1980 elections as
"dubious", and it found El Salvador\'s 1982 election to be
CUBAN, SUDANESE AND CHINESE CRITICISM
In May 2001, the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations of the
United Nations heard arguments for and against Freedom House.
Cuba said that the organization is a U.S. foreign
policy instrument linked to the CIA and "submitted proof of the
politically motivated, interventionist activities the
House) carried out against their Government". They also claimed a lack
of criticism of U.S. human rights violations in the annual reports.
Cuba also stated that these violations are well documented by other
reports, such as those of
Human Rights Watch . Other countries such as
Sudan also gave criticism. The Russian representative
inquired "why this organization, an
NGO which defended human rights,
was against the creation of the
International Criminal Court ."
The U.S. representative stated that alleged links between Freedom
House and the CIA were "simply not true." The representative said he
agreed that the
NGO receives funds from the
United States Government,
but said this is disclosed in its reports. The representative said the
funds were from the
United States Agency for International Development
(USAID), which was not a branch of the CIA. The representative said
his country had a law prohibiting the government from engaging in the
activities of organizations seeking to change public policy, such as
Freedom House. The representative said his country was not immune from
criticism from Freedom House, which he said was well documented. The
US representative further argued that
Freedom House was a human rights
organization which sought to represent those who did not have a voice.
The representative said he would continue to support NGOs who
criticized his government and those of others.
Russia, identified by
Freedom House as "Not Free", called Freedom
House biased and accused the group of serving U.S. interests. Sergei
Markov , an MP from the United
Russia party, called
Freedom House a
"Russophobic" organization: "You can listen to everything they say,
except when it comes to Russia... There are many Russophobes there".
In response, Christopher Walker, director of studies at Freedom House,
Freedom House made its evaluations based on objective
criteria explained on the organization's web site, and he denied that
it had a pro-U.S. agenda. "If you look closely at the 193 countries
that we evaluate, you'll find that we criticize what are often
considered strategic allies of the United States," he said.
Daniel Treisman, a
UCLA political scientist, has criticized Freedom
House's assessment of Russia. Treisman has pointed out that Freedom
House ranks Russia's political rights on the same level as the United
Arab Emirates , which, according to Freedom House, is a federation of
absolute monarchies with no hint of democracy anywhere in the system.
Freedom House also ranks Russia's civil liberties on the same scale as
Yemen . In Yemen, according to the constitution, Sharia law
is the only source of legislation, and allows assaults and killings of
women for alleged immoral behaviour. Criticising the president is
illegal in Yemen. Treisman contrasts Freedom House's ranking with the
Polity IV scale used by academics and in which
Russia has a much
better score. In the
Polity IV scale,
Saudi Arabia is a consolidated
autocracy (-10), while the
United States is a consolidated democracy
Russia has a score of +4, while
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates has a
score of -8.
ALLEGED PARTIALITY TOWARD UZBEKISTAN
Craig Murray , the British ambassador to
Uzbekistan from 2002 to
2004, wrote that the executive director of
Freedom House told him in
2003 that the group decided to back off from its efforts to spotlight
human rights abuses in Uzbekistan, because some Republican board
members (in Murray's words) "expressed concern that
Freedom House was
failing to keep in sight the need to promote freedom in the widest
sense, by giving full support to U.S. and coalition forces". Human
rights abuses in
Uzbekistan at the time included the killing of
prisoners by "immersion in boiling liquid," and by strapping on a gas
mask and blocking the filters, Murray reported. Jennifer Windsor, the
executive director of
Freedom House in 2003, replied that Murray's
"characterization of our conversation is an inexplicable
misrepresentation not only of what was said at that meeting, but of
Freedom House's record in
Freedom House has been a
consistent and harsh critic of the human rights situation in
Uzbekistan, as clearly demonstrated in press releases and in our
annual assessments of that country".
