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FreeBSD
FreeBSD
is a free and open-source Unix-like
Unix-like
operating system descended from Research Unix
Research Unix
via the Berkeley Software Distribution
Berkeley Software Distribution
(BSD). Although for legal reasons FreeBSD
FreeBSD
cannot use the Unix
Unix
trademark, it is a direct descendant of BSD, which was historically also called "BSD Unix" or "Berkeley Unix". The first version of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
was released in 1993, and as of 2005 FreeBSD
FreeBSD
was the most widely used open-source BSD distribution, accounting for more than three-quarters of all installed systems running open-source BSD derivatives.[2] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
has similarities with Linux, with two major differences in scope and licensing: FreeBSD
FreeBSD
maintains a complete operating system, i.e. the project delivers kernel, device drivers, userland utilities, and documentation, as opposed to Linux
Linux
only delivering a kernel and drivers, and relying on third-parties for system software;[3] and FreeBSD
FreeBSD
source code is generally released under a permissive BSD license, as opposed to the copyleft GPL
GPL
used by Linux. The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
project includes a security team overseeing all software shipped in the base distribution. A wide range of additional third-party applications may be installed using the pkgng package management system or the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Ports, or by directly compiling source code. Due to its permissive licensing terms, much of FreeBSD's code base has become an integral part of other operating systems, such as Juniper JUNOS, Apple's Darwin (which is the base for macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS operating systems by Apple), pfSense, the Nintendo Switch system software,[4][5][6] and the operating systems running on Sony's PlayStation 3[7][8] and PlayStation 4.[9]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 Birth of FreeBSD 1.3 Lawsuit

2 Features

2.1 Uses 2.2 Networking 2.3 Storage 2.4 Security 2.5 Portability 2.6 Third-party software 2.7 Jails 2.8 Virtualization 2.9 OS compatibility layers 2.10 Kernel 2.11 Documentation
Documentation
and support 2.12 Installers

3 Development

3.1 Governance structure 3.2 Branches 3.3 Foundation

4 License 5 Logo 6 Derivatives 7 Version history 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources

10 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of FreeBSD Background[edit] FreeBSD's roots go back to the University of California, Berkeley. The university acquired a UNIX source license from AT&T. Students of the university started to modify and improve the AT&T Unix
Unix
and called this modified version "Berkeley Unix" or "BSD", implementing features such as TCP/IP, virtual memory and the Unix
Unix
File
File
System. The BSD project was founded in 1976 by Bill Joy. But since BSD contained code from AT&T Unix, all recipients had to get a license from AT&T first in order to use BSD.[10] In June 1989, "Networking Release 1" or simply Net-1 – the first public version of BSD – was released. After releasing Net-1, Keith Bostic, a developer of BSD, suggested replacing all AT&T code with freely-redistributable code under the original BSD license. Work on replacing AT&T code began and, after 18 months, much of the AT&T code was replaced. However, six files containing AT&T code remained in the kernel. The BSD developers decided to release the "Networking Release 2" (Net-2) without those six files. Net-2 was released in 1991.[10] Birth of FreeBSD[edit] In 1992, several months after the release of Net-2, William Jolitz and Lynne Jolitz wrote replacements for those six missing files, ported BSD to the Intel 80386-based microprocessors, and called their new operating system 386BSD. They released 386BSD
386BSD
via an anonymous FTP server.[10] The development flow of 386BSD
386BSD
was slow and after a period of neglect, a group of 386BSD
386BSD
users decided to branch out on their own and create FreeBSD
FreeBSD
so that they could keep the operating system up to date. On 19 June 1993, the name FreeBSD
FreeBSD
was chosen for the project.[11] The first version of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
was released on November 1993.[12][10] In the early days of the project's inception, a company named Walnut Creek CDROM, upon the suggestion of the two FreeBSD
FreeBSD
developers, agreed to release the operating system on CD-ROM. In addition to that, the company employed Jordan Hubbard and David Greenman, ran FreeBSD
FreeBSD
on its servers, sponsored FreeBSD
FreeBSD
conferences and published FreeBSD-related books, including The Complete FreeBSD
FreeBSD
by Greg Lehey. By 1997, FreeBSD was Walnut Creek's "most successful product". The company itself later renamed to The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Mall and later iXsystems.[13][14][15] Today, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
is used by many IT companies such as IBM, Nokia, Juniper Networks, and NetApp
NetApp
to build their product.[16][17] Certain parts of Apple's Mac OS X
Mac OS X
operating system are based on FreeBSD.[18] The PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
operating system also borrows certain components from FreeBSD,[7][8] while the PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
operating system is derived from FreeBSD
FreeBSD
9.[19] Netflix,[20] WhatsApp,[21] and FlightAware[22] are also examples of big, successful and heavily network-oriented companies which are running FreeBSD. Lawsuit[edit] 386BSD
386BSD
and FreeBSD
FreeBSD
were both derived from 1992's BSD release.[16] In January 1992, BSDi started to release BSD/386, later called BSD/OS, an operating system similar to FreeBSD
FreeBSD
and based on 1992's BSD release. AT&T filed a lawsuit against BSDi and alleged distribution of AT&T source code in violation of license agreements. The lawsuit was settled out of court and the exact terms were not all disclosed. The only one that became public was that BSDi would migrate their source base to the newer 4.4BSD-Lite sources. Although not involved in the litigation, it was suggested to FreeBSD
FreeBSD
that they should also move to 4.4BSD-Lite.[23] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
2.0, which was released on November 1994, was the first version of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
without any code from AT&T.[24] Features[edit]

