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FRANKISH (reconstructed Frankish: *Frenkisk), OLD FRANCONIAN or OLD FRANKISH was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks
Franks
between the 4th and 8th century. The language itself is poorly attested, but it gave rise to numerous loanwords in Old French
Old French
. Old Dutch
Old Dutch
is the term for the Old Franconian dialects spoken in the Low Countries
Low Countries
, i.e. in present-day Belgium, in the present Netherlands and Western parts of today's Germany until about the 12th century when it evolved into Middle Dutch .

During the Merovingian period , Frankish had significant influence on the Romance languages
Romance languages
spoken in Gaul
Gaul
. As a result, many modern French words and placenames (including the country name "France") have a Germanic origin. France
France
itself is still known in German as Frankreich, in Dutch , Frankrijk, and in Danish, Frankrig, i.e. the "Frankish Realm ". Between the 5th and 9th centuries, the languages spoken by the Salian Franks
Franks
in Belgium and the Netherlands evolved into Old Dutch (Old Low Franconian), while in Picardy
Picardy
and Île-de-France it was eventually eclipsed by Old French
Old French
as the dominant language.

The Frankish language
Frankish language
as spoken before the Carolingian period is mostly reconstructed from Old French
Old French
loanwords and from the Old Dutch language as recorded in the 6th to 12th centuries. A notable exception is the Bergakker inscription , which may represent a primary record of 5th-century Frankish.

CONTENTS

* 1 Nomenclature

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Salian and Ripuarian Franks
Franks
(210–500) * 2.3 Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
(500–900)

* 3 Areal

* 3.1 Austrasia
Austrasia
* 3.2 Gaul
Gaul
* 3.3 German Franconia
Franconia

* 4 Franconian languages
Franconian languages

* 5 Influence on Old French
Old French
and Middle Latin
Latin

* 5.1 Old French
Old French
* 5.2 Middle English
Middle English

* 6 See also * 7 Endnotes * 8 External links

NOMENCLATURE

Main article: Name of the Franks
Franks

Germanic philology and German studies have their origins in the first half of 19th century
19th century
when Romanticism
Romanticism
and Romantic thought heavily influenced the lexicon of the linguists and philologists of the time, including pivotal figures such as the Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
. As a result, many contemporary linguists tried to incorporate their findings in an already existing historical framework of "stem duchies " and "Altstämme" (lit. "old tribes", i.e. the six Germanic tribes then thought to have formed the "German nation" in the traditional German nationalism of the elites) resulting in a taxonomy which spoke of "Bavarian ", "Saxon ", "Frisian ", "Thuringian ", "Swabian " and "Frankish " dialects. While this nomenclature became generally accepted in traditional Germanic philology, it has also been described as "inherently inaccurate" as these ancient ethnic boundaries (as understood in the 1800s ) bore little or limited resemblance to the actual or historical linguistic situation of the Germanic languages. Among other problems, this traditional classification of the continental West Germanic dialects can suggest stronger ties between dialects than is linguistically warranted. The Franconian group is a well known example of this, with East Franconian being much more closely related to Bavarian dialects than it is to Dutch , which is traditionally placed in the Low Franconian
Low Franconian
sub-grouping and with which it was thought to have had a common, tribal origin.

In a modern linguistic context, the language of the early Franks
Franks
is variously called "Old Frankish" or "Old Franconian" and refers to the language of the Franks
Franks
prior to the advent of the High German consonant shift , which took place between 600 and 700 CE . After this consonant shift the Frankish dialect diverges, with the dialects which would become modern Dutch not undergoing the consonantal shift, while all other did so to varying degrees . As a result, the distinction between Old Dutch
Old Dutch
and Old Frankish is largely negligible, with Old Dutch (also called Old Low Franconian
Low Franconian
) being the term used to differentiate between the affected and non-affected variants following the aforementioned Second Germanic consonant shift.

HISTORY

ORIGINS

The Germanic languages
Germanic languages
are traditionally divided into three groups: West , East and North Germanic. Their exact relation is difficult to determine, and they remained mutually intelligible throughout the Migration Period
Migration Period
, rendering some individual varieties difficult to classify.

The language spoken by the Franks
Franks
was part of the West Germanic language group, which had features from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
in the late Jastorf culture
Jastorf culture
(ca. 1st century BC). The West Germanic group is characterized by a number of phonological and morphological innovations not found in North and East Germanic. The West Germanic varieties of the time are generally split into three dialect groups: Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic), Istvaeonic (Weser-Rhine Germanic) and Irminonic (Elbe Germanic). While each had its own distinct characteristics, there certainly must have still been a high degree of mutual intelligibility between these dialects. In fact, it is unclear whether the West Germanic continuum of this time period, or indeed Franconian itself, should still be considered a single language or that it should be considered a collection of similar dialects.

In any case, it appears that the Frankish tribes, or the later Franks, fit primarily into the Istvaeonic dialect group, with certain Ingvaeonic influences towards the northwest (still seen in modern Dutch), and more Irminonic (High German) influences towards the southeast.

