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FRANKISH (reconstructed Frankish: _*Frenkisk_), OLD FRANCONIAN or OLD FRANKISH was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century. The language itself is poorly attested, but it gave rise to numerous loanwords in Old French . Old Dutch is the term for the Old Franconian dialects spoken in the Low Countries , ie. in present-day Belgium, in the present Netherlands and Western parts of today's Germany until about the 12th century when it evolved into Middle Dutch .

During the Merovingian period , Frankish had significant influence on the Romance languages spoken in Gaul . As a result, many modern French words and placenames (including the country name "France") have a Frankish origin. France itself is still known in German as _Frankreich_, in Dutch , _Frankrijk_, and in Danish, _Frankrig_, i.e. the " Frankish Realm ". Between the 5th and 9th centuries, the languages spoken by the Salian Franks in Belgium and the Netherlands evolved into Old Dutch (Old Low Franconian), while in Picardy and Île-de-France it was eventually eclipsed by Old French as the dominant language.

The Frankish language as spoken before the Carolingian period is mostly reconstructed from Old French loanwords and from the Old Dutch language as recorded in the 6th to 12th centuries. A notable exception is the Bergakker inscription , which may represent a primary record of 5th-century Frankish.

CONTENTS

* 1 Nomenclature

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Salian and Ripuarian Franks (210–500) * 2.3 Frankish Empire (500–900)

* 3 Areal

* 3.1 Austrasia * 3.2 Neustria * 3.3 German Franconia

* 4 Franconian languages

* 5 Influence on Old French and Middle Latin

* 5.1 Old French * 5.2 Middle English

* 6 See also * 7 Endnotes * 8 External links

NOMENCLATURE

Main article: Name of the Franks

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In a modern linguistic context, the language is variously called (in English) Old Frankish or Old Franconian, and referred to in Dutch as _Oudfrankisch_ and in German as _Altfränkisch_.

In philology , the language spoken by the Salian Franks from around the 5th to the 10th century was called Old Dutch or, sometimes, Old Low Franconian, and regarded as a variety of Old Franconian (more broadly defined in that discipline).

Compare the somewhat analogous usage, in philological versus linguistic contexts, of Old English vs. Anglo-Saxon .

The English term _Old Frankish_ is, for historical reasons, usually not used in the context of the Ripuarian Franks and their language. It is more often used in the Salian Frank and Dutch contexts. The language spoken by the Salian Franks has sometimes been referred to as Old West Low Franconian, as distinguishable from Old Low Franconian more broadly.

HISTORY

ORIGINS

The distribution of the primary Germanic dialect groups in Europe in around 1 AD: North Germanic North Sea Germanic , or Ingvaeonic Weser-Rhine Germanic , or Istvaeonic Elbe Germanic , or Irminonic East Germanic

The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West , East and North Germanic. Their exact relation is difficult to determine, and they remained mutually intelligible throughout the Migration Period , so that some individual varieties are difficult to classify.

The language spoken by the Franks was part of the West Germanic language group, which had features from Proto-Germanic in the late Jastorf culture (ca. 1st century BC). The West Germanic group is characterized by a number of phonological and morphological innovations not found in North and East Germanic. The West Germanic varieties of the time are generally split into three dialect groups: Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic), Istvaeonic (Weser-Rhine Germanic) and Irminonic (Elbe Germanic). While each had its own distinct characteristics, there certainly must have still been a high degree of mutual intelligibility between these dialects. In fact, it is unclear whether the West Germanic continuum of this time period, or indeed Franconian itself, should still be considered a single language or that it should be considered a collection of similar dialects.

In any case, it appears that the Frankish tribes, or the later Franks, fit primarily into the Istvaeonic dialect group, with certain Ingvaeonic influences towards the northwest (still seen in modern Dutch), and more Irminonic (High German) influences towards the southeast.

SALIAN AND RIPUARIAN FRANKS (210–500)

Scholarly consensus concerning the Migration Period is in agreement that the Frankish identity emerged at the first half of the 3rd century out of various earlier, smaller Germanic groups, including the Salii , Sicambri , Chamavi , Bructeri , Chatti , Chattuarii , Ampsivarii , Tencteri , Ubii , Batavi and the Tungri . It is speculated that these tribes originally spoke a range of related Istvaeonic dialects in the West Germanic branch of Proto-Germanic . Sometime in the 4th or 5th centuries, it becomes appropriate to speak of Old Franconian rather than an Istvaeonic dialect of Proto-Germanic . Bergakker inscription

Very little is known about what the language was like during this period. One older runic sentence (dating from around 425–450 AD) is on the sword sheath of Bergakker which is either the singular direct attestation of the Old Franconian language or the earliest attestation of Old Low Franconian (Old Dutch) language. Another early sentence from the early 9th century AD (that is described as the earliest sentence in Old Dutch as well) is found in the Malberg Glosses. This phrase was used to free a serf : "Maltho thi afrio lito" (I say, I free you, half-free.)

These are the earliest sentences yet found of Old Franconian. The location of the Franks around 475 . "Les Francs rhénans" is the French term for "Ripuarian Franks".

