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François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (French: [fʁɑ̃swa pjɛʁ ɡijom ɡizo]; 4 October 1787 – 12 September 1874) was a French historian, orator, and statesman. Guizot was a dominant figure in French politics prior to the Revolution of 1848. A conservative liberal who opposed the attempt by King Charles X
Charles X
to usurp legislative power, he worked to sustain a constitutional monarchy following the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830. He then served the "citizen king" Louis Philippe, as Minister of Education, 1832–37, ambassador to London, Foreign Minister 1840–1847, and finally Prime Minister of France
Prime Minister of France
from 19 September 1847 to 23 February 1848. Guizot's influence was critical in expanding public education, which under his ministry saw the creation of primary schools in every French commune. But as a leader of the "Doctrinaires", committed to supporting the policies of Louis Phillipe and limitations on further expansion of the political franchise, he earned the hatred of more left-leaning liberals and republicans through his unswerving support for restricting suffrage to propertied men, advising those who wanted the vote to "enrich yourselves" (enrichissez-vous) through hard work and thrift. As Prime Minister, it was Guizot's ban on the political meetings (called the Paris Banquets, which were held by moderate liberals who wanted a larger extension of the franchise)[1] of an increasingly vigorous opposition in January 1848 that catalyzed the revolution that toppled Louis Philippe in February and saw the establishment of the French Second Republic.

Contents

1 Early years 2 "The Man of Ghent" 3 A minister of the Citizen-King 4 The second Soult government 5 1848 and after 6 Quotes 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Early years[edit] Guizot was born at Nîmes
Nîmes
to a bourgeois Protestant family. On 8 April 1794, when François Guizot
François Guizot
was 6, his father was executed on the scaffold at Nîmes
Nîmes
during the Reign of Terror. From then on, the boy's mother was completely responsible for his upbringing. Driven from Nîmes
Nîmes
by the Revolution, Madame Guizot and her son went to Geneva, where he was educated. In spite of her decided Calvinistic opinions, the theories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
influenced Madame Guizot. A strong Liberal, she even adopted the notion inculcated in Emile
Emile
that every man ought to learn a manual trade or craft. Guizot learnt carpentry, and succeeded in making a table with his own hands, which is still preserved. In the work which he entitled Memoirs of My Own Times Guizot omitted all personal details of his early life. In 1805 he arrived in Paris and he entered at the age eighteen as tutor into the family of M. Stapfer, formerly Swiss minister in France. He soon began to write in a journal edited by Suard, the Publiciste. This connection introduced him to the literary society of Paris. In October 1809, aged twenty-two, he wrote a review of François-René de Chateaubriand's Martyrs, which won Chateaubriand's approbation and thanks, and he continued to contribute largely to the periodical press. At Suard's he had made the acquaintance of Pauline de Meulan (born 2 November 1773[2]), a contributor to Suard's journal. Her contributions were interrupted by illness, but immediately resumed and continued by an unknown hand. It was discovered that François Guizot had substituted for her. In 1812 Mademoiselle de Meulan married Guizot. She died in 1827. (An only son, born in 1819, died in 1837 of consumption.) In 1828 Guizot married Elisa Dillon, niece of his first wife, and also an author. She died in 1833, leaving two daughters (Henriette (1829-1908), a co-author with her father and prolific writer herself; and Pauline (1831-1874)) and a son (Maurice Guillaume (1833–1892), who attained some reputation as a scholar and writer). He and historian Francois Mignet invented the concept of the bourgeois revolution.[3] During the First French Empire, Guizot, entirely devoted to literary pursuits, published a collection of French synonyms (1809), an essay on the fine arts (1811), and a translation of Edward Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, with additional notes, in 1812. These works recommended him to the notice of Louis-Marcelin de Fontanes, grand-master of the University of France, who selected Guizot for the chair of modern history at the Sorbonne in 1812. He delivered his first lecture (reprinted in his Memoirs) on 11 December of that year. He omitted the customary compliment to the all-powerful emperor, in spite of the hints given him by his patron, but the course which followed marks the beginning of the great revival of historical research in France in the 19th century. He had now acquired a considerable position in Paris society, and the friendship of Royer-Collard and leading members of the liberal party, including the young duc de Broglie. Absent from Paris at the moment of the fall of Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1814, he was at once selected, on the recommendation of Royer-Collard, to serve the government of King Louis XVIII, in the capacity of secretary-general of the ministry of the interior, under the abbé de Montesquiou. Upon the return of Napoleon
Napoleon
from Elba
Elba
he immediately resigned, on 25 March 1815, and returned to his literary pursuits. "The Man of Ghent"[edit]

François Guizot
François Guizot
in 1850s.