SALIAN AND RIPUARIAN FRANKS (210–500)

The scholarly consensus concerning the Migration Period
Migration Period
is that the Frankish identity emerged during the first half of the 3rd century out of various earlier, smaller Germanic groups, including the Salii , Sicambri , Chamavi
Chamavi
, Bructeri , Chatti , Chattuarii , Ampsivarii , Tencteri
Tencteri
, Ubii
Ubii
, Batavi and the Tungri . It is speculated that these tribes originally spoke a range of related Istvaeonic dialects in the West Germanic branch of Proto-Germanic. Sometime in the 4th or 5th centuries, it becomes appropriate to speak of Old Franconian rather than an Istvaeonic dialect of Proto-Germanic. Bergakker inscription

Very little is known about what the language was like during this period. One older runic sentence (dating from around 425–450 AD) is on the sword sheath of Bergakker which is either the singular direct attestation of the Old Franconian language or the earliest attestation of Old Low Franconian
Low Franconian
(Old Dutch) language. Another early sentence from the early 6th century AD (that is described as the earliest sentence in Old Dutch
Old Dutch
as well) is found in the Lex Salica . This phrase was used to free a serf : "Maltho thi afrio lito" (I say, I free you, half-free.)

These are the earliest sentences yet found of Old Franconian. The location of the Franks
Franks
around 475 . "Les Francs rhénans" is the French term for "Ripuarian Franks".

During this early period, the Franks
Franks
were divided politically and geographically into two groups: the Salian Franks
Franks
and the Ripuarian Franks
Franks
. The language (or set of dialects) spoken by the Salian Franks during this period is sometimes referred to as early "Old Low Franconian", and consisted of two groups: "Old West Low Franconian" and "Old East Low Franconian". The language (or set of dialects) spoken by the Ripuarian Franks
Franks
are referred to just as Old Franconian dialects (or, by some, as Old Frankish dialects).

However, as already stated above, it may be more accurate to think of these dialects not as early Old Franconian but as Istvaeonic dialects in the West Germanic branch of Proto-Germanic.

FRANKISH EMPIRE (500–900)

The Frankish conquests between 481 and 814

At around 500 AD the Franks
Franks
probably spoke a range of related dialects and languages rather than a single uniform dialect or language. The language of both government and the Church was Latin.

AREAL

AUSTRASIA

The approximate extent of Germanic languages
Germanic languages
in the early 10th century.: OLD WEST NORSE OLD EAST NORSE OLD GUTNISH OLD ENGLISH (West Germanic ) Continental West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
(Old Frisian , Old Saxon
Old Saxon
, Old Dutch
Old Dutch
, Old High German
Old High German
). CRIMEAN GOTHIC ( East Germanic )

During the expansion into France
France
and Germany, many Frankish people remained in the original core Frankish territories in the north (i.e. southern Netherlands, Flanders, a small part of northern France
France
and the adjoining area in Germany centred on Cologne). The Franks
Franks
united as a single group under Salian Frank leadership around 500 AD. Politically, the Ripuarian Franks
Franks
existed as a separate group only until about 500 AD, after which they were subsumed into the Salian Franks. The Franks
Franks
were united, but the various Frankish groups must have continued to live in the same areas, and speak the same dialects, although as a part of the growing Frankish Kingdom .

There must have been a close relationship between the various Franconian dialects. There was also a close relationship between Old Low Franconian
Low Franconian
(i.e. Old Dutch) and its neighbouring Old Saxon
Old Saxon
and Old Frisian languages and dialects to the north and northeast, as well as the related Old English
Old English
(Anglo-Saxon) dialects spoken in southern and eastern Britain.

A widening cultural divide grew between the Franks
Franks
remaining in the north and the rulers far to the south. Franks
Franks
continued to reside in their original territories and to speak their original dialects and languages. It is not known what they called their language, but it is possible that they always called it " Diets " (i.e. "the people's language"), or something similar.

Philologists think of Old Dutch
Old Dutch
and Old West Low Franconian
Low Franconian
as being the same language. However, sometimes reference is made to a transition from the language spoken by the Salian Franks
Franks
to Old Dutch . The language spoken by the Salian Franks
Franks
must have developed significantly during the seven centuries from 200 to 900 AD. At some point the language spoken by the Franks
Franks
must have become identifiably Dutch. Because Franconian texts are almost non-existent and Old Dutch texts scarce and fragmentary, it is difficult to determine when such a transition occurred, but it is thought to have happened by the end of the 9th century and perhaps earlier. By 900 AD the language spoken was recognisably an early form of Dutch, but that might also have been the case earlier. Old Dutch
Old Dutch
made the transition to Middle Dutch around 1150. A Dutch- French language
French language
boundary came into existence (but this was originally south of where it is today). Even though living in the original territory of the Franks, these Franks
Franks
seem to have broken with the endonym "Frank" around the 9th century. By this time the Frankish identity had changed from an ethnic identity to a national identity, becoming localized and confined to the modern Franconia
Franconia
in Germany and principally to the French province of Île-de-France .