OVEREMPHASIS ON FORMAL ASPECTS OF DEMOCRACY
According to one study, Freedom House's rankings "overemphasize the
more formal aspects of democracy while failing to capture the informal
but real power relations and pathways of influence... and frequently
lead to de facto deviations from democracy." States can therefore
"look formally liberal-democratic but might be rather illiberal in
their actual workings".
In several studies of the methodology used by Raymond D. Gastil and
others to create
Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World report,
Kenneth A. Bollen found
that "no criticisms ... have demonstrated a systematic bias in all the
ratings. Most of the evidence consists of anecdotal evidence of
relatively few cases. Whether there is a systematic or sporadic slant
in Gastil's ratings is an open question". Bollen studied the question
of ideological bias using multivariate statistics . Using their
factor-analytic model for human-rights measurements, Bollen and Paxton
estimate that Gastil's method produces a bias of 0.38 standard
deviations (s.d.) against
Marxist–Leninist countries and a larger
bias, 0.5 s.d., favoring Christian countries. In contrast, another
method by a critic of
Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World produced a bias for Leftist
countries during the 1980s of at least 0.8 s.d., a bias that is
"consistent with the general finding that political scientists are
more favorable to leftist politics than is the general population".
In 1990, Gastil discussed criticisms of Freedom in the World, stating
that "generally such criticism is based on opinions about Freedom
House rather than detailed examination of survey ratings".
The definition of freedom in Gastil (1982) and
Freedom House (1990)
emphasized liberties rather than the exercise of freedom, according to
Adam Przeworski , who gave the following example: In the United
States, citizens are free to form political parties and to vote, yet
even in presidential elections only half of U.S. "citizens" vote; in
the U.S., "the same two parties speak in a commercially sponsored
Another study by Mainwaring, Brink, and Perez-Linanhe found the
Freedom Index of
Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World to have a strong positive
correlation (at least 80%) with three other democracy indices.
Mainwaring et al. wrote that Freedom House's index had "two systematic
biases: scores for leftist were tainted by political considerations,
and changes in scores are sometimes driven by changes in their
criteria rather than changes in real conditions". Nonetheless, when
evaluated on Latin American countries yearly, Freedom House's index
were strongly and positively correlated with the index of Adam
Przeworski and with the index of the authors themselves: They
evaluated Pearson\'s coefficient of linear correlation between their
index and Freedom House's index, which was 0.82; among these indices
and the two others studied, the correlations were all between 0.80 and
Freedom House maintains that its methodology is systematic and not
Freedom House does not maintain a culture-bound view of freedom. The
methodology of the survey is grounded in basic standards of political
rights and civil liberties, derived in large measure from relevant
portions of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights . These
standards apply to all countries and territories, irrespective of
geographical location, ethnic or religious composition, or level of
Former US President
Bill Clinton , giving a speech at a Freedom House
I'm honored to be here with all of you and to be here at Freedom
House. For more than 50 years,
Freedom House has been a voice for
tolerance for human dignity. People all over the world are better off
because of your work. And I'm very grateful that
Freedom House has
rallied this diverse and dynamic group. It's not every day that the
Carnegie Endowment , the
Progressive Policy Institute , The Heritage
Foundation , and the
American Foreign Policy Council share the same
Speaking at a reception hosted by
Freedom House to honor human rights
defenders, U.S. Representative Jim McGovern said:
I want to thank
Freedom House for all the incredible work that they
do to assist human rights defenders around the world. We rely a lot on
Freedom House not only for information, advice and counsel, but also
for their testimony when we do our hearings. And I'm a big fan.
Speaking at a screening of film The Magnitsky Files, Senator John
Thank you for everything that
Freedom House continues to do on behalf
of people around the world who suffer oppression and persecution. I'm
honored to have known you and to have the opportunity to work with you
around the world...We rely on organizations like
Freedom House to make
judgments about corruption and the persecution of minorities...