After the Hundred Days, he returned to Ghent, where he saw Louis XVIII, and in the name of the liberal party pointed out that a frank adoption of a liberal policy could alone secure the duration of the restored monarchy – advice which was ill-received by the king's confidential advisers. This visit to Ghent
Ghent
was brought up by political opponents in later years as unpatriotic. "The Man of Ghent" was one of the terms of insult frequently used against him in the days of his power. The reproach appears to be wholly unfounded. He was acting not to preserve the failing empire, but to establish a liberal monarchy and to combat the reactionary ultra-royalists. On the second restoration, Guizot was appointed secretary-general of the ministry of justice under de Barbé-Marbois, but resigned with his chief in 1816. In 1819 he was one of the founders of the Liberal journal Le Courrier français. Again in 1819 he was appointed general director of communes and departments in the ministry of the interior, but lost his office with the fall of Decazes in February 1820. During these years Guizot was one of the leaders of the Doctrinaires, a small party strongly attached to the charter and the crown, and advocating a policy which has become associated (especially by Émile Faguet) with the name of Guizot, that of the juste milieu, a middle path between absolutism and popular government. Adhering to the great principles of liberty and toleration, they were sternly opposed to the anarchical traditions of the Revolution. They hoped to subdue the elements of anarchy through the power of a limited constitution based on the suffrage of the middle class and promoted by the literary talents of the time. They were opposed alike to the democratic spirit of the age, to the military traditions of the empire, and to the bigotry and absolutism of the court. The Doctrinaires fell out of influence following the July Revolution
July Revolution
in 1830. In 1820, when the reaction was at its height after the murder of the Duc de Berry, and the fall of the ministry of the duc Decazes, Guizot was deprived of his offices, and in 1822 even his course of lectures were interdicted. During the succeeding years he played an important part among the leaders of the liberal opposition to the government of Charles X, although he had not yet entered parliament, and this was also the time of his greatest literary activity. In 1822 he had published his lectures on representative government (Histoire des origines du gouvernement représentatif, 1821–1822, 2 vols.; Eng. trans. 1852); also a work on capital punishment for political offences and several important political pamphlets. From 1822 to 1830 he published two important collections of historical sources, the memoirs of the history of England in 26 volumes, and the memoirs of the history of France in 31 volumes, a revised translation, of Shakespeare, and a volume of essays on the history of France. Written from his own pen during this period was the first part of his Histoire de la révolution d'Angleterre depuis Charles I à Charles II (2 vols., 1826–1827; Eng. trans., 2 vols., Oxford, 1838), which he resumed and completed during his exile in England after 1848. The Martignac
Martignac
administration restored Guizot in 1828 to his professor's chair and to the council of state. During his time at the University of Paris his lectures earned him a reputation as a historian of note. These lectures formed the basis of his general Histoire de la civilisation en Europe (1828; Eng. trans. by William Hazlitt, 3 vols., 1846), and of his Histoire de la civilisation en France (4 vols., 1830), In January 1830 he was elected by the town of Lisieux
Lisieux
to the Chamber of Deputies, and he retained that seat during the whole of his political life. Guizot delivered an address in March 1830 calling for greater political freedom in the Chamber of Deputies. The motion passed 221 against 181. Charles X
Charles X
responded by dissolving the Chamber and called for new elections which only strengthened opposition to the throne. On his returning to Paris from Nîmes
Nîmes
on 27 July, the fall of Charles X
Charles X
was already imminent. Guizot was called upon by his friends Casimir Perier, Jacques Laffitte, Villemain and Dupin to draw up the protest of the liberal deputies against the royal ordinances of July, while he applied himself with them to control the revolutionary character of the late contest. Personally, Guizot was always of opinion that it was a great misfortune for the cause of parliamentary government in France that the infatuation and ineptitude of Charles X and Prince Polignac rendered a change in the hereditary line of succession inevitable. Once convinced that it was inevitable, he became one of the most ardent supporters of Louis Philippe. In August 1830 Guizot was made minister of the interior, but resigned in November. He had now joined the ranks of the conservatives, and for the next eighteen years was a determined foe of democracy, the unyielding champion of "a monarchy limited by a limited number of bourgeois." A minister of the Citizen-King[edit]

François Guizot
François Guizot
accepts the charter from Louis-Philippe, the "Citizen-King".