GAUL

The Franks
Franks
expanded south into Gaul
Gaul
. Although the Franks
Franks
would eventually conquer all of Gaul, speakers of Old Franconian apparently expanded in sufficient numbers only into northern Gaul
Gaul
to have a linguistic effect. For several centuries, northern Gaul
Gaul
was a bilingual territory ( Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
and Franconian). The language used in writing, in government and by the Church was Latin. Eventually, the Franks
Franks
who had settled more to the south of this area in northern Gaul started adopting the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the local population. This Vulgar Latin
Latin
language acquired the name of the people who came to speak it (Frankish or Français); north of the French- Dutch language
Dutch language
boundary, the language was no longer referred to as "Frankish" (if it ever was referred to as such) but rather came to be referred to as " Diets ", i.e. the "people's language". Urban T. Holmes has proposed that a Germanic language continued to be spoken as a second tongue by public officials in western Austrasia
Austrasia
and Neustria as late as the 850s, and that it completely disappeared as a spoken language from these regions only during the 10th century.

GERMAN FRANCONIA

Further information: Franconia
Franconia

The Franks
Franks
also expanded their rule southeast into parts of Germany. Their language had some influence on local dialects, especially for terms relating to warfare. However, since the language of both the administration and the Church was Latin, this unification did not lead to the development of a supra-regional variety of Franconian nor a standardized German language. At the same time that the Franks
Franks
were expanding southeast into what is now southern Germany, there were linguistic changes taking place in the region. The High German consonant shift (or second Germanic consonant shift ) was a phonological development (sound change ) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases, probably beginning between the 3rd and 5th centuries AD, and was almost complete before the earliest written records in the High German language
German language
were made in the 9th century. The resulting language, Old High German
Old High German
, can be neatly contrasted with Low Franconian
Low Franconian
, which for the most part did not experience the shift.

FRANCONIAN LANGUAGES

Main article: Franconian languages
Franconian languages

The set of dialects of the Franks
Franks
who continued to live in their original territory in the Low Countries
Low Countries
eventually developed in three different ways.

* The dialects spoken by the Salian Franks
Franks
in the Low Countries
Low Countries
(Old Dutch , also referred to as Old West Low Franconian
Low Franconian
) developed into the Dutch language
Dutch language
, which itself has a number of dialects. Afrikaans branched off Dutch. * The Old East Low Franconian
Low Franconian
dialects are represented today in Limburgish
Limburgish
, which is by some (especially Germans) referred to as Low Rhenish or Meuse-Rhenish . Limburgish
Limburgish
itself has a number of dialects. It is by some considered to be a separate language and by others simply a dialect of Dutch or German. * It is speculated that the dialects originally spoken by the Ripuarian Franks
Franks
in Germany possibly developed into, or were subsumed under, the German dialects called the Central Franconian dialects ( Ripuarian Franconian , Moselle Franconian and Rhenish Franconian ). These languages and dialects were later affected by serious language changes (such as the High German consonant shift ), which resulted in the emergence of dialects that are now considered German dialects. Today, the Central Franconian dialects are spoken in the core territory of the Ripuarian Franks. Although there may not be definite proof to say that the dialects of the Ripuarian Franks
Franks
(about which very little is known) developed into the Central Franconian dialects , there are—apart from mere probability—some pieces of evidence, most importantly the development -hs → ss and the loss of n before spirants, which is found throughout Central Franconian but nowhere else in High German
High German
. Compare Luxembourgish
Luxembourgish
Uess ("ox"), Dutch os, German Ochse; and (dated) Luxembourgish
Luxembourgish
Gaus ("goose"), Old Dutch gās, German Gans. The language spoken by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was probably the dialect that later developed into the Ripuarian Franconian dialect.

The Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
later extended throughout neighbouring France
France
and Germany. The language of the Franks
Franks
had some influence on the local languages (especially in France), but never took hold as a standard language because Latin
Latin
was the international language at the time. Ironically, the language of the Franks
Franks
did not develop into the lingua franca .

The Franks
Franks
conquered adjoining territories of Germany (including the territory of the Allemanni ). The Frankish legacy survives in these areas, for example, in the names of the city of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and the area of Franconia
Franconia
. The Franks
Franks
brought their language with them from their original territory and, as in France, it must have had an effect on the local dialects and languages. However, it is relatively difficult for linguists today to determine what features of these dialects are due to Frankish influence, because the latter was in large parts obscured, or even overwhelmed, by later developments.

INFLUENCE ON OLD FRENCH AND MIDDLE LATIN

Most French words of Germanic origin came from Frankish (some others are English loanwords ), often replacing the Latin
Latin
word which would have been used. It is estimated that modern French took approximately 1000 stem words from Old Franconian. Many of these words were concerned with agriculture (e.g. French : jardin "garden"), war (e.g. French : guerre "war") or social organization (e.g. French : baron "baron"). Old Franconian has introduced the modern French word for the nation, France
France
( Francia
Francia
), meaning "land of the Franks", as well as possibly the name for the Paris region, Île-de-France .

The influence of Franconian on French is decisive for the birth of the early Langue d\'oïl compared to the other Romance languages
Romance languages
, that appeared later such as Langue d\'oc , Romanian , Portuguese and Catalan , Italian , etc., because its influence was greater than the respective influence of Visigothic and Lombardic (both Germanic languages ) on the langue d'oc, the Romance languages
Romance languages
of Iberia, and Italian . Not all of these loanwords have been retained in modern French. French has also passed on words of Franconian origin to other Romance languages, and to English.

Old Franconian has also left many etyma in the different Northern Langues d\'oïls such as Picard , Champenois , Bas-Lorrain and Walloon , more than in Common French, and not always the same ones.