During this early period, the Franks were divided politically and geographically into two groups: the Salian Franks and the Ripuarian Franks . The language (or set of dialects) spoken by the Salian Franks during this period is sometimes referred to as early "Old Low Franconian", and consisted of two groups: "Old West Low Franconian" and "Old East Low Franconian". The language (or set of dialects) spoken by the Ripuarian Franks are referred to just as Old Franconian dialects (or, by some, as Old Frankish dialects).

However, as already stated above, it may be more accurate to think of these dialects not as early Old Franconian but as Istvaeonic dialects in the West Germanic branch of Proto-Germanic .

FRANKISH EMPIRE (500–900)

The Frankish conquests between 481 and 814

At around 500 AD the Franks spoke Vulgar Latin as proved by the language in which was written the Salic Law, although they still spoke a range of related dialects and languages rather than a single uniform dialect or language. The language of both government and the Church was Latin.

AREAL

AUSTRASIA

The Ripuarian Franks existed as a separate group only until about 500 AD. After that they were subsumed under the Salic Franks. The Franks were united, but the various Ripuarian Frankish groupings must have continued to live in the same areas, and speak the same dialects, although as a part of the growing Frankish Empire .

There must have been a close relationship between the various Franconian dialects. There was also a close relationship between Old Low Franconian (i.e. Old Dutch) and its neighbouring Saxon-based languages and dialects to the north and northeast, i.e. Old Saxon and the related Anglo-Saxon dialects called Old English and Old Frisian .

A widening cultural divide grew between the Franks remaining in the north and the rulers far to the south. Franks continued to reside in their original territories and to speak their original dialects and languages. It is not known what they called their language, but it is possible that they always called it " Diets " (i.e. "the people's language"), or something similar.

Philologists think of Old Dutch and Old West Low Franconian as being the same language. However, sometimes reference is made to a transition from the language spoken by the Salian Franks to Old Dutch . At some point the language spoken by the Ripuarian Franks must have become identifiably Dutch. Because Franconian texts are almost non-existent and Old Dutch texts scarce and fragmentary, it is difficult to determine when such a transition occurred, but it is thought to have happened by the end of the 9th century and perhaps earlier. By 900 AD the language spoken was recognisably an early form of Dutch, but that might also have been the case earlier. Old Dutch made the transition to Middle Dutch around 1150. A Dutch-French language boundary came into existence (but this was originally south of where it is today). Even though living in the original territory of the Franks, these Franks seem to have broken with the endonym "Frank" around the 9th century. By this time the Frankish identity had changed from an ethnic identity to a national identity, becoming localized and confined to the modern _ Franconia _ in Germany and principally to the French province of _ Île-de-France _.

NEUSTRIA

For several centuries, north-western Gaul was a bilingual territory ( Vulgar Latin and Franconian). The language used in writing, in government and by the Church was Latin. Eventually, the Franks who had settled more to the south of this area in northern Gaul started adopting the Vulgar Latin of the local population. This Vulgar Latin language acquired the name of the people who came to speak it (French or Français); north of the French- Dutch language boundary, the language was no longer referred to as "Frankish" (if it ever was referred to as such) but rather came to be referred to as " Diets ", i.e. the "people's language". Urban T. Holmes has proposed that a Germanic language continued to be spoken as a second tongue by public officials in western Austrasia and Neustria as late as the 850s, and that it completely disappeared as a spoken language from these regions only during the 10th century.

GERMAN FRANCONIA

Further information: Franconia

The Franks also expanded their rule southeast into parts of Germany. Their language had some influence on local dialects, especially for terms relating to warfare. However, since the language of both the administration and the Church was Latin, this unification did not lead to the development of a supra-regional variety of Franconian nor a standardized German language. At the same time that the Franks were expanding southeast into Germany, there were linguistic changes in Germany. The High German consonant shift (or second Germanic consonant shift ) was a phonological development (sound change ) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases, probably beginning between the 3rd and 5th centuries AD, and was almost complete before the earliest written records in the High German language were made in the 9th century. The resulting language, Old High German , can be neatly contrasted with Low Franconian , which for the most part did not experience the shift.

FRANCONIAN LANGUAGES

Main article: Franconian languages

The set of dialects of the Franks who continued to live in their original territory in the Low Countries eventually developed in three different ways.

* The dialects spoken by the Salian Franks in the Low Countries (Old Dutch , also referred to as Old West Low Franconian ) developed into the Dutch language , which itself has a number of dialects. Afrikaans branched off Dutch. * The Old East Low Franconian dialects are represented today in Limburgish , which is by some (especially Germans) referred to as Low Rhenish or Meuse-Rhenish . Limburgish itself has a number of dialects. It is by some considered to be a separate language and by others simply a dialect of Dutch or German. * It is speculated that the dialects originally spoken by the Ripuarian Franks in Germany possibly developed into, or were subsumed under, the German dialects called the Central Franconian dialects ( Ripuarian Franconian , Moselle Franconian and Rhenish Franconian ). These languages and dialects were later affected by serious language changes (such as the High German consonant shift ), which resulted in the emergence of dialects that are now considered German dialects. Today, the Central Franconian dialects are spoken in the core territory of the Ripuarian Franks. Although there may not be definite proof to say that the dialects of the Ripuarian Franks (about which very little is known) developed into the Central Franconian dialects , there are—apart from mere probability—some pieces of evidence, most importantly the development _-hs_ → _ss_ and the loss of _n_ before spirants, which is found throughout Central Franconian but nowhere else in High German . Compare Luxembourgish _Uess_ ("ox"), Dutch _os_, German _Ochse_; and (dated) Luxembourgish _Gaus_ ("goose"), Old Dutch _gās_, German _Gans_. The language spoken by Charlemagne was probably the dialect that later developed into the Ripuarian Franconian dialect.

