François Villon (pronounced [fʁɑ̃swa vijɔ̃] in modern French; in
fifteenth-century French, [frɑnswɛ vilɔn]), born in Paris in 1431
and disappeared from view in 1463, is the best known French poet of
the late Middle Ages. A ne'er-do-well who was involved in criminal
behavior and had multiple encounters with law enforcement
authorities, Villon wrote about some of these experiences in his
1.2 Early life
1.3 Student life
1.4 Alleged criminal activities
1.5 Le Testament, 1461
2.2 Le Testament
2.3 Mysteries in Villon
3.1 Complete works: recent translations
3.2 Complete works: older translations
3.3 Where are the snows of yesteryear?
3.4 Selected works
4 Critical views
5 Adaptations and tributes
6 In popular culture
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Villon was born in Paris in 1431 (the year that
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc was burned
at the stake). One source gives the date as April 19, 1432 [O.S.
April 1, 1431] .
Villon's real name may have been François de Montcorbier or François
des Loges: both of these names appear in official documents drawn
up in Villon's lifetime. In his own work, however, Villon is the only
name the poet used, and he mentions it frequently in his work. His two
collections of poems, especially "Le Testament" (also known as "Le
grand testament"), have traditionally been read as if they were
autobiographical. Other details of his life are known from court or
other civil documents.
From what the poems tell us, it appears that Villon was born in
poverty and raised by a foster father, but that his mother was still
living when her son was thirty years old. The surname "Villon," the
poet tells us, is the name he adopted from his foster father,
Guillaume de Villon, chaplain in the collegiate church of
Saint-Benoît-le-Bétourné (fr), and a professor of canon law,
who took Villon into his house. François describes Guillaume de
Villon as "more than a father to me".
Villon became a student in arts, perhaps at about twelve years of age.
He received a bachelor's degree from the
University of Paris
University of Paris in 1449
and a master's degree in 1452. Between this year and 1455, nothing is
known of his activities. As the author of the 1911 Encyclopædia
Britannica article writes, "Attempts have been made, in the usual
fashion of conjectural biography, to fill up the gap with what a young
graduate of Bohemian tendencies would, could, or might have done, but
they are mainly futile."
Alleged criminal activities
Depiction of Villon by Federico Cantu
On 5 June 1455, the first major recorded incident of his life
occurred. In the company of a priest named Giles and a girl named
Isabeau, he met, in the Rue Saint-Jacques, a Breton, Jean le Hardi, a
master of arts, who was also with a priest, Philippe Chermoye (or
Sermoise or Sermaise). A scuffle broke out, daggers were drawn and
Sermaise, who is accused of having threatened and attacked Villon and
drawn the first blood, not only received a dagger-thrust in return,
but a blow from a stone, which struck him down. He died of his wounds.
Villon fled, and was sentenced to banishment – a sentence which was
remitted in January 1456 by a pardon from King Charles VII after he
received the second of two petitions which made the claim that
Sermoise had forgiven Villon before he died.
Two different versions of the formal pardon exist; in one, the culprit
is identified as "François des Loges, autrement dit Villon"
("François des Loges, otherwise called Villon"), in the other as
"François de Montcorbier." He is also said to have named himself to
the barber-surgeon who dressed his wounds as "Michel Mouton." The
documents of this affair at least confirm the date of his birth, by
presenting him as twenty-six years old or thereabouts.
Around Christmas 1456, the chapel of the Collège de Navarre was
broken open and five hundred gold crowns stolen. Villon was involved
in the robbery and many scholars believe that he fled from Paris soon
afterward and that this is when he composed what is now known as the
Petit Testament ("The Smaller Testament") or Lais ("Legacy" or
"Bequests"). The robbery was not discovered until March of the next
year, and it was not until May that the police came on the track of a
gang of student-robbers, owing to the indiscretion of one of them, Guy
Tabarie. A year more passed, when Tabarie, after being arrested,
turned king's evidence and accused the absent Villon of being the
ringleader, and of having gone to Angers, partly at least, to arrange
similar burglaries there. Villon, for either this or another crime,
was sentenced to banishment; he did not attempt to return to Paris.
For four years, he was a wanderer. He may have been, as his friends
Regnier de Montigny and Colin des Cayeux were, a member of a wandering
gang of thieves.
Le Testament, 1461
The next date for which there are recorded whereabouts for Villon is
the summer of 1461; Villon wrote that he spent that summer in the
bishop's prison at Meung-sur-Loire. His crime is not known, but in Le
Testament ("The Testament") dated that year he inveighs bitterly
against Bishop Thibault d'Aussigny, who held the see of Orléans.