See below a non-exhaustive list of French words of Frankish origin. An asterisk prefixing a term indicates a reconstructed form of the Frankish word. Most Franconian words with the phoneme w changed it to gu when entering Old French
Old French
and other Romance languages
Romance languages
; however, the northern langue d\'oïl dialects such as Picard, Northern Norman, Walloon, Burgundian, Champenois and Bas-Lorrain retained the or turned it into . Perhaps the best known example is the Franconian *werra ("war" < Old Northern French werre, compare Old High German werre "quarrel"), which entered modern French as guerre and guerra in Italian , Occitan
Occitan
, Catalan , Spanish and Portuguese . Other examples include "gant" ("gauntlet", from *want) and "garder" ("to guard", from *wardōn). Franconian words starting with s before another consonant developed it into es- (e.g. Franconian skirm and Old French
Old French
escremie > Old Italian scrimia > Modern French escrime).

CURRENT FRENCH WORD OLD FRANCONIAN DUTCH OR OTHER GERMANIC COGNATES LATIN/ROMANCE

affranchir "to free" *frank "freeborn; unsubjugated, answering to no one", nasalized variant of *frāki "rash, untamed, impudent" Du frank "unforced, sincere, frank", vrank "carefree, brazen", Du frank en vrij (idiom) "free as air" Du Frankrijk "France", Du vrek "miser", OHG franko "free man" Norwegian : frekk "rude" L līberāre

alène "awl" (Sp alesna, It lesina) *alisna MDu elsene, else, Du els L sūbula

alise "whitebeam berry" (OFr alis, alie "whitebeam") *alísō "alder" MDu elze, Du els "alder" (vs. G Erle "alder"); Du elsbes "whitebeam", G Else "id." non-native to the Mediterranean

baron *baro "freeman", "bare of duties" MDu baren "to give birth", Du bar "gravely", "bare", OHG baro "freeman", OE beorn "noble" Germanic cultural import Late, Vulgar, and Medieval Latin
Latin
*baro

bâtard "bastard" (FrProv bâsco) *bāst "marriage" MDu bast "lust, heat, reproductive season ", WFris boaste, boask "marriage" L nothus

bâtir "to build" (OFr bastir "to baste, tie together") bâtiment "building" bastille "fortress" bastion "fortress" *bastian "to bind with bast string" MDu besten "to sew up, to connect", OHG bestan "to mend, patch", NHG basteln "to tinker"; MDu best "liaison" (Du gemenebest "commonwealth") L construere (It costruire)

bière "beer" *bera Du bier L cervisia(celtic)

blanc, blanche "white" *blank Du blinken "to shine", blank "white, shining" L albus

bleu "blue" (OFr blou, bleve) *blao MDu blā, blau, blaeuw, Du blauw L caeruleus "light blue", lividus "dark blue"

bois "wood, forest" *busk "bush, underbrush" MDu bosch, busch, Du bos "forest", "bush" L silva "forest" (OFr selve), L lignum "wood" (OFr lein)

bourg "town/city" *burg or *burc "fortified settlement" ODu burg, MDu burcht Got. baurg OHG burg OE burh, OLG burg, ON borg L urbs "fortified city", Late Latin
Latin
burgus

broder "to embroider" (OFr brosder, broisder) *brosdōn, blend of *borst "bristle" and *brordōn "to embroider" G Borste "boar bristle", Du borstel "bristle"; OS brordōn "to embroider, decorate", brord "needle" L pingere "to paint; embroider" (Fr peindre "to paint")

broyer "to grind, crush" (OFr brier) *brekan "to break" Du breken "to break", LL tritāre (Occ trissar "to grind", but Fr trier "to sort"), LL pistāre (It pestare "to pound, crush", OFr pester), L machīnare (Dalm maknur "to grind", Rom măcina, It macinare)

brun "brown" ? MDu brun and Du bruin "brown"

choquer "to shock" *skukjan Du schokken "to shock, to shake"

choisir "to choose" *kiosan MDu kiesen, Du kiezen, keuze L eligēre (Fr élire "to elect"), VL exeligēre (cf. It scegliere), excolligere (Cat escollir, Sp escoger, Pg escolher)

chouette "barn owl" (OFr çuete, dim. of choë, choue "jackdaw") *kōwa, kāwa "chough, jackdaw" MDu couwe "rook", Du kauw, kaauw "chough" not distinguished in Latin: L būbō "owl", ōtus "eared owl", ulula "screech owl", ulucus likewise "screech owl" (cf. Sp loco "crazy"), noctua "night owl"

cresson "watercress" *kresso MDu kersse, korsse, Du kers, dial. kors L nasturtium, LL berula (but Fr berle "water parsnip")

danser "to dance" (OFr dancier) *dansōn OHG dansōn "to drag along, trail"; further to MDu densen, deinsen "to shrink back", Du deinzen "to stir; move away, back up", OHG dinsan "to pull, stretch" LL ballare (OFr baller, It ballare, Pg bailar)

déchirer "to rip, tear" (OFr escirer) *skerian "to cut, shear" MDu scēren, Du scheren "to shave, shear", scheuren "to tear" VL extractiāre (Prov estraçar, It stracciare), VL exquartiare "to rip into fours" (It squarciare, but Fr écarter "to move apart, distance"), exquintiare "to rip into five" (Cat/Occ esquinçar)

dérober "to steal, reave" (OFr rober, Sp robar) *rōbon "to steal" MDu rōven, Du roven "to rob" VL furicare "to steal" (It frugare)