FreeBSD
FreeBSD
9.1 startup with console login prompt

Uses[edit] As a general purpose operating system, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
is used in various scenarios:[25]

Servers FreeBSD
FreeBSD
contains a significant collection of server-related software in the base system and the ports collection, it is possible to configure and use FreeBSD
FreeBSD
as a mail server, web server, Firewall, FTP server, DNS server and a router, among other applications.

Desktop The X Window System
X Window System
is not installed by default, but is available in the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
ports collection. A number of Desktop environments
Desktop environments
such as GNOME, KDE
KDE
and Xfce, and lightweight window managers such as Openbox, Fluxbox
Fluxbox
and dwm are also available to FreeBSD.[26]

Embedded systems Although it explicitly focuses on the IA-32 and x86-64 platforms, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
also supports others such as ARM, PowerPC
PowerPC
and MIPS to a lesser degree.

Networking[edit] FreeBSD's TCP/IP
TCP/IP
stack is based on the 4.2BSD implementation of TCP/IP which greatly contributed to the widespread adoption of these protocols.[27] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
also supports IPv6,[28] SCTP, IPSec, and wireless networking (Wi-Fi).[29] The IPv6
IPv6
and IPSec stacks were taken from the KAME project.[30] Also, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
supports IPX and AppleTalk protocols, but they are considered old and it is planned to drop support of them in the upcoming FreeBSD
FreeBSD
11.0.[31] As of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
5.4, support for the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP) was imported from the OpenBSD
OpenBSD
project. CARP allows multiple nodes to share a set of IP addresses. So if one of the nodes goes down, other nodes still can serve the requests.[32] Storage[edit] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
has several unique features related to storage. Soft updates can protect the consistency of the UFS filesystem (widely used on the BSDs) in the event of a system crash.[33] Filesystem snapshots allow an image of a UFS filesystem at an instant in time to be efficiently created.[34] Snapshots allow reliable backup of a live filesystem. GEOM is a modular framework that provides RAID
RAID
(levels 0, 1, 3 currently), full disk encryption, journaling, concatenation, caching, and access to network-backed storage. GEOM allows building of complex storage solutions combining ("chaining") these mechanisms.[35] FreeBSD provides two frameworks for data encryption: GBDE and Geli. Both GBDE and Geli operate at the disk level. GBDE was written by Poul-Henning Kamp and is distributed under the two-clause BSD license. Geli is an alternative to GBDE that was written by Pawel Jakub Dawidek and first appeared in FreeBSD
FreeBSD
6.0.[36][37] From 7.0 onward, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
supports the ZFS
ZFS
filesystem. ZFS
ZFS
was previously an open source filesystem that was first developed by Sun Microsystems, but when Oracle acquired Sun, ZFS
ZFS
became a proprietary product. However, the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
project is still developing and improving its ZFS
ZFS
implementation via the Open ZFS
ZFS
project.[38] Security[edit] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
provides several security-related features including access control lists (ACLs),[39] security event auditing, extended file system attributes, mandatory access controls (MAC)[40] and fine-grained capabilities.[41] These security enhancements were developed by the TrustedBSD
TrustedBSD
project. The project was founded by Robert Watson with the goal of implementing concepts from the Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation and the Orange Book. This project is ongoing and many of its extensions have been integrated into FreeBSD.[42] The project is supported by a variety of organizations, including the DARPA, NSA, Network Associates Laboratories, Safeport Network Services, the University of Pennsylvania, Yahoo!, McAfee Research, SPARTA, Apple Computer, nCircle Network Security, Google, the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, and others.[43] The project has also ported the NSA's FLASK/TE implementation from SE Linux
Linux
to FreeBSD. Other work includes the development of OpenBSM, an open source implementation of Sun's Basic Security Module (BSM) API and audit log file format, which supports an extensive security audit system. This was shipped as part of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
6.2. Other infrastructure work in FreeBSD
FreeBSD
performed as part of the TrustedBSD
TrustedBSD
Project has included GEOM and OpenPAM.[41] Most components of the TrustedBSD
TrustedBSD
project are eventually folded into the main sources for FreeBSD. In addition, many features, once fully matured, find their way into other operating systems. For example, OpenPAM has been adopted by NetBSD.[44] Moreover, the TrustedBSD
TrustedBSD
MAC Framework has been adopted by Apple for macOS.[45] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
ships with three different firewall packages: IPFW, pf and IPFilter. IPFW is FreeBSD's native firewall. pf was taken from OpenBSD and IPFilter was ported to FreeBSD
FreeBSD
by Darren Reed.[46] Taken from OpenBSD, the OpenSSH
OpenSSH
program was included in default install. OpenSSH
OpenSSH
is a Free implementation of the SSH protocol and is a replacement for telnet. Unlike telnet, OpenSSH
OpenSSH
encrypts all information (including username and password).[47] In November 2012, The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Security Team announced that hackers gained unauthorized access on two of the project's servers. These servers were turned off immediately. More research demonstrated that the first unauthorized access by hackers occurred on 19 September. Apparently hackers gained access to these servers by stealing SSH keys from one of the developers, not by exploiting a bug in the operating system itself. These two hacked servers were part of the infrastructure used to build third-party software packages. The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Security Team checked the integrity of the binary packages and announced that no unauthorized change was made to the binary packages, but they stated that they can't guarantee the integrity of packages that were downloaded between 19 September and 11 November.[48][49][50] Portability[edit] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
has been ported to a variety of instruction set architectures. The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
project organizes architectures into tiers that characterize the level of support provided. Tier 1 architectures are mature and fully supported. Tier 2 architectures are undergoing major development. Tier 3 architectures are experimental or are no longer under active development and Tier 4 architectures have no support at all. As of January 2018[update], FreeBSD
FreeBSD
has been ported to the following architectures:[51]