Villon may have been released as part of a general jail-delivery at
the accession of King
Louis XI and became a free man again on 2
In 1461, he wrote his most famous work,
Le Testament (or Le Grand
Testament, as it is also known). In the autumn of 1462, he was once
more living in the cloisters of Saint-Benoît and in November, he was
imprisoned for theft in the fortress that stood at what is now Place
du Châtelet in Paris. In default of evidence, the old charge of
burgling the college of Navarre was revived, and no royal pardon
arrived to counter the demand for restitution. Bail was accepted;
however, Villon fell promptly into a street quarrel. He was arrested,
tortured and condemned to be hanged ("pendu et étranglé"), but the
sentence was commuted to banishment by the parlement on 5 January
Villon's fate after January 1463 is unknown.
Rabelais retells two
stories about him which are usually dismissed as without any basis in
fact. Anthony Bonner speculated the poet, as he left Paris, was
"broken in health and spirit." Bonner writes further:
He might have died on a mat of straw in some cheap tavern, or in a
cold, dank cell; or in a fight in some dark street with another French
coquillard; or perhaps, as he always feared, on a gallows in a little
town in France. We will probably never know.
Ballades et poèmes diverses
A page from Villon's Le grand testament. Kungliga biblioteket in
Villon was a great innovator in terms of the themes of poetry and,
through these themes, a great renovator of the forms. He understood
perfectly the medieval courtly ideal, but he often chose to write
against the grain, reversing the values and celebrating the lowlifes
destined for the gallows, falling happily into parody or lewd jokes,
and constantly innovating in his diction and vocabulary; a few minor
poems make extensive use of Parisian thieves' slang. Still Villon's
verse is mostly about his own life, a record of poverty, trouble, and
trial which was certainly shared by his poems' intended audience.
Main article: Le Testament
In 1461, at the age of thirty, Villon composed the longer work which
came to be known as Le grand testament (1461–1462). This has
generally been judged Villon's greatest work, and there is evidence in
the work itself that Villon felt the same.
Besides Le Lais and Le grand testament, surviving works of Villon
include 16 shorter poems, varying from the serious to the
light-hearted, and 11 poems in thieves' jargon which were attributed
to Villon from a very early time, but which many scholars now believe
to be the work of other poets imitating Villon.
Mysteries in Villon
Villon's poems are sprinkled with mysteries and hidden jokes: they are
peppered with the slang of the time and the underworld subculture in
which Villon moved, replete with private jokes, and full of the
names of real people (rich men, royal officials, lawyers, prostitutes,
and policemen) from medieval Paris.
Complete works: recent translations
A new English translation by David Georgi came out in 2013. The book
also includes Villon's French, printed across from the English, and
notes in the back provide a wealth of information about the poems and
about medieval Paris. "More than any translation, Georgi's emphasizes
Villon's famous gallows humor...his word play, jokes, and puns". For
the complete works, another option is Barbara Sargent-Baur's very
literal translation (1994, now out of print) which also includes 11
poems long attributed to Villon but possibly the work of a medieval
Complete works: older translations
A translation by the American poet
Galway Kinnell (1965, revised in
1977) contains most of Villon's works but lacks the shorter poems.
Peter Dale's ingenious verse translation (1974) follows the poet's
rhyme scheme faithfully, though the necessity of finding rhymes
requires him to frequently stray from literal faithfulness. Other fine
translations include one by Anthony Bonner, published in 1960, and
another by John Herron Lepper, from 1926. One drawback common to these
English older translations is that they are all based on old editions
of Villon's texts: that is, the French text that they translate (the
Longnon-Foulet edition of 1932) is a text established by scholars some
80 years ago.
Where are the snows of yesteryear?
The refrain "Where are the snows of yester-year?" is one of the most
famous lines of translated poetry in the English-speaking world. It
comes from The Ballad of Dead Ladies, Dante Gabriel Rossetti's
translation of Villon's Ballade des dames du temps jadis, where the
line is: "Mais où sont les neiges d'antan?"
A very loose but lively English take-off on a scattered selection of
Villon poems was made by
Stephen Rodefer in 1976, under the pen name
Jean Calais. Translations of three Villon poems were made in 1867 by
Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
Klaus Kinski, the German actor, was an admirer of Villon and performed
his work many times. There are recordings of Kinski reciting Villon on
cd and vinyl.