The Frankish Empire later extended throughout neighbouring France and Germany. The language of the Ripuarian Franks had some influence on the local languages (especially in France), but never took hold as a standard language because Latin was the international language at the time. Ironically, the language of the Ripuarian Franks did not develop into the lingua franca .

The Franks conquered adjoining territories of Germany (including the territory of the Allemanni ). The Frankish legacy survives in these areas, for example, in the names of the city of Frankfurt and the area of Franconia . The Franks brought their language with them from their original territory and, as in France, it must have had an effect on the local dialects and languages. However, it is relatively difficult for linguists today to determine what features of these dialects are due to Frankish influence, because the latter was in large parts obscured, or even overwhelmed, by later developments.

INFLUENCE ON OLD FRENCH AND MIDDLE LATIN

Most French words of Germanic origin came from Frankish (some others are English loanwords ), often replacing the Latin word which would have been used. It is estimated that modern French took approximately 1000 stem words from Old Franconian. Many of these words were concerned with agriculture (e.g. French : _jardin_ "garden"), war (e.g. French : _guerre_ "war") or social organization (e.g. French : _baron_ "baron"). Old Franconian has introduced the modern French word for the nation, France ( Francia ), meaning "land of the Franks", as well as possibly the name for the Paris region, Île-de-France .

The influence of Old Frankish on French is decisive for the birth of the early Langue d\'oïl compared to the other Romance languages , that appeared later such as Langue d\'oc , Romanian , Portuguese and Catalan , Italian , etc., because its influence was greater than the respective influence of Visigothic and Lombardic (both Germanic languages ) on the _langue d'oc_, the Romance languages of Iberia, and Italian . Not all of these loanwords have been retained in modern French. French has also passed on words of Franconian origin to other Romance languages, and to English.

Old Frankish has also left many etyma in the different Northern Langues d\'oïls such as Picard , Champenois , Bas-Lorrain and Walloon , more than in Common French, and not always the same ones.

See below a non-exhaustive list of French words of Frankish origin. An asterisk prefixing a term indicates a reconstructed form of the Frankish word. Most Franconian words with the phoneme _w_ changed it to _gu_ when entering Old French and other Romance languages ; however, the northern langue d\'oïl dialects such as Picard, Northern Norman, Walloon, Burgundian, Champenois and Bas-Lorrain retained the or turned it into . Perhaps the best known example is the Franconian *_werra_ ("war" < Old Northern French _werre_, compare Old High German _werre_ "quarrel"), which entered modern French as _guerre_ and _guerra_ in Italian , Occitan , Catalan , Spanish and Portuguese . Other examples include "gant" ("gauntlet", from *_want_) and "garder" ("to guard", from *_wardōn_). Franconian words starting with _s_ before another consonant developed it into _es_- (e.g. Franconian _skirm_ and Old French _escremie_ > Old Italian _scrimia_ > Modern French _escrime_).

CURRENT FRENCH WORD OLD FRANCONIAN DUTCH OR OTHER GERMANIC COGNATES LATIN/ROMANCE

_affranchir_ "to free" *_frank_ "freeborn; unsubjugated, answering to no one", nasalized variant of *_frāki_ "rash, untamed, impudent" Du _frank_ "unforced, sincere, frank", _vrank_ "carefree, brazen", Du _frank en vrij (idiom) "free as air" Du_ Frankrijk _"France", Du_ vrek _"miser", OHG_ franko _"free man" Norwegian : _frekk _"rude"_ L _līberāre_

_alène_ "awl" (Sp _alesna_, It _lesina_) *_alisna_ MDu _elsene, else_, Du _els_ L _sūbula_

_alise_ "whitebeam berry" (OFr _alis, alie_ "whitebeam") *_alísō_ "alder" MDu _elze_, Du _els_ "alder" (vs. G _Erle_ "alder"); Du _elsbes_ "whitebeam", G _Else_ "id." non-native to the Mediterranean

_baron_ *_baro_ "freeman", "bare of duties" MDu _baren_ "to give birth", Du _bar_ "gravely", "bare", OHG _baro_ "freeman", OE _beorn_ "noble" Germanic cultural import Late, Vulgar, and Medieval Latin _*baro_

_bâtard_ "bastard" (FrProv _bâsco_) *_bāst_ "marriage" MDu _bast_ "lust, heat, reproductive season ", WFris _boaste, boask_ "marriage" L _nothus_

_bâtir_ "to build" (OFr _bastir_ "to baste, tie together") _bâtiment_ "building" _bastille_ "fortress" _bastion_ "fortress" *_bastian_ "to bind with bast string" MDu _besten_ "to sew up, to connect", OHG _bestan_ "to mend, patch", NHG _basteln_ "to tinker"; MDu _best_ "liaison" (Du gemene_best_ "commonwealth") L _construere_ (It _costruire_)

_bière_ "beer" *_bera_ Du _bier_ L _cervisia_(celtic)