Architecture Support level[52] Notes

x86 (IA-32) Tier 1 referred to as "i386"

x86-64 Tier 1 referred to as "amd64"

NEC PC-9801 Tier 2 referred to as "pc98", support removed in 12-CURRENT[53]

64-bit SPARC Tier 2 only 64-bit (V9) architecture

32-bit and 64-bit PowerPC Tier 2

32-bit ARM Tier 2

64-bit ARM Tier 2

IA-64 Tier 3 unsupported as of 11.0

MIPS Tier 3

RISC-V Tier 3 only in 12-CURRENT

DEC Alpha Tier 4 support discontinued in 7.0

The ARM and MIPS support is mostly aimed at embedded systems, however FreeBSD/ARM runs on a number of single-board computers, including the BeagleBone Black, Raspberry Pi[54][55] and Wandboard.[56] Third-party software[edit] Further information: FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Ports

Screenshot of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
11.0

FreeBSD
FreeBSD
has a software repository of over 26,000 applications that are developed by third parties. Examples include: windowing systems, web browsers, email clients, office suites and so forth. In general, the project itself does not develop this software, only the framework to allow these programs to be installed, which is known as the Ports collection. Applications may either be compiled from source ("ports"), provided their licensing terms allow this, or downloaded as pre-compiled binaries ("packages").[57] The Ports collection supports the current and stable branches of FreeBSD. Older releases are not supported and may or may not work correctly with an up-to-date Ports collection.[58] Ports use Makefile to automatically fetch the desired application's source code, either from a local or remote repository, unpack it on the system, apply patches to it and compile it.[3][59] Depending on the size of the source code, compiling can take a long time, but it gives the user more control over the process and its result. Most ports also have package counterparts (i.e. pre-compiled binaries), giving the user a choice. Although this method is faster, the user has fewer customisation options.[57] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
version 10.0 introduced the package manager pkg as a replacement for the previously used package tools.[60] It is functionally similar to apt and yum in Linux
Linux
distributions. It allows for installation, upgrading and removal of both ports and packages. In addition to pkg, PackageKit
PackageKit
can also be used to access the Ports collection. Jails[edit] Main article: FreeBSD
FreeBSD
jail First introduced in FreeBSD
FreeBSD
version 4, jails is a security mechanism and an implementation of operating-system-level virtualization that enables the user to run multiple instances of a guest operating system on top of a FreeBSD
FreeBSD
host. It is an enhanced version of the traditional chroot mechanism. A process that runs within such a jail is unable to access the resources outside of it. Every jail has its own hostname and IP address. It is possible to run multiple jails at the same time, but the kernel is shared among all of them. Hence only software supported by the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
kernel can be run within a jail.[61] Virtualization[edit] Main article: bhyve bhyve, a new virtualization solution was introduced in FreeBSD
FreeBSD
10.0. bhyve allows a user to run a number of guest operating systems (FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Linux, and Microsoft Windows[62]) simultaneously. Other operating systems such as Illumos
Illumos
are planned. bhyve was written by Neel Natu and Peter Grehan and was announced in the 2011 BSDCan conference for the first time. The main difference between bhyve and FreeBSD
FreeBSD
jails is that jails are an operating system-level virtualization and therefore limited to only FreeBSD
FreeBSD
guests; but bhyve is a type 2 hypervisor and is not limited to only FreeBSD guests.[63][64][65] For comparison, bhyve is a similar technology to KVM whereas jails are closer to LXC
LXC
containers or Solaris Zones. VirtualBox
VirtualBox
(without the closed-source Extension Pack) and QEMU
QEMU
are available on FreeBSD. OS compatibility layers[edit] Most software that runs on Linux
Linux
can run on FreeBSD
FreeBSD
using an optional built-in compatibility layer. Hence, most Linux
Linux
binaries can be run on FreeBSD, including some proprietary applications distributed only in binary form. This compatibility layer is not an emulation; Linux's system call interface is implemented in the FreeBSD's kernel and hence, Linux
Linux
executable images and shared libraries are treated the same as FreeBSD's native executable images and shared libraries.[66] Additionally, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
provides compatibility layers for several other Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems, in addition to Linux, such as BSD/OS and SVR4,[66] however, it is more common for users to compile those programs directly on FreeBSD.[67] No noticeable performance penalty over native FreeBSD
FreeBSD
programs has been noted when running Linux
Linux
binaries, and, in some cases, these may even perform more smoothly than on Linux.[68][69] However, the layer is not altogether seamless, and some Linux
Linux
binaries are unusable or only partially usable on FreeBSD. There is support for system calls up to version 2.6.18, available since FreeBSD
FreeBSD
7.0. As of release 10.3, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
can run 64-bit Linux
Linux
binaries.[70] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
has implemented a number of Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
native NDIS kernel interfaces to allow FreeBSD
FreeBSD