écang "swingle-dag" *swank "bat, rod" MDu swanc "wand, rod", Du (dial. Holland) zwang "rod" L pistillum (Fr dial. pesselle "swingle-dag")

écran "screen" (OFr escran) *skrank MDu schrank "chassis"; G Schrank "cupboard", Schranke "fence" L obex

écrevisse "crayfish" (OFr crevice) *krebit Du kreeft "crayfish, lobster" L cammārus "crayfish" (cf. Occ chambre, It gambero, Pg camarão)

éperon "spur" (OFr esporon) *sporo MDu spōre, Du spoor L calcar

épier "to watch" Old French
Old French
espie "male spy", , Modern French espion is from Italian *spehōn "to spy" Du spieden, bespieden "to spy", HG spähen "to peer, to peek, to scout",

escrime "fencing" < Old Italian scrimia < OFr escremie from escremir "fight" *skirm "to protect" Du schermen "to fence", scherm "(protective) screen", bescherming "protection", afscherming "shielding"

étrier "stirrup" (OFr estrieu, estrief) *stīgarēp, from stīgan "to go up, to mount" and rēp "band" MDu steegereep, Du stijgreep, stijgen "to rise", steigeren LL stapia (later ML stapēs), ML saltatorium (cf. MFr saultoir)

flèche "arrow" *fliukka Du vliek "arrow feather", MDu vliecke, OS fliuca (MLG fliecke "long arrow") L sagitta (OFr saete, Pg seta)

frais "fresh" (OFr freis, fresche) *friska "fresh" Du vers "fresh", fris "cold", German frisch

franc "free, exempt; straightforward, without hassle" (LL francus "freeborn, freedman") France
France
"France" (OFr Francia) franchement "frankly" *frank "freeborn; unsubjugated, answering to no one", nasalized variant of *frāki "rash, untamed, impudent" MDu vrec "insolent", Du frank "unforced, sincere, frank", vrank "carefree, brazen", Du Frankrijk "France", Du vrek "miser", OHG franko "free man" L ingenuus "freeborn" L Gallia

frapper "to hit, strike" (OFr fraper) *hrapan "to jerk, snatch" Du rapen "gather up, collect", G raffen "to grab" L ferire (OFr ferir)

frelon "hornet" (OFr furlone, ML fursleone) *hurslo MDu horsel, Du horzel L crābrō (cf. It calabrone)

freux "rook" (OFr frox, fru) *hrōk MDu roec, Du roek not distinguished in Latin

galoper "to gallop" *wala hlaupan "to run well" Du wel "good, well" + lopen "to run"

garder "to guard" *wardōn MDu waerden "to defend", OS wardōn L cavere, servare

gant "gauntlet" *want Du want "gauntlet"

givre "frost (substance)" *gibara "drool, slobber" EFris gever, LG Geiber, G Geifer "drool, slobber" L gelū (cf. Fr gel "frost (event); freezing")

glisser "to slip" (OFr glier) *glīdan "to glide" MDu glīden, Du glijden "to glide"; Du glis "skid"; G gleiten, Gleis "track" ML planare

grappe "bunch (of grapes)" (OFr crape, grape "hook, grape stalk") *krāppa "hook" MDu crappe "hook", Du (dial. Holland) krap "krank", G Krapfe "hook", (dial. Franconian ) Krape "torture clamp, vice" L racemus (Prov rasim "bunch", Cat raïm, Sp racimo, but Fr raisin "grape")

gris "grey" *grîs "grey" Du grijs "grey" L cinereus "ash-coloured, grey"

guenchir "to turn aside, avoid" *wenkjan Du wankelen "to go unsteady"

guérir "to heal, cure" (OFr garir "to defend") guérison "healing" (OFr garrison "healing") *warjan "to protect, defend" MDu weeren, Du weren "to protect, defend", Du bewaren "to keep, preserve" L sānāre (Sard sanare, Sp/Pg sanar, OFr saner), medicāre (Dalm medcuar "to heal")

guerre "war" *werra "war" Du war or wirwar "tangle", verwarren "to confuse" L bellum

guigne "heart cherry" (OFr guisne) *wīksina G Weichsel "sour cherry", (dial. Rhine Franconian ) Waingsl, (dial. East Franconian ) Wassen, Wachsen non-native to the Mediterranean

haïr "to hate" (OFr hadir "to hate") haine "hatred" (OFr haïne "hatred") *hatjan Du haten "to hate", haat "hatred" L ōdī "to hate", odium "hatred"

hanneton "cockchafer" *hāno "rooster" + -eto (diminutive suffix) with sense of "beetle, weevil" Du haan "rooster", leliehaantje "lily beetle", bladhaantje "leaf beetle", G Hahn "rooster", (dial. Rhine Franconian) Hahn "sloe bug, shield bug", Lilienhähnchen "lily beetle" LL bruchus "chafer" (cf. Fr dial. brgue, beùrgne, brégue), cossus (cf. SwRom coss, OFr cosson "weevil")