Villon's poems enjoyed substantial popularity in the decades after
they were written. In 1489, a printed volume of his poems was
published by Pierre Levet. This edition was almost immediately
followed by several others. In 1533, poet and humanist scholar
Clément Marot published an important edition, in which he recognized
Villon as one of the most important poets in
French literature and
sought to correct mistakes that had been introduced to the poetry by
earlier and less careful printers.
The most commonly featured motifs that can be found in Villon's poetry
are "carpe diem", "ubi sunt", "memento mori" and "danse
Adaptations and tributes
In 1960, the Greek artist
Nonda dedicated an entire one man art show
François Villon with the support of André Malraux. This took
place under the arches of the
Pont Neuf and was dominated by a
gigantic ten-meter canvas entitled Hommage à Villon depicting the
poet at a banquet table with his concubines.
See also Ezra Pound's musical setting of Villon's
Le Testament opera
as a work of literary criticism concerning the relationship of words
In popular culture
This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated
references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to
explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply
listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2017)
Daniela Fischerová wrote a play in Czech that focused on Villon's
trial called Hodina mezi psem a vlkem—translated to "Dog and Wolf"
but literally translates as "The Hour Between Dog and Wolf." The
Juilliard School in New York City mounted a production of the play
directed by Michael Mayer with music by Michael Philip Ward in
Bertolt Brecht's Baal was written from 1918 to 1919. He based the main
character Baal after François Villon. Some of the lyrics Brecht wrote
for "Threepenny Opera" are translations or paraphrases of poems by
Villon. John Erskine wrote The Brief Hour of Francois Villon in 1937,
a work of historical fiction. Henry Livings' The Quick and the Dead
Quick (1961), is an unconventional historical drama about François
A 1935 play by the Czech authors
Jan Werich and
Jiří Voskovec called
Balada z hadrů ("Ballade from rags") was inspired by Villon's work
and adapted some of his poems as lyrics for a number of songs.
The Italian singer-songwriter
Fabrizio De André
Fabrizio De André composed the concept
Tutti morimmo a stento
Tutti morimmo a stento whose lyrics are inspired by the poetry
François Villon (with one of the songs in the album entitled La
ballata degli impiccati, Ballade des pendus).
The Russian bard singer
Bulat Okudzhava has a song called "The Prayer
of François Villon" (in Russian: "Молитва Франсуа
Вийона" Molitva Fransua Viyona) (covered by
Regina Spektor in
2012 on the album What We Saw from the Cheap Seats). For English
translation of the song, go to
https://soundcloud.com/mika-tubinshlak/prayer, translated and
performed by Mika Tubinshlak.
Villon was an influence on American musician Bob Dylan.
The German singer-songwriter
Wolf Biermann wrote a ballad over Villon,
"Ballade auf den Dichter François Villon" in 1968, available on the
"Chauseestrasse 131" LP.
The French singer-songwriter
Georges Brassens has a song called
"Ballade des dames du temps jadis", where he puts Villon's poem into
Claude Debussy composed the "Trois Ballades de François Villon",
published in 1910, based on Villon's poetry.
The Swiss composer Frank Martin's Poemes de la mort, for the unusual
combination of three tenors and three electric guitars, is based on
three Villon poems.
The British modern jazz group, the
Don Rendell -
Ian Carr Quintet,
included a track "Les Neiges d'Antan" on their album Phase III (1967)
The French singer-songwriter
Léo Ferré put
Ballade des pendus to
music in his album
La Violence et l'Ennui
La Violence et l'Ennui (1980).
French black metal band
Peste Noire adapted the song into a black
metal version entitled "Ballade cuntre les anemis de la France" for
their album, Ballade cuntre lo anemi Francor.
"You're like a Villonian singing nun" is a line in the song 'Jonesy
Boy' from Cass McCombs's album Catacombs. Vagrancy and being an outlaw
are running themes in McComb's work.
"Ballade de Mercy" is sung authentically in medieval French by
Medieval German band CORVUS CORAX
The 1925 operetta
The Vagabond King
The Vagabond King is also based on the McCarthy
play, and it too has been filmed twice – in 1930, with Dennis King
and Jeanette MacDonald, and in 1956, with
Oreste Kirkop and Kathryn
Grayson. However, in the operetta, Villon is appointed king for
twenty-four hours, and must solve all of Louis XI's political problems
in that amount of time.