In 1831 Casimir Périer formed a more vigorous and compact administration, terminated in May 1832 by his death; the summer of that year was marked by a formidable republican rising in Paris, and it was not until 11 October 1832 that a stable government was formed, in which Marshal Soult was first minister, Victor, 3rd duc de Broglie took the foreign office, Adolphe Thiers
Adolphe Thiers
the home department, and Guizot the department of public instruction. Guizot, however, was already unpopular with the more advanced liberal party. He remained unpopular all his life. Yet never were his great abilities more useful to his country than while he filled this office of secondary rank but of primary importance in the department of public instruction. The duties it imposed on him were entirely congenial to his literary tastes, and he was master of the subjects they concerned. He applied himself in the first instance to carry the law of 28 June 1833, which established and organized primary education in France. The branch of the Institute of France
Institute of France
known as the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, which had been suppressed by Napoleon, was revived by Guizot. Some of the old members of this learned body – Talleyrand, Sieyès, Roederer and Lakanal – again took their seats there, and a host of more recent celebrities were added by election for the free discussion of the great problems of political and social science. The Société de l'histoire de France was founded for the publication of historical works, and a vast publication of medieval chronicles and diplomatic papers was undertaken at the expense of the state. The July Monarchy
July Monarchy
was threatened in 1839 by Louis-Mathieu Molé, who had formed an intermediate government. Guizot and the leaders of the left centre and the left, Thiers and Odilon Barrot
Odilon Barrot
worked together to stop Molé. Victory was secured at the expense of principle, and Guizot's attack on the government gave rise to a crisis and a republican insurrection. None of the three leaders of that alliance took ministerial office, and Guizot was not sorry to accept the post of ambassador in London, which withdrew him for a time from parliamentary contests. This was in the spring of 1840, and Thiers succeeded shortly afterwards to the ministry of foreign affairs. Guizot was received with distinction by Queen Victoria and by London society. His literary works were highly esteemed, and he was sincerely attached to the alliance of the two nations and the cause of peace. He also secured the return of Napoleon’s ashes to France at the insistence of Thiers. As he himself remarked, he was a stranger to England and a novice in diplomacy; the embroiled state of the Syrian War question, on which the French government had separated itself from the joint policy of Europe, and possibly the absence of entire confidence between the ambassador and the minister of foreign affairs, placed him in an embarrassing and even false position. The warnings he transmitted to Thiers were not believed. The treaty of 15 July was signed without his knowledge and executed against his advice. For some weeks Europe seemed to be on the brink of war, until the king ended the crisis by refusing his assent to the military preparations of Thiers, and by summoning Guizot from London to form a ministry and to aid his Majesty in what he termed "ma lutte tenace contre l'anarchie." The second Soult government[edit]