_blanc, blanche_ "white" *_blank_ Du _blinken_ "to shine", _blank_ "white, shining" L _albus_

_bleu_ "blue" (OFr _blou, bleve_) *_blao_ MDu _blā, blau, blaeuw_, Du _blauw_ L _caeruleus_ "light blue", _lividus_ "dark blue"

_bois_ "wood, forest" *_busk_ "bush, underbrush" MDu _bosch, busch_, Du _bos_ "forest", "bush" L _silva_ "forest" (OFr _selve_), L _lignum_ "wood" (OFr _lein_)

_bourg_ "town/city" *_burg_ or *_burc_ "fortified settlement" ODu _burg_, MDu _burcht_ Got. _baurg_ OHG _burg_ OE _burh_, OLG _burg_, ON _borg_ L _urbs_ "fortified city", Late Latin _burgus_

_broder_ "to embroider" (OFr _brosder, broisder_) *_brosdōn_, blend of *_borst_ "bristle" and *_brordōn_ "to embroider" G _Borste_ "boar bristle", Du _borstel_ "bristle"; OS _brordōn_ "to embroider, decorate", _brord_ "needle" L _pingere_ "to paint; embroider" (Fr _peindre_ "to paint")

_broyer_ "to grind, crush" (OFr _brier_) *_brekan_ "to break" Du _breken_ "to break", LL _tritāre_ (Occ _trissar_ "to grind", but Fr _trier_ "to sort"), LL _pistāre_ (It _pestare_ "to pound, crush", OFr _pester_), L _machīnare_ (Dalm _maknur_ "to grind", Rom _măcina_, It _macinare_)

_brun_ "brown" ? MDu _brun_ and Du _bruin_ "brown"

_choquer_ "to shock" *_skukjan_ Du _schokken_ "to shock, to shake"

_choisir_ "to choose" *_kiosan_ MDu _kiesen_, Du _kiezen_, _keuze_ L _eligēre_ (Fr _élire_ "to elect"), VL _exeligēre_ (cf. It _scegliere_), _excolligere_ (Cat _escollir_, Sp _escoger_, Pg _escolher_)

_chouette_ "barn owl" (OFr _çuete_, dim. of _choë, choue_ "jackdaw") *_kōwa, kāwa_ "chough, jackdaw" MDu _couwe_ "rook", Du _kauw, kaauw_ "chough" not distinguished in Latin: L _būbō_ "owl", _ōtus_ "eared owl", _ulula_ "screech owl", _ulucus_ likewise "screech owl" (cf. Sp _loco_ "crazy"), _noctua_ "night owl"

_cresson_ "watercress" *_kresso_ MDu _kersse, korsse_, Du _kers_, dial. _kors_ L _nasturtium_, LL _berula_ (but Fr _berle_ "water parsnip")

_danser_ "to dance" (OFr _dancier_) *_dansōn_ OHG _dansōn_ "to drag along, trail"; further to MDu _densen, deinsen_ "to shrink back", Du _deinzen_ "to stir; move away, back up", OHG _dinsan_ "to pull, stretch" LL _ballare_ (OFr _baller_, It _ballare_, Pg _bailar_)

_déchirer_ "to rip, tear" (OFr _escirer_) *_skerian_ "to cut, shear" MDu _scēren_, Du _scheren_ "to shave, shear", _scheuren_ "to tear" VL _extractiāre_ (Prov _estraçar_, It _stracciare_), VL _exquartiare_ "to rip into fours" (It _squarciare_, but Fr _écarter_ "to move apart, distance"), _exquintiare_ "to rip into five" (Cat/Occ _esquinçar_)

_dérober_ "to steal, reave" (OFr _rober_, Sp _robar_) *_rōbon_ "to steal" MDu _rōven_, Du _roven_ "to rob" VL _furicare_ "to steal" (It _frugare_)

_écang_ "swingle-dag" *_swank_ "bat, rod" MDu _swanc_ "wand, rod", Du (dial. Holland) _zwang_ "rod" L _pistillum_ (Fr dial. _pesselle_ "swingle-dag")

_écran_ "screen" (OFr _escran_) *_skrank_ MDu _schrank_ "chassis"; G _Schrank_ "cupboard", _Schranke_ "fence" L _obex_

_écrevisse_ "crayfish" (OFr _crevice_) *_krebit_ Du _kreeft_ "crayfish, lobster" L _cammārus_ "crayfish" (cf. Occ _chambre_, It _gambero_, Pg _camarão_)

_éperon_ "spur" (OFr _esporon_) *_sporo_ MDu _spōre_, Du _spoor_ L _calcar_

_épier_ "to watch" Old French _espie_ "male spy", , Modern French _espion_ is from Italian *_spehōn_ "to spy" Du _spieden_, _bespieden_ "to spy", HG _spähen_ "to peer, to peek, to scout",

_escrime_ "fencing" < Old Italian _scrimia_ < OFr _escremie_ from _escremir_ "fight" *_skirm_ "to protect" Du _schermen_ "to fence", _scherm_ "(protective) screen", _bescherming_ "protection", _afscherming_ "shielding"

_étrier_ "stirrup" (OFr _estrieu, estrief_) *_stīgarēp_, from _stīgan_ "to go up, to mount" and _rēp_ "band" MDu _steegereep_, Du _stijgreep_, _stijgen_ "to rise", _steigeren_ LL _stapia_ (later ML _stapēs_), ML _saltatorium_ (cf. MFr _saultoir_)