Ezra Pound included passages from
Le Testament in the libretto of his
opera of the same name, to demonstrate radical changes in the
relationship of words and music under Villon's pen, changes that Pound
believed profoundly influenced English poetry. Pound composed the
original score in London between 1920 and 1921, with the help of
pianist Agnes Bedford. It then underwent a succession of revisions to
better document the rhythmic relationships between words and music.
These included a concert version for the Salle Pleyel in Paris in
1926, a rhythmically complicated score edited by
George Antheil in
1923, a hybrid version of these earlier scores for broadcast by the
BBC in 1931, and a final version, fully edited by Pound, in 1933. The
1923 Pound/Antheil version was premiered in 1971 by the San Francisco
Opera Western Opera Theater, conducted and recorded by Robert Hughes
(Fantasy Records), with Phillip Booth in the role of Villon. Portions
of this LP have been re-released on Other Minds audio CD "Ego scriptor
cantilenae, The music of Ezra Pound." The opera was first published in
In Richard Strauss opera Der Rosenkavalier, (libretto by Hugo von
Hofmanssthal) at the end of Act I the Marschallin sings: "such' dir
den Schnee vom vergangenen Jahr", an allusion to the refrain from the
Ballade des dames du temps jadis.
In 1901, the playwright and Irish MP
Justin Huntly McCarthy
Justin Huntly McCarthy wrote a
novel (and then a play), If I Were King, imagining a swashbuckling
Villon matching wits with Louis XI, climaxing with Villon finding love
in Louis' court and saving Paris from the Duke of Burgundy when Louis
Constable of France
Constable of France for a week. Though largely fictitious
(there is no evidence Villon and Louis even met), this proved to be a
long-running success for the actor
Sir George Alexander
Sir George Alexander and a
perennial on stage and screen for the next several decades.
Truman Capote's novel
In Cold Blood
In Cold Blood uses the first four lines of
Ballade des Pendus as an epigraph.
The preface of Hunter S Thompson's book, Hell's Angels: The Strange
and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, uses a rather loose
(though now popularised) translation of Villon's Ballade du concours
In my own country I am in a far-off land // I am strong but have no
force or power // I win all yet remain a loser // At break of day I
say goodnight // When I lie down I have a great fear // Of falling.
In a short story by Robert Louis Stevenson, "A Lodging for the Night",
Francis Villon (anglicized spelling), searching for shelter on a
freezing winter night, knocks randomly at the door of an old nobleman.
Invited in, they talk long into the night. Villon openly admits to
being a thief and a scoundrel, but argues that the chivalric values
upheld by the old man are no better. The story appears in the
New Arabian Nights (1882).
In Ryūnosuke Akutagawa's The Life of a Stupid Man, published in 1927
after his suicide, Akutagawa mentions being truly moved by Villon's
work. He writes "He found in that poet's many works the 'beautiful
male'" and states he feels like he is waiting to be hanged like
Villon, unable to keep fighting in life.
In Osamu Dazai's "Villon's Wife", a young woman who is married to a
dilettante comes to understand his destitute ways when she takes on
the duty of paying off his debts. The ne'er-do-well is a womanizing
writer who is unsuccessful. The setting is occupation period Japan.
He is a minor character in Tim Powers' The Stress of Her Regard,
having lived into the 19th century through his association with the
vampiric Lamia of the novel.
He is a major character in Mappamundi by Christopher Harris, which
depicts Villon's life after his disappearance.
In Catch-22, Joseph Heller's protagonist Yossarian laments the death
of one of his bomber's flight crew, Snowden, with "Where are the
Snowdens of yesteryear?" as well as in French, "Où sont les Neiges
In Antonio Skármeta's novel, El cartero de Neruda, Villon is
mentioned as having been hanged for crimes much less serious than
seducing the daughter of the local bar owner.
In Edward Rutherfurd's 2013 novel "Paris," in Chapter 8 set in 1462,
Villon is a regular in the Rising Sun tavern, a gathering place for
thieves and criminals, and reads two ballads from "The Testament" to
the tavern's patrons.
The manner of Villon's death is a central plot point in "April in
Paris" (1962), one of Ursula K. Le Guin's first published stories.
Valentyn Sokolovsky. ‘’The night in the city of cherries or
Waiting for François ‘’ – on François Villon’s life in form
of a person’s memories who knew the poet and whose name one can find
in the lines of The Testament (in Russian, 112 p., Kiev, Ukraine,
Villon's poem Tout aux tavernes et aux filles was translated into
English by 19th-century poet
William Ernest Henley
William Ernest Henley as Villon’s
Straight Tip To All Cross Coves.