haubert "hauberk " *halsberg "neck-cover" Du hals "neck" + berg "cover" (cf Du herberg "hostel")

héron "heron" *heigero, variant of *hraigro MDu heiger "heron", Du reiger "heron" L ardea

houx "holly" *hulis MDu huls, Du hulst L aquifolium (Sp acebo), later VL acrifolium (Occ grefuèlh, agreu, Cat grèvol, It agrifoglio)

jardin "garden" (VL hortus gardinus "enclosed garden", Ofr jardin, jart) *gardo "garden" Du gaard "garden", boomgaard "orchard"; OS gardo "garden" L hortus

lécher "to lick" (OFr lechier "to live in debauchery") *leccōn "to lick" MDu lecken, Du likken "to lick" L lingere (Sard línghere), lambere (Sp lamer, Pg lamber)

maçon "bricklayer" (OFr masson, machun) *mattio "mason" Du metsen "to mason", metselaar "masoner"; OHG mezzo "stonemason", meizan "to beat, cut", G Metz, Steinmetz "mason" VL murator (Occ murador, Sard muradore, It muratóre)

maint "many" (OFr maint, meint "many") *menigþa "many" Du menig "many", menigte "group of people"

marais "marsh, swamp" *marisk "marsh" MDu marasch, meresch, maersc, Du meers "wet grassland", (dial. Holland) mars L paludem (Occ palun, It palude)

maréchal "marshal" maréchausse "military police" *marh-skalk "horse-servant" ODu marscalk "horse-servant" (marchi "mare" + skalk "servant"); MDu marscalc "horse-servant, royal servant" (mare "mare" + skalk "serf"); Du maarschalk "marshal" (merrie "mare" + schalk "comic", schalks "teasingly")

nord "north" *Nortgouue (790–793 A.D.) "north" + "frankish district" (Du gouw, Deu Gau, Fri/LSax Go) Du noord or noorden "north" , Du Henegouwen (province of Hainaut )

L septemtrio(nes) / septentrio(nes) "north, north wind, northern regions, (pl.) seven stars near the north pole", boreas "north wind, north", aquilo "stormy wind, north wind, north", aquilonium "northerly regions, north"

osier "osier (basket willow); withy" (OFr osière, ML auseria) *halster MDu halster, LG dial. Halster, Hilster "bay willow" L vīmen "withy" (It vimine "withy", Sp mimbre, vimbre "osier", Pg vimeiro, Cat vímet "withy"), vinculum (It vinco "osier", dial. vinchio, Friul venc)

patte "paw" *pata "foot sole" Du poot "paw", Du pets "strike"; LG Pad "sole of the foot"; further to G Patsche "instrument for striking the hand", Patschfuss "web foot", patschen "to dabble", (dial. Bavarian ) patzen "to blot, pat, stain" Vulg L pauta, LL branca "paw" (Sard brànca, It brince, Rom brîncă, Prov branca, Romansh franka, but Fr branche "treelimb"), see also Deu Pranke

poche "pocket " *poka "pouch " MDu poke, G dial. Pfoch "pouch, change purse" L bulga "leather bag " (Fr bouge "bulge"), LL bursa "coin purse " (Fr bourse "money pouch , purse", It bórsa, Sp/Pg bolsa)

riche "rich " *riki "rich" MDu rike, Du rijk "kingdom", "rich" L dives

sale "dirty " *salo "pale, sallow" MDu salu, saluwe "discolored, dirty", Du (old) zaluw "tawny" L succidus (cf. It sudicio, Sp sucio, Pg sujo, Ladin scich, Friul soç)

salle "room" *sala "hall, room" ODu zele "house made with sawn beams", Many place names: "Melsele", "Broeksele" (Brussels) etc.

saule "willow " *salha "sallow, pussy willow " OHG salaha, G Salweide "pussy willow", OE sealh L salix "willow" (OFr sauz, sausse)

saisir "to seize, snatch; bring suit, vest a court" (ML sacīre "to lay claim to, appropriate") *sakan "to take legal action" Du zeiken "to nag, to quarrel", zaak "court case", OS sakan "to accuse", OHG sahhan "to strive, quarrel , rebuke", OE sacan "to quarrel, claim by law, accuse"; VL aderigere (OFr aerdre "to seize")

standard "standard" (OFr estandart "standard") *standhard "stand hard, stand firm" Du staan (to stand) + hard "hard"

tamis "sieve " (It tamigio) *tamisa MDu temse, teemse, obs. Du teems "sifter " L crībrum (Fr crible "riddle , sift")

tomber "to fall" (OFr tumer "to somersault ") *tūmōn "to tumble" Du tuimelen "to tumble", OS/OHG tūmōn "to tumble", L cadere (obsolete Fr cheoir)

trêve "truce" *treuwa "loyalty, agreement" Du trouw "faithfulness, loyalty" L pausa (Fr pause)

troène "privet" (dialectal truèle, ML trūlla) *trugil "hard wood; small trough" OHG trugilboum, harttrugil "dogwood ; privet", G Hartriegel "dogwood", dialectally "privet", (dial. Eastern) Trögel, archaic (dial. Swabian) Trügel "small trough, trunk, basin" L ligustrum

tuyau "pipe , hose " (OFr tuiel, tuel) *þūta MDu tūte "nipple ; pipe", Du tuit "spout, nozzle ", OE þwēot "channel; canal " L canna "reed ; pipe" (It/SwRom/FrProv cana "pipe")