_flèche_ "arrow" *_fliukka_ Du _vliek_ "arrow feather", MDu _vliecke_, OS _fliuca_ (MLG _fliecke_ "long arrow") L _sagitta_ (OFr _saete_, Pg _seta_)

_frais_ "fresh" (OFr _freis_, _fresche_) *_friska_ "fresh" Du _vers_ "fresh", _fris_ "cold", German _frisch_

_franc_ "free, exempt; straightforward, without hassle" (LL _francus_ "freeborn, freedman") _France_ "France" (OFr _Francia_) _franchement_ "frankly" *_frank_ "freeborn; unsubjugated, answering to no one", nasalized variant of *_frāki_ "rash, untamed, impudent" MDu _vrec_ "insolent", Du _frank_ "unforced, sincere, frank", _vrank_ "carefree, brazen", Du _Frankrijk_ "France", Du _vrek_ "miser", OHG _franko_ "free man" L _ingenuus_ "freeborn" L _Gallia_

_frapper_ "to hit, strike" (OFr _fraper_) *_hrapan_ "to jerk, snatch" Du _rapen_ "gather up, collect", G _raffen_ "to grab" L _ferire_ (OFr _ferir_)

_frelon_ "hornet" (OFr _furlone_, ML _fursleone_) *_hurslo_ MDu _horsel_, Du _horzel_ L _crābrō_ (cf. It _calabrone_)

_freux_ "rook" (OFr _frox, fru_) *_hrōk_ MDu _roec_, Du _roek_ not distinguished in Latin

_galoper_ "to gallop" *_wala hlaupan_ "to run well" Du _wel_ "good, well" + _lopen_ "to run"

_garder_ "to guard" *_wardōn_ MDu _waerden_ "to defend", OS _wardōn_ L _cavere_, _servare_

_gant_ "gauntlet" *_want_ Du _want_ "gauntlet"

_givre_ "frost (substance)" *_gibara_ "drool, slobber" EFris _gever_, LG _Geiber_, G _Geifer_ "drool, slobber" L _gelū_ (cf. Fr _gel_ "frost (event); freezing")

_glisser_ "to slip" (OFr _glier_) *_glīdan_ "to glide" MDu _glīden_, Du _glijden_ "to glide"; Du _glis_ "skid"; G _gleiten_, _Gleis_ "track" ML _planare_

_grappe_ "bunch (of grapes)" (OFr _crape, grape_ "hook, grape stalk") *_krāppa_ "hook" MDu _crappe_ "hook", Du (dial. Holland) _krap_ "krank", G _Krapfe_ "hook", (dial. Franconian ) _Krape_ "torture clamp, vice" L _racemus_ (Prov _rasim_ "bunch", Cat _raïm_, Sp _racimo_, but Fr _raisin_ "grape")

_gris_ "grey" *_grîs_ "grey" Du _grijs_ "grey" L _cinereus_ "ash-coloured, grey"

_guenchir_ "to turn aside, avoid" *_wenkjan_ Du _wankelen_ "to go unsteady"

_guérir_ "to heal, cure" (OFr _garir_ "to defend") _guérison_ "healing" (OFr _garrison_ "healing") *_warjan_ "to protect, defend" MDu _weeren_, Du _weren_ "to protect, defend", Du be_waren_ "to keep, preserve" L _sānāre_ (Sard _sanare_, Sp/Pg _sanar_, OFr _saner_), _medicāre_ (Dalm _medcuar_ "to heal")

_guerre_ "war" *_werra_ "war" Du _war_ or _wirwar_ "tangle", _verwarren_ "to confuse" L _bellum_

_guigne_ "heart cherry" (OFr _guisne_) *_wīksina_ G _Weichsel_ "sour cherry", (dial. Rhine Franconian ) _Waingsl_, (dial. East Franconian ) _Wassen, Wachsen_ non-native to the Mediterranean

_haïr_ "to hate" (OFr _hadir_ "to hate") _haine_ "hatred" (OFr _haïne_ "hatred") *_hatjan_ Du _haten_ "to hate", _haat_ "hatred" L _ōdī_ "to hate", _odium_ "hatred"

_hanneton_ "cockchafer" *_hāno_ "rooster" + _-eto_ (diminutive suffix) with sense of "beetle, weevil" Du _haan_ "rooster", lelie_haantje_ "lily beetle", blad_haantje_ "leaf beetle", G _Hahn_ "rooster", (dial. Rhine Franconian) _Hahn_ "sloe bug, shield bug", Lilien_hähnchen_ "lily beetle" LL _bruchus_ "chafer" (cf. Fr dial. _brgue, beùrgne, brégue_), _cossus_ (cf. SwRom _coss_, OFr _cosson_ "weevil")

_haubert_ "hauberk " *_halsberg_ "neck-cover" Du _hals_ "neck" + _berg_ "cover" (cf Du _herberg_ "hostel")

_héron_ "heron" *_heigero_, variant of *_hraigro_ MDu _heiger_ "heron", Du _reiger_ "heron" L _ardea_

_houx_ "holly" *_hulis_ MDu _huls_, Du _hulst_ L _aquifolium_ (Sp _acebo_), later VL _acrifolium_ (Occ _grefuèlh, agreu_, Cat _grèvol_, It _agrifoglio_)