Blue plaque, 21 Pelham Crescent, London SW7

Guizot's house whilst Ambassador in London, 21 Pelham Crescent, London SW7

Thus began, under dark and adverse circumstances, on 29 October 1840, the important administration in which Guizot remained the master-spirit for nearly eight years. He himself took the office of minister for foreign affairs, and upon the retirement of Marshal Soult, he became prime minister. His first care was the maintenance of peace and the restoration of amicable relations with the other powers of Europe. His success gave unity and strength to the conservative party, who now felt that they had a great leader at their head. During Guizot’s tenure as foreign minister, he and Lord Aberdeen, the foreign secretary to Sir Robert Peel, carried on well, and thus they secured France and Britain in the entente cordiale. Part of the formation of the entente came about when Guizot secured the transfer of Napoleon’s ashes from St. Helena to the French government.[4] The opposition in France denounced Guizot's foreign policy as basely subservient to England. He replied in terms of unmeasured contempt: "You may raise the pile of calumny as high as you will; vous n'arriverez jamais a la hauteur de mon dédain!" In 1845 British and French troops fought side by side for the first time in the Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata. The fall of Peel's government in 1846 changed these intimate relations; and the return of Palmerston to the foreign office led Guizot to believe that he was again exposed to the passionate rivalry of the British cabinet. A friendly understanding had been established between the two courts with reference to the future marriage of the young queen of Spain. The language of Lord Palmerston and the conduct of Sir Henry Bulwer
Henry Bulwer
(afterwards Lord Dalling) at Madrid led Guizot to believe that this understanding was broken, provoking the Affair of the Spanish Marriages after Guizot came to believe that Britain intended to place a Coburg on the throne of Spain. Determined to resist any such intrigue, Guizot and the king plunged headlong into a counter-intrigue, wholly inconsistent with their previous engagements to Britain and fatal to the happiness of the queen of Spain. By their influence she was urged into a marriage with a despicable offset of the house of Bourbon, and her sister was at the same time married to the youngest son of the French king, in direct violation of Louis Philippe's promises. This transaction, although it was hailed at the time as a triumph of the policy of France, was in truth as fatal to the monarch as it was discreditable to the minister. It was accomplished by a mixture of secrecy and violence.[citation needed] It was defended by subterfuges. Its immediate effect was to destroy the Anglo-French alliance, and to throw Guizot into closer relations with the reactionary policy of Metternich and the Northern courts. His first object as prime minister was to unite and discipline the conservative party, which had been broken up by previous dissensions and ministerial changes. In this he entirely succeeded by his courage and eloquence as a parliamentary leader, and by the use of all those means of influence which France supplied to a dominant minister. No one ever doubted the purity and disinterestedness of Guizot's own conduct. He despised money; he lived and died poor; and though he encouraged the fever of money-getting in the French nation, his own habits retained their primitive simplicity. But he did not disdain to use in others the baser passions from which he was himself free. Some of his instruments were mean; he employed them to deal with meanness after its kind. In 1846 the opposition accused the government of buying the votes of the electorate. Guizot acknowledged that corruption happened but the government could not really prevent it. Non-voters exaggerated the occurrences of corruption to point to their need for enfranchisement. Guizot utterly failed to satisfy the demand for expansion of suffrage.[5] Some scholars point out that corruption, while certainly present, did not have a large effect on the voting records of those in the Chamber of Deputies.[6] The strength of Guizot’s oration was his straightforward style of speaking. He was essentially a ministerial speaker, far more powerful in defence than in opposition. Nor was he less a master of parliamentary tactics and of those sudden changes and movements in debate which, as in a battle, sometimes change the fortune of the day. His confidence in himself, and in the majority of the chamber which he had moulded to his will, was unbounded; and long success and the habit of authority led him to forget that in a country like France there was a people outside the chamber elected by a small constituency, to which the minister and the king himself were held responsible. Guizot's view of politics was essentially historical and philosophical. His tastes and his acquirements gave him little insight into the practical business of administrative government. Of finance he knew nothing; trade and commerce were strange to him; military and naval affairs were unfamiliar to him; all these subjects he dealt with by second hand through his friends, Pierre Sylvain Dumon (1797–1870), Charles Marie Tanneguy, Comte Duchâttel (1803–1867), or Marshal Bugeaud. The consequence was that few measures of practical improvement were carried by his administration. Still less did the government lend an ear to the cry for parliamentary reform. On this subject the king's prejudices were insurmountable, and his ministers had the weakness to give way to them. It was impossible to defend a system which confined the suffrage to 200,000 citizens and returned a chamber of whom half were placemen. Nothing would have been easier than to strengthen the conservative party by attaching the suffrage to the possession of land in France, but blank resistance was the sole answer of the government to the moderate demands of the opposition. Warning after warning was addressed to them in vain by friends and by foes alike, and they remained profoundly unconscious of their danger till the moment when it overwhelmed them. Strange to say, Guizot never acknowledged either at the time or to his dying day the nature of this error, and he speaks of himself in his memoirs as the much-enduring champion of liberal government and constitutional law. He utterly failed to perceive that a more enlarged view of the liberal destinies of France and a less intense confidence in his own specific theory might have preserved the constitutional monarchy and averted a vast series of calamities, which were in the end fatal to every principle he most cherished. But with the stubborn conviction of absolute truth he dauntlessly adhered to his own doctrines to the end. 1848 and after[edit] In the afternoon of 23 February 1848 the king summoned his minister from the chamber, which was then sitting, and informed him that considering the situation in Paris and elsewhere in the country during the Banquet agitation for electoral reform, and the alarm and division of opinion in the royal family, led him to doubt whether he could retain Guizot as his prime minister. Guizot instantly resigned, returning to the chamber only to announce that the administration was at an end and that the king had sent for Louis-Mathieu Molé. Molé failed in the attempt to form a government, and between midnight and one in the morning Guizot, who had according to his custom retired early to rest, was again sent for to the Tuileries. The king asked his advice. "We are no longer the ministers of your Majesty," replied Guizot; "it rests with others to decide on the course to be pursued. But one thing appears to be evident: this street riot must be put down; these barricades must be taken; and for this purpose my opinion is that Marshal Bugeaud should be invested with full power, and ordered to take the necessary military measures, and as your Majesty has at this moment no minister, I am ready to draw up and countersign such an order." The marshal, who was present, undertook the task, saying, "I have never been beaten yet, and I shall not begin to-morrow. The barricades shall be carried before dawn." Adolphe Thiers and Barrot decided to withdraw the troops. Guizot found a safe refuge in Paris for some days in the lodging of a humble miniature painter whom he had befriended, and shortly afterwards effected his escape across the Belgian frontier and thence to London, where he arrived on 3 March. His mother and daughters had preceded him, and he was speedily installed in a modest habitation in Pelham Crescent, Brompton. The society of England, though many persons disapproved of much of his recent policy, received the fallen statesman with as much distinction and respect as they had shown eight years before to the king's ambassador. A professorship at Oxford was spoken of, which he was unable to accept. He stayed in England about a year, devoting himself again to history. Back in Paris in 1850, Guizot published two more volumes on the English revolution--Pourquoi la Révolution d'Angleterre a-t-elle reussi? and Discours sur l'histoire, de la Révolution d'Angleterre. In February 1850 Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels co-wrote a critical assessment of this two-volume history.[7] In 1854 Guizot published his Histoire de la république d'Angleterre et de Cromwell (2 vols., 1854), then his Histoire du protectorat de Cromwell et du rétablissement des Stuarts (2 vols., 1856). He also published an essay on Peel, and amid many essays on religion, during the ten years 1858–1868, appeared the extensive Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de mon temps, in nine volumes. His speeches were included in 1863 in his Histoire parlementaire de la France (5 vols. of parliamentary speeches, 1863). After having resigned as Prime Minister of France, he left politics. He was aware that the link between himself and public life was broken forever, and he never made the slightest attempt to renew it. The greater part of the year he spent at his residence at Val Richer, an Augustine monastery near Lisieux
Lisieux
in Normandy, which had been sold at the time of the first Revolution. His two daughters, who married two descendants of the illustrious Dutch family of De Witt, so congenial in faith and manners to the Huguenots of France, kept his house. One of his sons-in-law farmed the estate. And here Guizot devoted his later years with undiminished energy to literary labour, which was in fact his chief means of subsistence. Proud, independent, simple and contented he remained to the last; and these years of retirement were perhaps the happiest and most serene portion of his life. Two institutions may be said even under the Second Empire to have retained their freedom: the Institute of France
Institute of France
and the Protestant Consistory. In both of these Guizot continued to the last to take an active part. He was a member of three of the five academies into which the Institute of France
Institute of France
is divided. The Academy of Moral and Political Science owed its restoration to him, and he became in 1832 one of its first associates. The Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres elected him in 1833 as the successor to Dacier, and in 1836 he was chosen a member of the Académie Française, the highest literary distinction of the country. In these learned bodies Guizot continued for nearly forty years to take a lively interest and to exercise a powerful influence. He was the jealous champion of their independence. His voice had the greatest weight in the choice of new candidates; the younger generation of French writers never looked in vain to him for encouragement, and his constant aim was to maintain the dignity and purity of the profession of letters. In 1842, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and a foreign honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 1855.[8] In the consistory of the Protestant church in Paris Guizot exercised a similar influence. His early education and his experience of life conspired to strengthen the convictions of a religious temperament. He remained throughout his life a firm believer in the truths of revelation, and a volume of Méditations on the Christian Religion was one of his latest works. But though he adhered inflexibly to the church of his fathers and combated the rationalist tendencies of the age, which seemed to threaten it with destruction, he retained not a tinge of the intolerance or asperity of the Calvinistic creed. He respected in the Church of Rome the faith of the majority of his countrymen, and the writings of the great Catholic prelates, Bossuet and Bourdaloue, were as familiar and as dear to him as those of his own persuasion, and were commonly used by him in the daily exercises of family worship. In these literary pursuits and in the retirement of Val Richer, years passed smoothly and rapidly away; and as his grandchildren grew up around him, he began to direct their attention to the history of their country. From these lessons sprang his last work, the Histoire de France racontée à mes petits enfants. The history came down to 1789, and was continued to 1870 by his daughter Madame Guizot de Witt from her father's notes. Down to the summer of 1874 Guizot's mental vigour and activity were unimpaired. He died peacefully, and is said to have recited verses of Corneille and texts from Scripture on his death-bed. Quotes[edit]