Robert Lowell (1917-1977) in his book Imitations (published in England
by Faber and Faber in 1962, perhaps earlier in the USA), published
translations - called 'imitations' because they attempt to retain the
spirit of the originals rather than the letter - of five of Villon's
poems: The Great Testament, Ballad for the Dead Ladies, The Old Lady's
Lament for Her Youth, Villon's Prayer for His Mother and Villon's
In 1914 the film
The Oubliette features Murdock MacQuarrie as Villon,
Lon Chaney as Bertrand de la Payne and Doc Crane as the king Louis XI.
If I Were King
If I Were King was filmed as a straight drama twice: as a silent in
William Farnum as Villon and Fritz Leiber as Louis; and as a
talkie in 1938 with
Ronald Colman as
François Villon (incorrectly
"Francois Villon" in the closing credits) and
Basil Rathbone as Louis.
John Barrymore also starred as Villon in The Beloved Rogue,
Alan Crosland (of
The Jazz Singer
The Jazz Singer fame), opposite Conrad
Veidt as Louis. Though not officially based on the McCarthy play, it
draws on the same fictitious notions of relations between Villon and
In a 1956 episode of Alfred Hitchcock Presents, "The Better Bargain",
hitman Harry Silver quotes Villon as he refuses to kill Louis Koster's
adulterous wife, because Silver himself is the man with whom Koster's
wife has been "fooling around."
Errol Flynn played Villon in a short TV episode (part of the Screen
Directors' Playhouse), entitled "The Sword of Villon," directed by
George Waggner (1956).
In a 1961 episode of
Bonanza entitled "The Frenchman", the title
character believes he is the reincarnation of Villon.
Early in the film The Petrified Forest, Bette Davis' character is
reading a collection of Villon's poetry. Later she reads a few lines
of "Ballad for a Bridegroom" to Leslie Howard's character, and in the
final scene she again quotes "Ballad for a Bridegroom". In the film,
François Villon as "Francis Villain", and the Leslie
Howard character corrects her, saying the double el is silent, as it
approximately is in Modern French. (In 15th-century French, however,
the els were pronounced, so her pronunciation was not incorrect.)
Villon's Inkwell is an Artifact in the
Syfy television series
Warehouse 13. The ink from the inkwell creates a "portable black hole"
through which items can be passed when it is poured on a solid
During the television series Downton Abbey's Christmas Special, the
Dowager countess uses the line "Mais ou sont les neiges d'antan", to
refer to Lord Hepworth's father whom she met in the late 1860s.
In the film Himizu, the main characters quote his Ballade ("I know
flies in milk...") several times when they are in miserable
In the role-playing game, Vampire: the Masquerade, by White Wolf,
Inc., Villon is portrayed as the vampire prince of Paris.
In the comic "Dylan Dog", episode "Totentanz" published in Dylan Dog
Gigante #1 (1993),
Ballade des pendus appears in Italian as Ballata
degli impiccati translated by Dylan Dog's creator Tiziano Sclavi.
^ Charpier, Jacques (1958), François Villon, un tableau synoptique de
la vie et des oeuvres de Villon et des événements artistiques,
littéraires et historiques du XVe siècle, Poètes d'hier et
d'aujourd'hui (in French), Pierre Seghers, ..il n'ait laissé dans
l'histoire, que le souvenir d'un hors-la-loi. Ce poète a eu à
connaitre de la Justice des hommes et le voilà qui s'apparente ainsi
à nos plus récentes idoles : Sade, Baudelaire, Verlaine. Il fut
un voyou : comme Rimbaud. (He left only the memory of an outlaw
behind him for posterity. This poet came to know the forces of
Justice, and thus is so similar to our more recent idols Sade,
Baudelaire and Verlaine. Like Rimbaud, he was a hoodlum.)
^ Fein, David (1997), "1 Introduction",
François Villon Revisited,
New York: Twayne, p. 1, ISBN 0805745645
^ a b Charpier, Jacques (1958), François Villon, un tableau
synoptique de la vie et des oeuvres de Villon et des événements
artistiques, littéraires et historiques du XVe siècle, Poètes
d'hier et d'aujourd'hui (in French), Paris: Pierre Seghers, 1er avril
1431 (vieux style) ou 19 avril 1432 (nouveau style) : naissance
à Paris, de François de Montcorbier, alias des Loges, qui deviendra
^ Joseph F. Clarke (1977). Pseudonyms. BCA. p. 167.
^ Villon, François (2013). "The Testament". Poems (in French).