Writing in the conservative
National Review Online , John R. Miller
Freedom House has unwaveringly raised the standard of freedom in
evaluating fascist countries, Communist regimes, and plain old,
dictatorial thugocracies. Its annual rankings are read and used in the
United Nations and other international organizations, as well as by
the U.S. State Department. Policy and aid decisions are influenced by
Freedom House's report. Those fighting for freedom in countries
lacking it are encouraged or discouraged by what Freedom House's
report covers. And sometimes—most importantly—their governments
are moved to greater effort."
Miller nevertheless criticized the organization in 2007 as not paying
enough attention to slavery in its reports. He wrote that repressive
regimes, and even democracies such as Germany and India, needed to be
held to account for their lack of enforcement of laws against human
trafficking and the bondage of some foreign workers.
Human Development Index
International Republican Institute
List of Indices of Freedom
* ^ Ruby, Robert (October 1, 2014). "Mark P. Lagon to Become
President of Freedom House". Freedom House. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
* ^ A B "Freedom House" (PDF). Foundation Center. Retrieved 4 April
* ^ A B "Our Leadership". Freedom House. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
* ^ William Ide (January 11, 2000). "
Freedom House Report: Asia
Sees Some Significant Progress". Voice of America. Archived from the
original on October 14, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
* ^ "
Cuba After Fidel – What Next?". Voice of America. October
31, 2009. Archived from the original on October 14, 2012. Retrieved
October 13, 2012.
* ^ 2007
Freedom House Financial Statement (financial report for
* ^ 2006
Freedom House Annual Report
* ^ "2015
Freedom House Financial Statement" (PDF). Freedom House.
Feb 8, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
* ^ "Freedom on the Net 2013", Freedom House, 3 October 2013.
Retrieved 12 October 2013.
* ^ A B C D McAleer, John J. (1977). Rex Stout: A Biography.
Little, Brown and Company
Little, Brown and Company . ISBN 9780316553407 .
* ^ A B United Press (January 11, 1942). "
Freedom House Will Open
Soon". Waterloo Sunday Courier. Waterloo, Iowa.
* ^ History of the Freedom House, George Field Collection of
Freedom House Files, 1933–1990 (Bulk 1941–1969): Finding Aid,
Princeton University Library ;
Freedom House Statement on the Passing
of George Field (June 1, 2006). Retrieved January 15, 2011
* ^ A B C D E F "Our History". Freedom House. Retrieved March 22,
* ^ "Program Reviews: The Voice of Freedom". The Billboard . 54
(15): 8. April 11, 1942. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
* ^ "
Freedom House Records 1933–2014, The Voice of Freedom".
Princeton University Library Finding Aids. Princeton University.
Retrieved March 22, 2015.
* ^ Dunning, John (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time
Radio. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3 .
* ^ "Field, George, 1904–".
Princeton University Library Finding
Aids. Princeton University. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
* ^ "
Freedom House Records 1933–2014, Series 3: Willkie Memorial
Princeton University Library Finding Aids. Princeton
University. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
* ^ "Former Site of the Willkie Memorial Building". Great
Architects of New York: Henry J. Hardenbergh. Starts and Fits.
Retrieved March 22, 2015.
* ^ "Johnson Is Backed By
Freedom House On Vietnam Policy". New
York Times. July 21, 1965. Retrieved October 7, 2014. The 'silent
center,' most of the American people, should be heard from on Vietnam,
Freedom House said yesterday in a 'Credo of Support' for the Johnson
Administration's policies in Southeast Asia.
* ^ "CURB BY CONGRESS URGED;
Freedom House Seeks to Protect
Citizens From Unfair Attack". New York Times. January 2, 1952.
Retrieved October 17, 2014. The public affairs committee of Freedom
House proposed yesterday that Congress revise its rules to 'protect
citizens from unfair and unwarranted attack' by Senators and
Representatives who shield themselves behind Congressional immunity.