"You may raise the pile of calumny as high as you like; it will never reach the height of my disdain." (#The second Soult government) "The spirit of revolution, the spirit of insurrection, is a spirit radically opposed to liberty." "Not to be a republican at 20 is proof of want of heart; to be one at 30 is proof of want of head".[9]

See also[edit]

Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques

References[edit]

François Guizot.

Unless noted with a footnote below, this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, in turn, gives the following references:

Guizot's own Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de mon temps (8 vols., 1858–1861) Lettres de M. Guizot à sa famille et à ses amis (1884) Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi (vol. 1., 1857) and Nouveaux Lundis (vols. i. and ix., 1863–1872) E Scherer, Etudes critiques sur la littérature contemporaine (vol. iv., 1873) Mme de Witt, Guizot dans sa famille (1880) Jules Simon, Thiers, Guizot et Rémusat (1885); E Faguet, Politiques et moralistes au XIXe siècle (1891) A Bardoux, Guizot (1894) in the series of "Les Grands Ecrivains français"[10] Maurice Guizot, Les Années de retraite de M. Guizot (1901) For a long list of books and articles on Guizot in periodicals see HP Thième, Guide bibliographique de la littérature française de 1800–1906 (s.c. Guizot, Paris, 1907). For a notice of his first wife see Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Portraits de femmes (1884), and Ch. de Rémusat, Critiques et études littéraires (vol. ii., 1847).

Footnotes

^ George Fasel. Europe in Upheavel: 1848. Chicago: Rand MacNally. Chapter 2. 1971. ^ Colburn's New Monthly Magazine by E.W. Allen, 1828, pg. 174 ^ Price, Roger. A Concise History of France (Third ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-107-01782-5.  ^ Stanley Mellon. “The July Monarchy
July Monarchy
and the Napoleonic Myth” ^ E.L. Woodward. Three Studies in European Conservatism: Metternich: Guizot: The Catholic Church in the Nineteenth Century. Archon Books, 1963. ^ Patrick and Trevor Higonnet. "Class, Corruption, and Politics in the French Chamber of Deputies, 1846–1848" ^ Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederrick Engels: Volume 10, (International Publishers: New York, 1978) pp. 251–256. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter G" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ See page 327 in The Yale book of quotations, Fred R. Shapiro & Joseph Epstein, Yale University Press, 2006 ^ The EB1911 article for François Guizot
François Guizot
has the error "G Bardoux" instead of the correct "A Bardoux".

External links[edit]

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Guizot, François Pierre Guillaume". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Works by François Guizot
François Guizot
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about François Guizot
François Guizot
at Internet Archive Works by François Guizot
François Guizot
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) "The History of the Origins of Representative Government in Europe" Condition of the July Monarchy, 1830–1848 at the Modern History Sourcebook. www.guizot.com, Official website on François Guizot
François Guizot
on the initiative François Guizot's descendants, containing unpublished archives.