to run Windows-only network drivers.[71][72] Kernel[edit] FreeBSD's kernel provides support for some essential tasks such as managing processes, communication, booting and filesystems. FreeBSD has a monolithic kernel,[73] with modular design. Different parts of the kernel, such as drivers, are designed as modules. The user can load and unload these modules at any time.[74] ULE is the default scheduler in FreeBSD
FreeBSD
since version 7.1, it supports SMP and SMT.[75] The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
kernel has also a scalable event notification interface, named kqueue. It has been ported to other BSD-derivatives such as OpenBSD, NetBSD.[76] Kernel threading was introduced in FreeBSD
FreeBSD
5.0, using an M:N threading model. This model works well in theory,[77][78] but it is hard to implement and few operating systems support it. Although FreeBSD's implementation of this model worked, it did not perform well, so from version 7.0 onward, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
started using a 1:1 threading model, called libthr.[78] Documentation
Documentation
and support[edit] FreeBSD's documentation consists of its handbooks, manual pages, mailing list archives, FAQs and a variety of articles, mainly maintained by The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Documentation
Documentation
Project. FreeBSD's documentation is translated into several languages.[79] All official documentation is released under the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Documentation
Documentation
License, "a permissive non-copyleft free documentation license that is compatible with the GNU
GNU
FDL".[80] FreeBSD's documentation is described as "high-quality".[81][82] The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
project maintains a variety of mailing lists.[83] Among the most popular mailing lists are FreeBSD-questions (general questions) and FreeBSD-hackers (a place for asking more technical questions).[84] Since 2004, the New York City BSD Users Group database provides dmesg information from a collection of computers (laptops, workstations, single-board computers, embedded systems, virtual machines, etc.) running FreeBSD.[85] Installers[edit] From version 2.0 to 9.0, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
used the sysinstall program as its main installer. It was written in C by Jordan Hubbard. It uses a text user interface, and is divided into a number of menus and screens that can be used to configure and control the installation process. It can also be used to install Ports and Packages as an alternative to the command-line interface.[86] The sysinstall utility is now considered deprecated in favor of bsdinstall, a new installer which was introduced in FreeBSD
FreeBSD
9.0. bsdinstall is "a lightweight replacement for sysinstall" that was written in sh. According to OSNews, "It has lost some features while gaining others, but it is a much more flexible design, and will ultimately be significant improvement".[61][87] Development[edit] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
is developed by a volunteer team located around the world. The developers use the Internet
Internet
for all communication and many have not met each other in person. In addition to local user groups sponsored and attended by users, an annual conference, called BSDcon, is held by USENIX. BSDcon is not FreeBSD-specific so it deals with the technical aspects of all BSD operating systems, including OpenBSD
OpenBSD
and NetBSD.[88] In addition to BSDcon, three other annual conferences, EuroBSDCon, AsiaBSDCon and BSDCan take place in Europe, Japan
Japan
and Canada
Canada
respectively.[89][90][91] Governance structure[edit] Main article: FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Core Team The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Project is run by around 500 committers, or developers who have commit access to the master source code repositories and can develop, debug or enhance any part of the system. Most of the developers are volunteers and few developers are paid by some companies.[16] There are several kinds of committers, including source committers (base operating system), doc committers (documentation and web site authors) and ports (third party application porting and infrastructure). Every two years the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
committers select a 9-member FreeBSD Core Team who are responsible for overall project direction, setting and enforcing project rules and approving new commiters, or the granting of SVN commit access. A number of responsibilities are officially assigned to other development teams by the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Core Team, for example, responsibility for managing the ports collection is delegated to the Ports Management Team.[92] In addition to developers, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
has thousands of "contributors". Contributors are also volunteers outside of the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
project who submit patches for consideration by committers, as they don't have direct access to FreeBSD's source code repository. Committers then evaluate contributors submissions and decide what to accept and what to reject. A contributor who submits high-quality patches is often asked to become a committer.[92] Branches[edit] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
developers maintain at least two branches of simultaneous development. The -CURRENT branch always represents the "bleeding edge" of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
development. A -STABLE branch of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
is created for each major version number, from which -RELEASE are cut about once every 4–6 months. If a feature is sufficiently stable and mature it will likely be backported (MFC or Merge from CURRENT in FreeBSD developer slang) to the -STABLE branch.[93][3] Foundation[edit]