Translated by Georgi, David. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern
University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-8101-2878-1.
OCLC 921910344. Retrieved 10 July 2017. Item, et a mon plus que
pere, Maistre Guillaume de Villon / Qui esté m'a plus doulx que
^ Bonner (translator), The Complete Works of
François Villon (New
York: Bantam, 1960), p. xxiii
^ See, e.g., L. Sainéan, Les Sources de l'argot ancien (Paris, 1912),
^ Fein, David (1997), "1 Introduction",
François Villon Revisited,
New York: Twayne, p. 1, ISBN 0805745645, Most, however, are
lesser-known personages, including friends or acquaintances of the
poet, as well as a variety of characters representing all walks of
life. Here, lay readers, (and frequently even scholars) find
themselves at a loss. Writing primarily for a small circle of
acquaintances, Villon enjoyed making private jokes that only his
immediate audience would be able to understand and appreciate. Thus
even many of Villon's contemporaries, unfamiliar with the poet and his
immediate acquaintances and therefore incapable of deciphering the
meaning of many verses, would find themselves precluded from
understanding large portions of Villon's poetic corpus.
^ Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (1872) [original French poem Ballade des
dames du temps jadis 1461 by François Villon], "Three Translations
From François Villon, 1450. I. The Ballad of Dead Ladies", Poems
(1870): Sixth Edition (1), French poems translated 1869 by Dante
Gabriel Rossetti (6 ed.), London: F. S. Ellis, p. 177, retrieved
^ Villon, François (April 26, 1870), Translated by Dante Gabriel
Rossetti, "Poems (1870)", Rossetti Archive, F. S. Ellis, retrieved 23
July 2013 chapter= ignored (help)
^ Dylan, Bob. Chronicles: Volume One. p. 112.
^ El cartero de Neruda, Antonio Skármeta. Copyright (c) 1998, Libros
del Bolsillo, Random House Mondadori, p. 70.
Downton Abbey Christmas
Special Quotes". Downtonabbeyonline.com.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Villon,
François". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University
Bonner, Anthony, trans. The Complete Works of François Villon. N.Y.:
Chaney, Edward F., The Poems of Francois Villon: Edited and turned
into English prose. Oxford Blackwell 1940
Charpier, Jacques (1958), François Villon, un tableau synoptique de
la vie et des oeuvres de Villon et des événements artistiques,
littéraires et historiques du XVe siècle [François Villon, a
synopsis of the life and works of Villon and the artistic, literary,
and historical events of the 15th century], Poètes d'hier et
d'aujourd'hui (in French), Paris: Pierre Seghers
Fein, David (1997),
François Villon Revisited, New York: Twayne,
Georgi, David, ed. and trans., Poems of François Villon, Evanston:
Northwestern University Press, 2013.
Kinnell, Galway, trans. The Poems of François Villon. Rpt. Hanover,
N.H.: University Press of New England, 1982.
Lewis, D. Bevan Wyndham, François Villon. Garden City, New York:
Garden City Publishing, 1928.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: François Villon
Wikimedia Commons has media related to François Villon.
François Villon at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
François Villon at Internet Archive
François Villon at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Société François Villon
Biography, Bibliography, Analysis, Plot overview (in French)
Oeuvres complètes de François Villon; Suivies d'un choix des
poésies de ses disciples, par La Monnoye et Pierre Janet (in French;
complete works, 1867)
Freeman, M., Taylor, H.J.M: "Villon at Oxford, The Drama of the Text";
1999; uitgeverij Rodopi; Amsterdam-Atlanta
Index entry at Poet's Corner for François Villon
Illustrations by Lilija Dinere to the book of
François Villon Poetry,
1987, «Liesma», Rīga.
François Villon Ballad about the Plump Margot. French-English
"Epitafio de Villon" o "Balada de los ahorcados" traducido al
castellano en Descontexto
Le Testament (1461)
"Ballade des dames du temps jadis"
"Ballade des pendus" (1489)
Works about Villon
The Adventures of François Villon (1914 film series)
The Higher Law
If I Were King
If I Were King (1920 film)
The Vagabond King
The Vagabond King (1925 operetta)
The Beloved Rogue
The Beloved Rogue (1927 film)
The Vagabond King
The Vagabond King (1930 film)
If I Were King
If I Were King (1938 film)
François Villon (1945 film)
The Vagabond King
The Vagabond King (1956 film)
Tutti morimmo a stento
ISNI: 0000 0001 2119 2791
BNF: cb119284140 (data)