Political offices

Preceded by Comte de Guernon-Ranville French Minister of Public Instruction 31 July – 1 August 1830 Succeeded by Baron Bignon

Preceded by Duc de Broglie French Minister of the Interior 1 August – 2 November 1830 Succeeded by Comte de Montalivet

Preceded by Baron Girod de l'Ain French Minister of Public Instruction 11 October 1832 – 10 November 1834 Succeeded by Jean-Baptiste Teste

Preceded by Jean-Baptiste Teste French Minister of Public Instruction 18 November 1834 – 22 February 1836 Succeeded by Comte Pelet de la Lozère

Preceded by Comte Pelet de la Lozère French Minister of Public Instruction 6 September 1836 – 15 April 1837 Succeeded by Narcisse Achille de Salvandy

Preceded by Adolphe Thiers French Minister of Foreign Affairs 29 October 1840 – 23 February 1848 Succeeded by Alphonse de Lamartine

Preceded by Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Prime Minister of France 19 September 1847 – 23 February 1848 Succeeded by Louis-Mathieu Molé

v t e

Académie française
Académie française
seat 40

Daniel de Priézac (1639) Michel Le Clerc (1662) Jacques de Tourreil (1692) Jean-Roland Malet (1714) Jean-François Boyer (1736) Nicolas Thyrel de Boismont (1755) Claude-Carloman de Rulhière
Claude-Carloman de Rulhière
(1787) Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis
Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis
(1803) Antoine Destutt de Tracy
Antoine Destutt de Tracy
(1808) François Guizot
François Guizot
(1836) Jean-Baptiste Dumas
Jean-Baptiste Dumas
(1875) Joseph Bertrand
Joseph Bertrand
(1884) Marcellin Berthelot
Marcellin Berthelot
(1900) Francis Charmes
Francis Charmes
(1908) Jules Cambon
Jules Cambon
(1918) Marie-Jean-Lucien Lacaze
Marie-Jean-Lucien Lacaze
(1936) Jacques Chastenet (1956) Georges Dumézil
Georges Dumézil
(1978) Pierre-Jean Rémy (1988) Xavier Darcos
Xavier Darcos
(2013)

v t e

Heads of government of France

Restoration

Talleyrand Richelieu Dessolles Decazes Richelieu Villèle Martignac Polignac

July Monarchy

V. de Broglie Laffitte Perier Soult Gérard Maret Mortier V. de Broglie Thiers Molé Soult Thiers Soult Guizot Molé

Second Republic

Dupont de l'Eure Arago Cavaignac Barrot Hautpoul Faucher

Second Empire

Ollivier Cousin-Montauban

Government of National Defense

Trochu

Third Republic

Dufaure A. de Broglie Cissey Buffet Dufaure Simon A. de Broglie Rochebouët Dufaure Waddington Freycinet Ferry Gambetta Freycinet Duclerc Fallières Ferry Brisson Freycinet Goblet Rouvier Floquet Tirard Freycinet Loubet Ribot Dupuy Casimir-Perier Dupuy Ribot Bourgeois Méline Brisson Dupuy Waldeck-Rousseau Combes Rouvier Sarrien Clemenceau Briand Monis Caillaux Poincaré Briand Barthou Doumergue Ribot Viviani Briand Ribot Painlevé Clemenceau Millerand Leygues Briand Poincaré François-Marsal Herriot Painlevé Briand Herriot Poincaré Briand Tardieu Chautemps Tardieu Steeg Laval Tardieu Herriot Paul-Boncour Daladier Sarraut Chautemps Daladier Doumergue Flandin Bouisson Laval Sarraut Blum Chautemps Blum Daladier Reynaud Pétain

Vichy France

Pétain Laval Flandin Darlan Laval

Provisional Government

De Gaulle Gouin Bidault Blum

Fourth Republic

Ramadier Schuman Marie Schuman Queuille Bidault Queuille Pleven Queuille Pleven Faure Pinay Mayer Laniel Mendès France Faure Mollet Bourgès-Maunoury Gaillard Pflimlin De Gaulle

Fifth Republic

De Gaulle Debré Pompidou Couve de Murville Chaban-Delmas Messmer Chirac Barre Mauroy Fabius Chirac Rocard Cresson Bérégovoy Balladur Juppé Jospin Raffarin Villepin Fillon Ayrault Valls Cazeneuve Philippe

v t e

Paris Municipal Commission Ministry of 1830
Paris Municipal Commission Ministry of 1830
(31 July 1830 to 1 August 1830)

Commissioners

Jacques Laffitte Casimir Pierre Périer Georges Mouton Auguste de Schonen Pierre-François Audry de Puyraveau François Mauguin