Asserting that the methods of political and personal attack
exemplified in Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, Republican from Wisconsin,
injured citizens both within and out of Government without just cause,
Freedom House statement said...
* ^ "
Freedom House Scores Dr. King". New York Times. May 21, 1967.
Retrieved October 17, 2014.
Freedom House severely criticized the Rev.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. yesterday for lending his 'mantle of
respectability' to an anti-Vietnam war coalition that includes
'well-known Communist allies and luminaries of the hate-America Left.'
* ^ "Solzhenitsyn and Sakharov Honored by Freedom House". New York
Times. December 5, 1973. Retrieved October 17, 2014. Fifteen
'courageous dissenters' in the
Soviet Union were chosen here yesterday
as winners of the 1973 Freedom Award by the nonprofit private
organization known as Freedom House. The organization, which describes
itself as dedicated to the strengthening of free societies, cited the
novelist Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn and the nuclear physicist Andrei
Sakharov, 13 others and their 'unnamed colleagues.'
* ^ "
Freedom House Annual Report 2002" (PDF). Freedom House.
Retrieved October 13, 2012.
* ^ Barnhisel, Greg; Turner, Catherine (2010). Pressing the Fight:
Print, Propaganda, and the Cold War. University of Massachusetts
Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-1558497368 . Retrieved October 13, 2012.
* ^ "Onward the Peace Corps". Milwaukee Journal. December 2, 1964.
Retrieved March 27, 2012.
Allen Kent . "Encyclopedia of library and information science,
Volume 38". Chapter on "International Book Donation Programs". p. 239.
* ^ Comparative scores for all countries from 1973 to 2006 Archived
November 23, 2011, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ A B C D Giannonea, Diego (2010)."Political and ideological
aspects in the measurement of democracy: the
Freedom House case".
Democratization Volume 17, Issue 1. pp. 68–97.
* ^ Freedom in The World 2017 - Populists and Autocrats: The Dual
Threat to Global
Democracy by Freedom House, January 31, 2017
* ^ Freedom in The World report, 2017 (PDF )
* ^ A B The Limited Robustness of Empirical Findings on Democracy
using Highly Correlated Datasets
* ^ Illumnia Login The political science journal database Illumina
lists between 10 and 20 peer reviewed journal articles referencing the
"freedom in the world" report each year
* ^ A B Methodology
* ^ A B C
Freedom House Methodology
* ^ Bollen, K.A. (1992) Political Rights and Political Liberties in
Nations: An Evaluation of Human Rights Measures, 1950 to 1984. In:
Jabine, T.B. and Pierre Claude, R. "Human Rights and Statistics".
University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3108-2
* ^ "Scores and Status Data 1980–2015". Freedom of the Press
2015. Freedom House. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
* ^ "Freedom of the Press", web page, Freedom House. Retrieved May
* ^ A B Freedom of the Press 2011 – Methodology", Karin Karlekar,
Freedom House, April 15, 2011, 4 pp.
* ^ "An Evaluation of Press Freedom Indicators", Lee B. Becker,
Tudor Vlad and, Nancy Nusser, International Communication Gazette,
vol.69, no.1 (February 2007), pp. 5–28
* ^ A B C "Freedom on the Net 2014" (PDF). Freedom House. Retrieved
14 December 2014.
* ^ A B Freedom on the Net 2009, Freedom House, accessed 16 April
* ^ A B Freedom on the Net 2011, Freedom House, accessed 15 April
* ^ A B C Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, accessed 24
* ^ A B Freedom on the Net 2013, Freedom House, 3 October 2013.
Retrieved 12 October 2013.