OLD FRENCH

Franconian speech habits are also responsible for the replacement of Latin
Latin
cum ("with") with od ← apud "at", then with avuec ← apud hoc "at it" ≠ Italian, Spanish con) in Old French
Old French
(Modern French avec), and for the preservation of Latin
Latin
nominative homo "man" as an impersonal pronoun: cf. homme ← hominem "man (accusative)" and Old French hum, hom, om → modern on, "one " (compare German der Mann "man" and man, "one").

MIDDLE ENGLISH

Middle English
Middle English
also adopted many words with Franconian roots from Old French; e.g. random (via Old French
Old French
randon, Old French
Old French
verb randir, from *rant "a running"), standard (via Old French
Old French
estandart, from *standhard "stand firm"), scabbard (via Anglo-French *escauberc, from *skar-berg), grape, stale, march (via Old French
Old French
marche, from *marka) among others.

SEE ALSO

* Low Franconian
Low Franconian
languages * Franconian languages
Franconian languages
* List of French words of Germanic origin * List of Portuguese words of Franconian origin * List of Spanish words of Franconian origin * Old High German
Old High German
* History of French

ENDNOTES

FRANKISH LANGUAGE TEST of at Wikimedia Incubator

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Frankish". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Willemyns, Roland (2013-04-11). Dutch: Biography of a Language. OUP USA. p. 5. ISBN 9780199858712 . * ^ Hans-Werner Goetz: Die „Deutschen Stämme“ als Forschungsproblem. In: Heinrich Beck, Dieter Geuenich, Heiko Steuer , Dietrich Hakelberg (ed.): Zur Geschichte der Gleichung „germanisch-deutsch“. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2004, pp. 229–253 (p. 247). * ^ Rheinischer Fächer – Karte des Landschaftsverband Rheinland Archived February 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ B. Mees, The Bergakker inscription and the beginnings of Dutch, in: Amsterdamer beiträge zur älteren Germanistik: Band 56- 2002, edited by Erika Langbroek, Annelies Roeleveld, Paula Vermeyden, Arend Quak, Published by Rodopi, 2002, ISBN 9042015799 , 9789042015791 * ^ Hawkins, John A. (1987). "Germanic languages". In Bernard Comrie . The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 68–76. ISBN 0-19-520521-9 . * ^ Robinson, Orrin W. (1992). Old English
Old English
and Its Closest Relatives. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2221-8 . * ^ Graeme Davis (2006:154) notes "the languages of the Germanic group in the Old period are much closer than has previously been noted. Indeed it would not be inappropriate to regard them as dialects of one language." In: Davis, Graeme (2006). Comparative Syntax of Old English and Old Icelandic: Linguistic, Literary and Historical Implications. Bern: Peter Lang. ISBN 3-03910-270-2 . * ^ Green, D.H.; Frank Siegmund, eds. (2003). The continental Saxons
Saxons
from the migration period to the tenth century: an ethnographic perspective. Studies in historical archaeoethnology, v.6. Suffolk: Woodbridge. p. 19. There has never been such a thing as one Franconian language. The Franks
Franks
spoke different languages. * ^ A B Milis, L.J.R., "A Long Beginning: The Low Countries
Low Countries
Through the Tenth Century" in J.C.H. Blom hoe long daarvoor dat ook het geval was, kan niet met zekerheid worden uitgemaakt." * ^ van der Wal, M., Geschiedenis van het Nederlands, 1992, p. * ^ U. T. Holmes , A. H. Schutz (1938), A History of the French Language, p. 29, Biblo & Tannen Publishers, ISBN 0-8196-0191-8 * ^ Keller, R.E. (1964). "The Language of the Franks". Bulletin of the John Rylands Library of Manchester. 47 (1): 101–122, esp. 122. Chambers, W.W.; Wilkie, J.R. (1970). A short history of the German language. London: Methuen. p. 33. McKitterick 2008 , p. 318. * ^ Besides modern loan words, English also influenced French in earlier times, with Old English
Old English
for example replacing the Latin
Latin
words for the four cardinal directions: nord "north", sud "south", est "east" and ouest "west". * ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/508379/Romance-languages/74738/Vocabulary-variations?anchor=ref603727 * ^ See a list of Walloon names derived from Old Franconian. * ^ CNRTL, "escrime" * ^ http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/cali003nieu01_01/cali003nieu01_01_0025.php (entry: Vrank) * ^ Because the expected outcome of *aliso is *ause, this word is sometimes erroneously attributed to a Celtic cognate, despite the fact that the outcome would have been similar. However, while a cognate is seen in Gaulish
Gaulish
Alisanos "alder god", a comparison with the treatment of alis- in alène above and -isa in tamis below should show that the expected form is not realistic. Furthermore, the form is likely to have originally been dialectal, hence dialectal forms like allie, allouche, alosse, Berrichon aluge, Walloon : al'hî, some of which clearly point to variants like Gmc *alūsó which gave MHG alze (G Else "whitebeam"). * ^ Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, s.v. "bastard" (NY: Gramercy Books, 1996), 175: " perhaps from Ingvaeonic *bāst-, presumed variant of *bōst- marriage + OF -ard, taken as signifying the offspring of a polygynous marriage to a woman of lower status, a pagan tradition not sanctioned by the church; cf. OFris bost marriage ". Further, MDu had a related expression basture "whore, prostitute". However, the mainstream view sees this word as a formation built off of OFr fils de bast "bastard, lit. son conceived on a packsaddle", very much like OFr coitart "conceived on a blanket", G Bankert, Bänkling "bench child", LG Mantelkind "mantle child", and ON hrísungr "conceived in the brushwood". Bât is itself sometimes misidentified as deriving from a reflex of Germanic *banstis "barn"; cf. Goth bansts, MDu banste, LG dial. Banse, (Jutland) Bende "stall in a cow shed", ON báss "cow stall", OE bōsig "feed crib", E boose "cattle shed", and OFris bōs- (and its loans: MLG bos, Du boes "cow stall", dial. ( Zeeland ) boest "barn"); yet, this connection is false. * ^ ML boscus "wood, timber" has many descendants in Romance languages, such as Sp and It boscoso "wooded." This is clearly the origin of Fr bois as well, but the source of this Medieval Latin
Latin
word is unclear. * ^ etymologiebank.nl "bruin" * ^ Rev. Walter W. Skeat, The Concise Dictionary of English Etymology, s.v. "dance" (NY: Harper, 1898), 108. A number of other fanciful origins are sometimes erroneously attributed to this word, such as VL *deantiare or the clumsy phonetic match OLFrk *dintjan "to stir up" (cf. Fris dintje "to quiver", Icel dynta "to convulse"). * ^ Webster's Encyclopedic, s.v. "screen", 1721. This term is often erroneously attached to *skermo (cf. Du scherm "screen"), but neither the vowel nor the m and vowel/r order match. Instead, *skermo gave OFr eskirmir "to fence", from *skirmjan (cf. OLFrk bescirman, Du beschermen "to protect", comp. Du schermen "to fence"). * ^ Nieuw woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal By I.M. Calisch and N.S. Calisch. * ^ unsure etymology, debatable. The word frank as "sincere", "daring" is attested very late, after the Middle Ages. The word does not occur as such in Old Dutch
Old Dutch
or OHG. "Frank" was used in a decree of king Childeric III in the sense of free man as opposed to the native Gauls who were not free. The meaning 'free' is therefore debatable. * ^ Le Maxidico : dictionnaire encyclopédique de la langue française, s.v. "frapper" (Paris: La Connaissance, 1996), 498. This is worth noting since most dictionaries continue to list this word's etymology as "obscure". * ^ "etymologiebank.nl" ,s.v. "war" "chaos" * ^ "etymologiebank.nl" ,s.v. "wirwar" * ^ Gran Diccionari de la llengua catalana, s.v. "guinda", . * ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=hauberk * ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=garden;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Germanic languages
Germanic languages
and philology