Justice

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure

Finance

Joseph Dominique, baron Louis

Navy

Henri de Rigny

Foreign Affairs

Louis Pierre Édouard, Baron Bignon

Public Education

François Guizot

Interior and Public Works

Casimir Pierre Périer

War

Étienne Maurice Gérard

Preceded by: Ministry of Casimir de Rochechouart de Mortemart
Ministry of Casimir de Rochechouart de Mortemart
− Followed by French Provisional Ministry of 1830

v t e

French Provisional Ministry of 1830
French Provisional Ministry of 1830
(1 August 1830 to 11 August 1830)

Interior

François Guizot

Justice

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure

Foreign Affairs

Jean-Baptiste Jourdan

War

Étienne Maurice Gérard

Finance

Joseph Dominique, baron Louis

Navy

Henri de Rigny

Public Education

Louis Pierre Édouard, Baron Bignon

v t e

First ministry of Louis-Philippe
First ministry of Louis-Philippe
(11 August 1830 to 2 November 1830)

Head of state: King Louis Philippe I

Interior

François Guizot

Justice

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure

Foreign Affairs

Louis-Mathieu Molé

War

Étienne Maurice Gérard

Finance

Joseph Dominique, baron Louis

Navy and Colonies

Horace François Sébastiani

Public Education, Religious Affairs

Victor de Broglie

Ministers without portfolio

Casimir Pierre Périer Jacques Laffitte André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin Louis Pierre Édouard, Baron Bignon

v t e

First cabinet of Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult
Jean-de-Dieu Soult
(11 October 1832 to 18 July 1834)

Head of state: King Louis Philippe I

President of the council

Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult

Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult

War

Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult

Interior

Adolphe Thiers Antoine Maurice Apollinaire d'Argout Adolphe Thiers

Justice

Félix Barthe Jean-Charles Persil

Foreign Affairs

Victor de Broglie Henri de Rigny

Finance

Georges Humann

Navy and Colonies

Henri de Rigny Albin Roussin Louis Léon Jacob

Public Education and Religious Affairs

François Guizot

Commerce and Public Works

Antoine d'Argout Adolphe Thiers

Commerce

Tanneguy Duchâtel

v t e

Cabinet of Étienne Maurice, comte Gérard
Cabinet of Étienne Maurice, comte Gérard
(18 July 1834 to 10 November 1834)

Head of state: King Louis Philippe I

President of the council

Étienne Maurice Gérard

Étienne Maurice Gérard

War

Étienne Maurice Gérard

Interior

Adolphe Thiers

Justice and Religious Affairs

Jean-Charles Persil

Foreign Affairs

Henri de Rigny

Finance

Georges Humann

Navy and Colonies

Louis Léon Jacob

Public Education

François Guizot

Commerce

Tanneguy Duchâtel

v t e

Cabinet of Édouard Adolphe Mortier
Cabinet of Édouard Adolphe Mortier
(18 November 1834 to 12 March 1835)

Head of state: King Louis Philippe I

President of the council

Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise

Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise

War

Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise

Interior

Adolphe Thiers

Justice and Religious Affairs

Jean-Charles Persil

Foreign Affairs

Henri de Rigny

Finance

Georges Humann

Navy and Colonies

Guy-Victor Duperré

Public Education

François Guizot

Commerce

Tanneguy Duchâtel

v t e

Cabinet of Victor de Broglie
Cabinet of Victor de Broglie
(12 March 1835 to 22 February 1836)

Head of state: King Louis Philippe I

President of the council

Victor de Broglie

Victor de Broglie

Foreign Affairs

Victor de Broglie

Interior

Adolphe Thiers Adrien de Gasparin
Adrien de Gasparin
(Sub-Secretary of State)

Justice

Jean-Charles Persil

War

Henri de Rigny
Henri de Rigny
(interim) Nicolas Joseph Maison

Finance

Georges Humann Antoine Maurice Apollinaire d'Argout

Navy and Colonies

Guy-Victor Duperré

Public Education

François Guizot

Commerce

Tanneguy Duchâtel

v t e

First cabinet of Louis Mathieu Molé
First cabinet of Louis Mathieu Molé
(6 September 1836 to 15 April 1837)

Head of state: King Louis Philippe I

President of the council

Louis-Mathieu Molé

Louis-Mathieu Molé

War

Simon, général-baron Bernard

Justice

Jean-Charles Persil

Foreign Affairs

Louis-Mathieu Molé

Interior

Adrien de Gasparin Charles de Rémusat
Charles de Rémusat
(Sub-secretary of State)

Finance

Tanneguy Duchâtel

Navy and Colonies

Claude du Campe de Rosamel

Public Education

François Guizot

Commerce

Tanneguy Duchâtel

Public Works, Agriculture and Commerce

Nicolas Martin du Nord

v t e

Third cabinet of Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult
Jean-de-Dieu Soult
(29 October 1840 to 19 September 1847)

Head of state: King Louis Philippe I

President of the council

Nicolas Soult

Nicolas Soult

War

Nicolas Soult Alexandre Moline de Saint-Yon Camille Trézel François Martineau des Chenez (Undersecretary of State)