"Last week, I donated one million dollars to the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Foundation, which supports the open source operating system that has helped millions of programmers pursue their passions and bring their ideas to life. I’m actually one of those people. I started using FreeBSD
FreeBSD
in the late 90s, when I didn’t have much money and was living in government housing. In a way, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
helped lift me out of poverty – one of the main reasons I got a job at Yahoo! is because they were using FreeBSD, and it was my operating system of choice. Years later, when Brian and I set out to build WhatsApp, we used FreeBSD
FreeBSD
to keep our servers running. We still do. I’m announcing this donation to shine a light on the good work being done by the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Foundation, with the hope that others will also help move this project forward. We’ll all benefit if FreeBSD
FreeBSD
can continue to give people the same opportunity it gave me – if it can lift more immigrant kids out of poverty, and help more startups build something successful, and even transformative."

Jan Koum

Main article: FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Foundation FreeBSD
FreeBSD
development is supported in part by the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Foundation. The foundation is a non-profit organization that accepts donations to fund FreeBSD
FreeBSD
development. Such funding has been used to sponsor developers for specific activities, purchase hardware and network infrastructure, provide travel grants to developer summits, and provide legal support to the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
project.[94] In November 2014, the FreeBSD Foundation
FreeBSD Foundation
received 1 million USD donation from Jan Koum, Co-Founder and CEO of WhatsApp, - the largest single donation to the Foundation since its inception. In December 2016, Jan Koum
Jan Koum
donated another 500 thousand dollars.[95] Jan Koum himself is a FreeBSD
FreeBSD
user since the late 1990s and WhatsApp
WhatsApp
uses FreeBSD
FreeBSD
on its servers.[96] License[edit] FreeBSD
FreeBSD
is released under a variety of open source licenses. The kernel code and most newly created code is released under the two-clause BSD license which allows everyone to use and redistribute FreeBSD
FreeBSD
as they wish. This license was approved by Free Software Foundation[97] and Open Source Initiative[98] as a Free Software and Open Source license respectively. Free Software Foundation
Free Software Foundation
described this license as "a lax, permissive non-copyleft free software license, compatible with the GNU
GNU
GPL". There are parts released under three- and four-clause BSD licenses, as well as Beerware license. Some device drivers include a binary blob,[99] such as the Atheros
Atheros
HAL of FreeBSD versions before 7.2.[100] Some of the code contributed by other projects is licensed under GPL, LGPL, CDDL[101] and ISC. All the code licensed under GPL
GPL
and CDDL is clearly separated from the code under liberal licenses, to make it easy for users such as embedded device manufacturers to use only permissive free software licenses. ClangBSD aims to replace some GPL
GPL
dependencies in the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
base system by replacing the GNU compiler collection
GNU compiler collection
with the BSD-licensed LLVM/Clang compiler. ClangBSD became self-hosting on 16 April 2010.[102] Logo[edit]

FreeBSD's mascot is the generic BSD Daemon, also known as Beastie.