_jardin_ "garden" (VL _hortus gardinus_ "enclosed garden", Ofr _jardin_, _jart_) *_gardo_ "garden" Du _gaard_ "garden", _boomgaard_ "orchard"; OS _gardo_ "garden" L _hortus_

_lécher_ "to lick" (OFr _lechier_ "to live in debauchery") *_leccōn_ "to lick" MDu _lecken_, Du _likken_ "to lick" L _lingere_ (Sard _línghere_), _lambere_ (Sp _lamer_, Pg _lamber_)

_maçon_ "bricklayer" (OFr _masson, machun_) *_mattio_ "mason" Du _metsen_ "to mason", _metselaar_ "masoner"; OHG _mezzo_ "stonemason", _meizan_ "to beat, cut", G _Metz, Steinmetz_ "mason" VL _murator_ (Occ _murador_, Sard _muradore_, It _muratóre_)

_maint_ "many" (OFr _maint_, _meint_ "many") *_menigþa_ "many" Du _menig_ "many", _menigte_ "group of people"

_marais_ "marsh, swamp" *_marisk_ "marsh" MDu _marasch, meresch, maersc_, Du _meers_ "wet grassland", (dial. Holland) _mars_ L _paludem_ (Occ _palun_, It _palude_)

_maréchal_ "marshal" _maréchausse_ "military police" *_marh-skalk_ "horse-servant" ODu _marscalk_ "horse-servant" (_marchi_ "mare" + _skalk_ "servant"); MDu _marscalc_ "horse-servant, royal servant" (_mare_ "mare" + _skalk_ "serf"); Du _maarschalk_ "marshal" (_merrie_ "mare" + _schalk_ "comic", _schalks_ "teasingly")

_nord_ "north" *_Nortgouue_ (790–793 A.D.) "north" + "frankish district" (Du _gouw_, Deu _Gau_, Fri/LSax _Go_) Du _noord_ or _noorden_ "north" L _septemtrio(nes) / septentrio(nes)_ "north, north wind, northern regions, (pl.) seven stars near the north pole", _boreas_ "north wind, north", _aquilo_ "stormy wind, north wind, north", _aquilonium_ "northerly regions, north"

_osier_ "osier (basket willow); withy" (OFr _osière_, ML _auseria_) *_halster_ MDu _halster_, LG dial. _Halster, Hilster_ "bay willow" L _vīmen_ "withy" (It _vimine_ "withy", Sp _mimbre, vimbre_ "osier", Pg _vimeiro_, Cat _vímet_ "withy"), _vinculum_ (It _vinco_ "osier", dial. _vinchio_, Friul _venc_)

_patte_ "paw" *_pata_ "foot sole" Du _poot_ "paw", Du _pets_ "strike"; LG _Pad_ "sole of the foot"; further to G _Patsche_ "instrument for striking the hand", _Patsch_fuss "web foot", _patschen_ "to dabble", (dial. Bavarian ) _patzen_ "to blot, pat, stain" Vulg L _pauta_, LL _branca_ "paw" (Sard _brànca_, It _brince_, Rom _brîncă_, Prov _branca_, Romansh _franka_, but Fr _branche_ "treelimb"), see also Deu _Pranke_

_poche_ "pocket " *_poka_ "pouch " MDu _poke_, G dial. _Pfoch_ "pouch, change purse" L _bulga_ "leather bag " (Fr _bouge_ "bulge"), LL _bursa_ "coin purse " (Fr _bourse_ "money pouch , purse", It _bórsa_, Sp/Pg _bolsa_)

_riche_ "rich " *_riki_ "rich" MDu _rike_, Du _rijk_ "kingdom", "rich" L _dives_

_sale_ "dirty " *_salo_ "pale, sallow" MDu _salu, saluwe_ "discolored, dirty", Du (old) _zaluw_ "tawny" L _succidus_ (cf. It _sudicio_, Sp _sucio_, Pg _sujo_, Ladin _scich_, Friul _soç_)

_salle_ "room" *_sala_ "hall, room" ODu _zele_ "house made with sawn beams", Many place names: "Melsele", "Broeksele" (Brussels) etc.

_saule_ "willow " *_salha_ "sallow, pussy willow " OHG _salaha_, G _Sal_weide "pussy willow", OE _sealh_ L _salix_ "willow" (OFr _sauz, sausse_)

_saisir_ "to seize, snatch; bring suit, vest a court" (ML _sacīre_ "to lay claim to, appropriate") *_sakan_ "to take legal action" Du _zeiken_ "to nag, to quarrel", _zaak_ "court case", OS _sakan_ "to accuse", OHG _sahhan_ "to strive, quarrel , rebuke", OE _sacan_ "to quarrel, claim by law, accuse"; VL _aderigere_ (OFr _aerdre_ "to seize")

_standard_ "standard" (OFr _estandart_ "standard") *_standhard_ "stand hard, stand firm" Du _staan_ (to stand) + _hard_ "hard"

_tamis_ "sieve " (It _tamigio_) *_tamisa_ MDu _temse, teemse_, obs. Du _teems_ "sifter " L _crībrum_ (Fr _crible_ "riddle , sift")