LANGUAGE SUBGROUPS

* North * West * East

* North * East * Elbe * Weser-Rhine * North Sea

RECONSTRUCTED

* Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
* Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
grammar * Germanic parent language

HISTORICAL LANGUAGES

NORTH

* Proto-Norse * Old Norse
Old Norse
* Old Swedish
Old Swedish
* Old Gutnish * Norn * Greenlandic Norse * Old Norwegian * Middle Norwegian

EAST

* Gothic * Crimean Gothic * Vandalic * Burgundian

WEST

* Old Saxon
Old Saxon
* Middle Low German
Middle Low German
* Old High German
Old High German
* Middle High German
High German
* Frankish * Old Dutch
Old Dutch
* Middle Dutch * Old Frisian * Middle Frisian * Old English
Old English
* Middle English
Middle English
* Early Scots * Middle Scots * Lombardic * Forth and Bargy * Fingallian

MODERN LANGUAGES

* Afrikaans
Afrikaans
* Alemannic * Cimbrian * Danish * Dutch * English * Faroese * German * Gutnish * Icelandic * Limburgish
Limburgish
* Low German
Low German
* Mòcheno * Mennonite Low German
Low German
* Luxembourgish
Luxembourgish
* North Frisian * Norwegian * Saterland Frisian * Scots * Swedish * Wymysiöeryś * West Frisian * Yiddish
Yiddish

DIACHRONIC FEATURES

* Grimm\'s law * Verner\'s law * Holtzmann\'s law * Sievers\' law * Kluge\'s law * Germanic substrate hypothesis
Germanic substrate hypothesis
* West Germanic gemination * High German consonant shift * Germanic a-mutation * Germanic umlaut * Germanic spirant law * Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law * Great Vowel Shift
Great Vowel Shift

SYNCHRONIC FEATURES

* Germanic verb * Germanic strong verb * Germanic weak verb * Preterite-present verb * Grammatischer Wechsel * Indo-European ablaut

LANGUAGE HISTORIES

* English (phonology ) * Scots (phonology ) * German * Dutch * Danish * Icelandic * Swedish

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* SUDOC : 144331144 * BNF : cb162014