For many years FreeBSD's logo was the generic BSD daemon, also called Beastie, a distorted pronunciation of BSD. However, Beastie was not unique to FreeBSD. First appearing in 1976 on Unix
Unix
T-shirts purchased by Bell Labs, the more popular versions of the BSD daemon were drawn by animation director John Lasseter
John Lasseter
beginning in 1984.[103][104] Several FreeBSD-specific versions were later drawn by Tatsumi Hosokawa.[105] In lithographic terms, the Lasseter graphic is not line art and often requires a screened, four color photo offset printing process for faithful reproduction on physical surfaces such as paper. Also, the BSD daemon was thought to be too graphically detailed for smooth size scaling and aesthetically over-dependent on multiple color gradations, making it hard to reliably reproduce as a simple, standardized logo in only two or three colors, much less in monochrome. Because of these worries, a competition was held and a new logo designed by Anton K. Gural, still echoing the BSD daemon, was released on 8 October 2005.[106][107][108] However, it was announced by Robert Watson that, the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
project is "seeking a new logo, but not a new mascot" and that the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
project will continue to use Beastie as its mascot.[106] The name "FreeBSD" was coined by David Greenman on 19 June 1993, other suggested names were "BSDFree86" and "Free86BSD".[109] FreeBSD's slogan, "The Power to Serve", is a trademark of The FreeBSD Foundation.[110] Derivatives[edit] Further information: List of products based on FreeBSD

PC-BSD version 7; the operating system is now known as TrueOS.

There are a number of software distributions based on FreeBSD including:

OpenServer 10
OpenServer 10
(server) TrueOS, previously known as PC-BSD (aimed at home users and workstations, but with a FreeNAS-like server version and TrueOS
TrueOS
pico for ARM 32 bit embedded devices) DesktopBSD
DesktopBSD
(desktop-oriented operating system, originally based on KDE) GhostBSD
GhostBSD
(MATE-based distribution, which also offers other desktop environments) FreeSBIE
FreeSBIE
(live CD) Frenzy (live CD) HardenedBSD (exploit mitigation and hardening development) m0n0wall (firewall) OPNsense
OPNsense
(firewall) pfSense (firewall) FreeNAS
FreeNAS
(for Network-attached storage
Network-attached storage
devices) NAS4Free
NAS4Free
(for Network-attached storage
Network-attached storage
devices) AuthServ/Zilux - (for network servers & storage)

All these distributions have no or only minor changes when compared with the original FreeBSD
FreeBSD
base system. The main difference to the original FreeBSD
FreeBSD
is that they come with pre-installed and pre-configured software for specific use cases. This can be compared with Linux
Linux
distributions, which are all binary compatible because they use the same kernel and also use the same basic tools, compilers and libraries, while coming with different applications, configurations and branding. Besides these distributions, there are some independent operating systems based on FreeBSD. DragonFly BSD
DragonFly BSD
is a fork from FreeBSD
FreeBSD
4.8 aiming for a different multiprocessor synchronization strategy than the one chosen for FreeBSD
FreeBSD
5 and development of some microkernel features.[111] It does not aim to stay compatible with FreeBSD
FreeBSD
and has huge differences in the kernel and basic userland. MidnightBSD
MidnightBSD
is a fork of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
6.1 borrowing heavily from NeXTSTEP, particularly in the user interface department. Darwin, the core of Apple macOS, includes a virtual file system and network stack derived from the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
virtual file system and network stack, and components of its userspace are also FreeBSD-derived.[18][112] Some subscription services that are directly based on FreeBSD
FreeBSD
are:

WhatsApp[113] - processes 2 million concurrent TCP connections per server.[113]

Embedded devices and embedded device operating systems based on FreeBSD
FreeBSD
include:

EMC Isilon's OneFS operating system. NetApp's Data ONTAP 8.x and the now superseded ONTAP GX (only as a loader for proprietary kernel-space module) Netflix's Open Connect Appliance[114][115] to handle content delivery. The PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
("Orbis OS")[19][116][117] Panasas' PanFS parallel file system[118]

Version history[edit] Main article: History of FreeBSD

Legend: Old version Older version, still supported Current stable version Latest preview version Future release

Version Release date Supported until Significant changes

Old version, no longer supported: 1.0 November 1993

The first official release. The Ports Collection

Old version, no longer supported: 1.1 May 1994

fix some outstanding bugs from import of 386BSD addition of some ported applications (XFree86, XView, InterViews, elm, nntp)

Old version, no longer supported: 2.0 22 November 1994

replace code base with BSD-Lite 4.4 (to satisfy terms of the USL v. BSDi lawsuit settlement) new installer and new boot manager loadable filesystems support for more filesystems (MS-DOS, unionfs, kernfs) imported loadable kernel modules from NetBSD

Old version, no longer supported: 2.1.5 16 July 1996

Old version, no longer supported: 2.1.7 17 February 1997

Old version, no longer supported: 2.2 March 1997

replaced BSD malloc with phkmalloc full Linux
Linux
emulation with ELF

Old version, no longer supported: 2.2.8 29 November 1998

Dummynet traffic shaping

Old version, no longer supported: 3.0 16 October 1998

symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) CAM (Common Access Method) SCSI
SCSI
system VESA
VESA
video modes