_tomber_ "to fall" (OFr _tumer_ "to somersault ") *_tūmōn_ "to tumble" Du _tuimelen_ "to tumble", OS/OHG _tūmōn_ "to tumble", L _cadere_ (obsolete Fr _cheoir_)

_trêve_ "truce" *_treuwa_ "loyalty, agreement" Du _trouw_ "faithfulness, loyalty" L _pausa_ (Fr _pause_)

_troène_ "privet" (dialectal _truèle_, ML _trūlla_) *_trugil_ "hard wood; small trough" OHG _trugilboum, harttrugil_ "dogwood ; privet", G _Hartriegel_ "dogwood", dialectally "privet", (dial. Eastern) _Trögel_, archaic (dial. Swabian) _Trügel_ "small trough, trunk, basin" L _ligustrum_

_tuyau_ "pipe , hose " (OFr _tuiel, tuel_) *_þūta_ MDu _tūte_ "nipple ; pipe", Du _tuit_ "spout, nozzle ", OE _þwēot_ "channel; canal " L _canna_ "reed ; pipe" (It/SwRom/FrProv _cana_ "pipe")

OLD FRENCH

Franconian speech habits are also responsible for the replacement of Latin _cum_ ("with") with _od_ ← _apud_ "at", then with _avuec_ ← _apud hoc_ "at it" ≠ Italian, Spanish _con_) in Old French (Modern French _avec_), and for the preservation of Latin nominative _homo_ "man" as an impersonal pronoun: cf. _homme_ ← _hominem_ "man (accusative)" and Old French _hum, hom, om_ → modern _on_, "one " (compare German _der Mann_ "man" and _man_, "one").

MIDDLE ENGLISH

Middle English also adopted many words with Franconian roots from Old French; e.g. _random_ (via Old French _randon_, Old French verb _randir_, from _*rant_ "a running"), _standard_ (via Old French _estandart_, from _*standhard_ "stand firm"), _scabbard_ (via Anglo-French *_escauberc_, from *_skar-berg_), _grape_, _stale_, _march _ (via Old French _marche_, from *_marka_) among others.

SEE ALSO

* Low Franconian languages * Franconian languages * List of French words of Germanic origin * List of Portuguese words of Franconian origin * List of Spanish words of Franconian origin * Old High German * History of French