* ^ A B "Freedom on the Net 2015" (PDF). Freedom House. October
2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
* ^ "Nations in Transit", Freedom House, 2013. Retrieved 12 October
* ^ "Countries at the Crossroads", Freedom House, 2012. Retrieved
12 October 2013.
* ^ "Women\'s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa", Freedom
House, 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
* ^ "
Special Reports", Freedom House. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
* ^ Worst of the Worst 2012: The World\'s Most Repressive
Societies, Freedom House, 28 June 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
* ^ A New Multilateralism for Atrocities Prevention, Stanley
Foundation, March 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
* ^ Voices in the Streets: Mass Social Protests and the Right to
Peaceful Assembly, Freedom House, January 2014. Retrieved 25 April
* ^ Today\'s American: How Free?, Freedom House, 2008. Retrieved 12
* ^ Freedom in Sub-Saharan Africa 2009, Freedom House, 2009.
Retrieved 25 April 2015.
* ^ Freedom of Association Under Threat: The New Authoritarians\'
Offensive Against Civil Society, Freedom House, 2007. Retrieved 25
* ^ "Freedom at your Fingertips:
Freedom House Releases iPhone
App". Retrieved 11 January 2016.
* ^ A B Guy Dinmore (March 31, 2006). "Bush enters debate on
freedom in Iran". The Financial Times. Retrieved April 6, 2006.
Ron Paul . "U.S. Hypocrisy in Ukraine". Archived from the
original on 2012-12-12.
* ^ A B C Chomsky and Herman: Manufacturing Consent, Vintage 1994,
* ^ A B UN:
NGO Committee hears arguments for, against Freedom
* ^ A B Freedom Is Downgraded From \'Bad\'
* ^ Treisman, Daniel (2011). The Return: Russia's Journey from
Gorbachev to Medvedev. Free Press. pp. 341–52. ISBN
* ^ Glorious Nation of Uzbekistan, By Tara McKelvey, New York Times
Book Review, December 9, 2007. Book review of DIRTY DIPLOMACY: The
Rough-and-Tumble Adventures of a Scotch-Drinking, Skirt-Chasing,
Dictator-Busting and Thoroughly Unrepentant Ambassador Stuck on the
Frontline of the War Against Terror, by Craig Murray.
* ^ Jennifer Windsor (December 23, 2007). "Freedom House\'s
Record". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 14,
2012. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
* ^ A B Veenendaal, Wouter P. (2015-01-02). "
microstates: why smallness does not produce a democratic political
system". Democratization. 22 (1): 92–112. ISSN 1351-0347 . doi
* ^ Bollen, K.A., "Political Rights and Political Liberties in
Nations: An Evaluation of Human Rights Measures, 1950 to 1984", Human
Rights Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 4 (November 1986), pp. 567–91. Also
in: Jabine, T.B. and Pierre Claude, R. (Eds.), Human Rights and
Statistics, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992, pp. 188–215,
ISBN 0-8122-3108-2 .
* ^ A B Bollen, Kenneth A. and Paxton, Pamela, "Subjective Measures
of Liberal Democracy", Comparative Political Studies, vol. 33, no. 1
(February 2000), pp.58–86
* ^ Gastil, R. D. (1990). "The Comparative Survey of Freedom:
Experiences and Suggestions". Studies in Comparative International
Development. 25 (1): 25–50. doi :10.1007/BF02716904 .
* ^ Przeworski, Adam (2003). "Freedom to choose and democracy".
Economics and Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. 19: 265–79.
doi :10.1017/S0266267103001159 .
* ^ A B C Mainwaring, S.; Brinks, D.; Pérez-Liñán, A. B. (2001).
"Classifying Political Regimes in Latin". Studies in Comparative
International Development. 36 (1): 37–65. doi :10.1007/BF02687584 .
* ^ "
Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World 2010: Methodology", Freedom in the World
2010, Freedom house
* ^ Remarks at a
Freedom House breakfast - President Bill Clinton
* ^ McGovern praises \'unsung heroes\', April 19, 2012
* ^ June 26, 2012 on
* ^ A B Miller, John R., "Does \'Freedom\' Mean Freedom From
Slavery? A glaring omission. Archived September 2, 2007, at the
Wayback Machine ., article in
National Review Online, February 5,
2007, accessed same day
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