Old version, no longer supported: 3.1 15 February 1999

initial USB device support Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)

Old version, no longer supported: 3.2 17 May 1999

Old version, no longer supported: 3.3 15 September 1999

Old version, no longer supported: 3.4 20 December 1999

Netgraph RAID-5
RAID-5
support in vinum

Old version, no longer supported: 3.5 25 June 2000

Old version, no longer supported: 3.5.1 27 July 2000

Old version, no longer supported: 4.0 14 March 2000

IPv6
IPv6
support and IPsec with KAME (applications were also updated to support IPv6) OpenSSH
OpenSSH
integrated into the base system emulator for SVR4
SVR4
binary files

Old version, no longer supported: 4.1 27 July 2000

Kqueue

Old version, no longer supported: 4.1.1 7 November 2000

Old version, no longer supported: 4.2 21 November 2000

Old version, no longer supported: 4.3

Old version, no longer supported: 4.4

Old version, no longer supported: 4.5

Old version, no longer supported: 4.6

Old version, no longer supported: 4.7

Old version, no longer supported: 4.8 3 April 2003 31 March 2004

basic Firewire basic HyperThreading
HyperThreading
support in-kernel cryptographic framework imported from OpenBSD

Old version, no longer supported: 4.9

Old version, no longer supported: 4.10 27 May 2004 May 2006

USB2
USB2
support added ports/CHANGES and ports/UPDATING to FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Ports

Old version, no longer supported: 4.11 25 January 2005 31 January 2007

Old version, no longer supported: 5.0 14 January 2003 30 June 2003

support for Ultra SPARC
SPARC
and IA-64
IA-64
processors SMP support via changes to kernel locking (release most of kernel from the Giant lock) GEOM Kernel Scheduled Entities Mandatory Access Control imported from TrustedBSD Bluetooth ACPI

Old version, no longer supported: 5.1 9 June 2003 February 2004

experimental support for AMD64 experimental 1:1 and M:N thread libraries for multithreaded processing experimental ULE scheduler

Old version, no longer supported: 5.3 6 November 2004 31 October 2006

ALTQ addition of new debugging framework KDB import pf from OpenBSD binary compatibility interface for native execution of NDIS drivers replace XFree86
XFree86
with X.Org 6.7 cryptography enabled by default in base

Old version, no longer supported: 5.4 9 May 2005 31 October 2006

import Common Address Redundancy Protocol from OpenBSD

Old version, no longer supported: 6.0 1 November 2005

Performance monitoring counters support New WiFi
WiFi
stack GELI Network bridging NanoBSD utility NDIS driver support

Old version, no longer supported: 6.1 8 May 2006

Keyboard multiplexer UFS filesystem stability Bluetooth
Bluetooth
autoconfiguration Additional Ethernet and RAID
RAID
drivers

Old version, no longer supported: 6.2 15 January 2007 31 May 2008

support for Xbox architecture OpenBSM audit subsystem freebsd-update (binary updates for security fixes and errata patches)

Old version, no longer supported: 7.0 27 February 2008 30 April 2009

ZFS GPT reference implementation of SCTP add support for ARM architecture support for Intel High Definition Audio
Intel High Definition Audio
(HDA) replacing phkmalloc with jemalloc drop support for DEC Alpha tmpfs

Old version, no longer supported: 7.1 4 January 2009 28 February 2011

DTrace ULE scheduler made default scheduler for i386 and AMD64
AMD64
platforms

Old version, no longer supported: 8.0 26 November 2009

SATA
SATA
NCQ
NCQ
support

Old version, no longer supported: 8.1 23 July 2010 31 July 2012

Xen
Xen
guest support High Availability Storage Native NFSv4 ACL support

Old version, no longer supported: 8.2 24 February 2011

USB 3.0
USB 3.0
support

Old version, no longer supported: 8.3 9 April 2012 30 April 2014

Old version, no longer supported: 8.4 9 June 2013 1 August 2015

Old version, no longer supported: 9.0 12 January 2012 31 March 2013

Capsicum capability-based security mechanism UFS SoftUpdates+Journal ZFS
ZFS
updated to version 28 bsdinstall, the new system installation program RCTL, a flexible resource limits mechanism GRAID, flexible software RAID
RAID
implementation virtio drivers

Old version, no longer supported: 9.1 30 December 2012 31 December 2014

pkgng CTL, kernel SCSI
SCSI
target layer subsystem

Old version, no longer supported: 9.2 30 September 2013 31 December 2014

bsdconfig, system configuration utility

Old version, no longer supported: 9.3 16 July 2014 31 December 2016

vt, the new virtual terminal implementation

Old version, no longer supported: 10.0 20 January 2014 28 February 2015

BHyVe hypervisor Clang
Clang
replaced GCC on supported architectures New i SCSI
SCSI
stack NAND framework BIND replaced with LDNS and Unbound in base system ZFS
ZFS
on Root File
File
system Added support for Raspberry Pi