ENDNOTES

_ FRANKISH LANGUAGE TEST _ of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Frankish". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Willemyns, Roland (2013-04-11). _Dutch: Biography of a Language_. OUP USA. p. 5. ISBN 9780199858712 . * ^ Hawkins, John A. (1987). "Germanic languages". In Bernard Comrie . _The World's Major Languages_. Oxford University Press. pp. 68–76. ISBN 0-19-520521-9 . * ^ Robinson, Orrin W. (1992). _ Old English and Its Closest Relatives_. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2221-8 . * ^ Graeme Davis (2006:154) notes "the languages of the Germanic group in the Old period are much closer than has previously been noted. Indeed it would not be inappropriate to regard them as dialects of one language." In: Davis, Graeme (2006). _Comparative Syntax of Old English and Old Icelandic: Linguistic, Literary and Historical Implications_. Bern: Peter Lang. ISBN 3-03910-270-2 . * ^ Green, D.H.; Frank Siegmund, eds. (2003). _The continental Saxons from the migration period to the tenth century: an ethnographic perspective_. Studies in historical archaeoethnology, v.6. Suffolk: Woodbridge. p. 19. There has never been such a thing as one Franconian language. The Franks spoke different languages. * ^ _A_ _B_ Milis, L.J.R., "A Long Beginning: The Low Countries Through the Tenth Century" in J.C.H. Blom hoe long daarvoor dat ook het geval was, kan niet met zekerheid worden uitgemaakt._" * ^ van der Wal, M., _Geschiedenis van het Nederlands_, 1992, p. * ^ U. T. Holmes , A. H. Schutz (1938), _A History of the French Language_, p. 29, Biblo & Tannen Publishers, ISBN 0-8196-0191-8 * ^ Keller, R.E. (1964). "The Language of the Franks". _Bulletin of the John Rylands Library of Manchester_. 47 (1): 101–122, esp. 122. Chambers, W.W.; Wilkie, J.R. (1970). _A short history of the German language_. London: Methuen. p. 33. McKitterick 2008 , p. 318. * ^ Besides modern loan words, English also influenced French in earlier times, with Old English for example replacing the Latin words for the four cardinal directions: _nord_ "north", _sud_ "south", _est_ "east" and _ouest_ "west". * ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/508379/Romance-languages/74738/Vocabulary-variations?anchor=ref603727 * ^ See a list of Walloon names derived from Old Frankish. * ^ CNRTL, "escrime" * ^ http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/cali003nieu01_01/cali003nieu01_01_0025.php (entry: Vrank) * ^ Because the expected outcome of *_aliso_ is *_ause_, this word is sometimes erroneously attributed to a Celtic cognate, despite the fact that the outcome would have been similar. However, while a cognate is seen in Gaulish _Alisanos_ "alder god", a comparison with the treatment of _alis-_ in _alène_ above and _-isa_ in _tamis_ below should show that the expected form is not realistic. Furthermore, the form is likely to have originally been dialectal, hence dialectal forms like _allie, allouche, alosse_, Berrichon _aluge_, Walloon : _al'hî_, some of which clearly point to variants like Gmc *_alūsó_ which gave MHG _alze_ (G _Else_ "whitebeam"). * ^ _Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language_, s.v. "bastard" (NY: Gramercy Books, 1996), 175: " perhaps from Ingvaeonic *_bāst-_, presumed variant of *_bōst-_ marriage + OF _-ard_, taken as signifying the offspring of a polygynous marriage to a woman of lower status, a pagan tradition not sanctioned by the church; cf. OFris _bost_ marriage ". Further, MDu had a related expression _basture_ "whore, prostitute". However, the mainstream view sees this word as a formation built off of OFr _fils de bast_ "bastard, lit. son conceived on a packsaddle", very much like OFr _coitart_ "conceived on a blanket", G _Bankert, Bänkling_ "bench child", LG _Mantelkind_ "mantle child", and ON _hrísungr_ "conceived in the brushwood". _Bât_ is itself sometimes misidentified as deriving from a reflex of Germanic *_banstis_ "barn"; cf. Goth _bansts_, MDu _banste_, LG dial. _Banse_, (Jutland) _Bende_ "stall in a cow shed", ON _báss_ "cow stall", OE _bōsig_ "feed crib", E _boose_ "cattle shed", and OFris _bōs-_ (and its loans: MLG _bos_, Du _boes_ "cow stall", dial. ( Zeeland ) _boest_ "barn"); yet, this connection is false. * ^ ML _boscus_ "wood, timber" has many descendants in Romance languages, such as Sp and It _boscoso_ "wooded." This is clearly the origin of Fr _bois_ as well, but the source of this Medieval Latin word is unclear. * ^ etymologiebank.nl "bruin" * ^ Rev. Walter W. Skeat, _The Concise Dictionary of English Etymology_, s.v. "dance" (NY: Harper, 1898), 108. A number of other fanciful origins are sometimes erroneously attributed to this word, such as VL *_deantiare_ or the clumsy phonetic match OLFrk *_dintjan_ "to stir up" (cf. Fris _dintje_ "to quiver", Icel _dynta_ "to convulse"). * ^ _Webster's Encyclopedic_, s.v. "screen", 1721. This term is often erroneously attached to *_skermo_ (cf. Du _scherm_ "screen"), but neither the vowel nor the _m_ and vowel/_r_ order match. Instead, *skermo gave OFr _eskirmir_ "to fence", from *_skirmjan_ (cf. OLFrk be_scirman_, Du be_schermen_ "to protect", comp. Du _schermen_ "to fence"). * ^ Nieuw woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal By I.M. Calisch and N.S. Calisch. * ^ unsure etymology, debatable. The word _frank_ as "sincere", "daring" is attested very late, after the Middle Ages. The word does not occur as such in Old Dutch or OHG. "Frank" was used in a decree of king Childeric III in the sense of free man as opposed to the native Gauls who were not free. The meaning 'free' is therefore debatable. * ^ _Le Maxidico : dictionnaire encyclopédique de la langue française_, s.v. "frapper" (Paris: La Connaissance, 1996), 498. This is worth noting since most dictionaries continue to list this word's etymology as "obscure". * ^ "etymologiebank.nl" ,s.v. "war" "chaos" * ^ "etymologiebank.nl" ,s.v. "wirwar" * ^ _Gran Diccionari de la llengua catalana_, s.v. "guinda", . * ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=hauberk * ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=garden">

* v * t * e

Germanic languages and philology

LANGUAGE SUBGROUPS

* North * West * East

* _North_ * _East_ * _Elbe _ * _Weser-Rhine _ * _North Sea _

RECONSTRUCTED

* Proto-Germanic * Proto-Germanic grammar * Germanic parent language

HISTORICAL LANGUAGES

NORTH

* Proto-Norse * Old Norse * Old Swedish * Old Gutnish * Norn * Greenlandic Norse * Old Norwegian * Middle Norwegian

EAST

* Gothic * Crimean Gothic * Vandalic * Burgundian

WEST

* Old Saxon * Middle Low German * Old High German * Middle High German * Frankish * Old Dutch * Middle Dutch * Old Frisian * Middle Frisian * Old English * Middle English * Early Scots * Middle Scots * Lombardic * Forth and Bargy * Fingallian

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* Afrikaans * Alemannic * Cimbrian * Danish * Dutch * English * Faroese * German * Gutnish * Icelandic * Limburgish * Low German * Mòcheno * Mennonite Low German * Luxembourgish * North Frisian * Norwegian * Saterland Frisian * Scots * Swedish * Wymysorys * West Frisian * Yiddish

DIACHRONIC FEATURES

* Grimm\'s law * Verner\'s law * Holtzmann\'s law * Sievers\' law * Kluge\'s law * Germanic substrate hypothesis * West Germanic gemination * High German consonant shift * Germanic a-mutation * Germanic umlaut * Germanic spirant law * Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law * Great Vowel Shift

SYNCHRONIC FEATURES

* Germanic verb * Germanic strong verb * Germanic weak verb * Preterite-present verb * Grammatischer Wechsel * Indo-European ablaut

LANGUAGE HISTORIES

* English (phonology ) * Scots (phonology ) * German * Dutch * Danish * Icelandic * Swedish

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* SUDOC : 144331144 * BNF : cb162014507 (data)

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