Interior

Tanneguy Duchâtel Antoine François Passy
Antoine François Passy
(Undersecretary of State)

Justice and Religious Affairs

Nicolas Martin du Nord Michel Pierre Alexis Hébert

Foreign Affairs

François Guizot

Finance

Georges Humann Jean Lacave-Laplagne Pierre Sylvain Dumon

Navy and Colonies

Guy-Victor Duperré Albin Roussin Ange de Mackau Louis Napoléon Lannes Jean Jubelin (Undersecretary of State)

Public Education

Abel-François Villemain Narcisse-Achille de Salvandy

Public Works

Jean-Baptiste Teste Pierre Sylvain Dumon Hippolyte Paul Jayr

Agriculture and Commerce

Laurent Cunin-Gridaine

v t e

Cabinet of François-Pierre Guizot
Cabinet of François-Pierre Guizot
(19 September 1847 to 24 February 1848)

Head of state: King Louis Philippe I

President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs

François Guizot

François Guizot

Interior

Tanneguy Duchâtel, sub-secretary of state Antoine François Passy

Justice and Religious Affairs

Michel Pierre Alexis Hébert

War

Camille Alphonse Trézel, sub-secretary of state Pierre Magne

Finance

Pierre Sylvain Dumon

Navy and Colonies

Louis Napoléon Lannes, sub-secretary of state Jean Jubelin

Public Education

Narcisse-Achille de Salvandy

Public Works

Hippolyte Paul Jayr

Agriculture and Commerce

Laurent Cunin-Gridaine

v t e

Foreign Ministers of France

Ancien Régime

Revol Villeroy A. J. Richelieu Sillery R. Phélypeaux Bouthillier Chavigny Brienne Lionne Pomponne Croissy Torcy Huxelles Dubois Morville Chauvelin Chaillou Noailles Argenson Puisieulx Saint-Contest Rouillé Bernis E. Choiseul C. Choiseul E. Choiseul L. Phélypeaux Aiguillon Bertin Vergennes Montmorin Vauguyon Montmorin Lessart Dumouriez Naillac Chambonas Dubouchage Sainte-Croix

First Republic

Lebrun-Tondu Deforgues Goujon Herman Delacroix Talleyrand Reinhard Talleyrand

First Empire

Talleyrand Champagny Bassano Caulaincourt

First Restoration

Laforest Talleyrand

Hundred Days

Caulaincourt Bignon

Second Restoration

Talleyrand A. E. Richelieu Dessolles Pasquier M. Montmorency Chateaubriand Damas La Ferronays Montmorency-Laval Portalis Polignac Mortemart

July Monarchy

Bignon Jourdan Molé Maison Sébastiani V. Broglie Rigny Bresson Rigny V. Broglie Thiers Molé Montebello Soult Thiers Guizot

Second Republic

Lamartine Bastide Bedeau Bastide Drouyn de Lhuys Tocqueville Rayneval La Hitte Drouyn de Lhuys Brénier Baroche Turgot Drouyn de Lhuys

Second Empire

Drouyn de Lhuys Walewski Baroche Thouvenel Drouyn de Lhuys La Valette Moustier La Valette La Tour Auvergne Daru Ollivier Gramont La Tour d'Auvergne

Third Republic

Favre Rémusat A. Broglie Decazes Banneville Waddington Freycinet Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire Gambetta Freycinet Duclerc Fallières Challemel-Lacour Ferry Freycinet Flourens Goblet Spuller Ribot Develle Casimir-Perier Hanotaux Berthelot Bourgeois Hanotaux Delcassé Rouvier Bourgeois Pichon Cruppi Selves Poincaré Jonnart Pichon Doumergue Bourgeois Viviani Doumergue Delcassé Viviani Briand Ribot Barthou Pichon Millerand Leygues Briand Poincaré Lefebvre Herriot Briand Herriot Briand Laval Tardieu Herriot Paul-Boncour Daladier Barthou Laval Flandin Delbos Paul-Boncour Bonnet Daladier Reynaud Daladier Reynaud Baudouin

Vichy France

Baudouin Laval Flandin Darlan Laval

Provisional Government

Bidault Blum

Fourth Republic

Bidault Schuman Bidault Mendès France Faure Pinay Pineau Pleven Couve de Murville

Fifth Republic

Couve de Murville Debré Schumann Bettencourt Jobert Sauvagnargues Guiringaud François-Poncet Cheysson Dumas Raimond Dumas Juppé Charette Védrine Villepin Barnier Douste-Blazy Kouchner Alliot-Marie Juppé Fabius Ayrault Le Drian

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 29600143 LCCN: n50057779 ISNI: 0000 0001 2320 1452 GND: 118543520 SELIBR: 337325 SUDOC: 031934188 BNF: cb12305825q (data) ULAN: 500318960 NLA: 36591474 NDL: 00441969 NKC: jo2002111741 Léonore: LH/1249/24 ICCU: ITICCURAVV55727 BNE: XX1721

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