Old version, no longer supported: 10.1 14 November 2014 31 December 2016[119]

Virtualization improvements (FreeBSD/i386 guests in bhyve, boot from ZFS) UEFI
UEFI
boot for amd64 Support for UDP Lite protocol (RFC 3828) ZFS
ZFS
performance improvements SMP support for armv6 New autofs-based automounter

Old version, no longer supported: 10.2 13 August 2015 31 December 2016[119]

Linux
Linux
compatibility version updated to support CentOS 6 ports DRM code updated to match Linux
Linux
3.8.13, allowing multiple simultaneous X servers ZFS
ZFS
reliability and performance improvements GNOME, KDE, resolvconf, and ntp versions updated Several enhancements to FreeBSD/arm support

Older version, yet still supported: 10.3 4 April 2016 30 April 2018[119]

Support for 64-bit Linux
Linux
binaries through the compatibility layer ZFS
ZFS
booting via UEFI Automatic root-on- ZFS
ZFS
UEFI
UEFI
installations GNOME, X.Org Server, TeX Live, and xz versions updated

Current stable version: 10.4 3 October 2017[120] 31 October 2018[121]

Support for eMMC storage and Intel Kaby Lake devices em(4) driver capable of WOL with Intel i217, i218 and i219 chips OpenSSH, GNOME, and Xorg-Server has been updated fsck_ffs(8) utility finds alternate superblocks

Old version, no longer supported: 11.0 10 October 2016[122] 30 November 2017

New version of NetMap[123]

Current stable version: 11.1 26 July 2017[124]

Future release: 11.2 27 June 2018[125]

Future release: 12.0 early 2019[126]

Currently under active development, so many things may change. Some initial notes:

Current UPDATING file[127] What's New in FreeBSD
FreeBSD
12[128] 12.0 Release Notes Template[129]

Version Release date Supported until Significant changes

See also[edit]

Free software portal

BAPP, a set of commonly used software with FreeBSD BSD descendants Comparison of BSD operating systems Comparison of operating system kernels Comparison of operating systems Computer Systems Research Group How does one patch KDE2 under FreeBSD? Marshall Kirk McKusick Sakura HyperMedia Desktop Security-focused operating system Usage share of operating systems

References[edit] Citations[edit]

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Sources[edit]

Negus, Christopher; Caen, Francois (5 May 2008), BSD UNIX Toolbox: 1000+ Commands for FreeBSD, OpenBSD
OpenBSD
and NetBSD
NetBSD
(First ed.), Wiley, p. 309, ISBN 0-470-37603-1  Lavigne, Dru (24 May 2004), BSD Hacks (First ed.), O'Reilly Media, p. 448, ISBN 0-596-00679-9  Lucas, Michael W. (14 November 2007), Absolute FreeBSD
FreeBSD
(Second ed.), No Starch Press, p. 744, ISBN 1-59327-151-4  Lavigne, Dru; Lehey, Greg; Reed, Jeremy C. (20 December 2007), The Best of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Basics (First ed.), Reed Media Services, p. 596, ISBN 0-9790342-2-1  Hong, Bryan J. (1 April 2008), Building a Server with FreeBSD
FreeBSD
7 (First ed.), No Starch Press, p. 288, ISBN 978-1-59327-145-9  Tiemann, Brian; Urban, Michael (15 June 2006), FreeBSD
FreeBSD
6 Unleashed (First ed.), Sams, p. 912, ISBN 0-672-32875-5  Korff, Yanek; Hope, Paco; Potter, Bruce (March 2005), Mastering FreeBSD
FreeBSD
and OpenBSD
OpenBSD
Security (First ed.), O'Reilly Media, p. 464, ISBN 0-596-00626-8  Lehey, Greg (April 2003), The Complete FreeBSD
FreeBSD
(Fourth ed.), O'Reilly Media, p. 720, ISBN 0-596-00516-4  McKusick, Marshall K.; Neville-Neil, George V. (2 August 2004), The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Operating System (First ed.), Addison–Wesley, p. 720, ISBN 0-201-70245-2  Mittelstaedt, Ted (15 December 2000), The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Corporate Networker's Guide (First ed.), Addison–Wesley, p. 432, ISBN 0-201-70481-1  Stokely, Murray; Lee, Chern (1 March 2004), The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Handbook, Volume 1: User Guide (Third ed.), FreeBSD
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Mall, p. 408, ISBN 1-57176-327-9  Stokely, Murray (1 September 2004), The FreeBSD
FreeBSD
Handbook, Volume 2: Admin Guide (Third ed.), FreeBSD
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Mall, p. 537, ISBN 1-57176-328-7 

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