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The Former Qin
Former Qin
(351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
in eastern Asia, mainly China. Founded by an officer in Shi Le's dynasty, it completed the unification of North China
China
in 376.[5] Its capital was Xi'an
Xi'an
up to the death of the ruler Fu Jiān in 385. Despite its name, the Former Qin
Former Qin
was much later and less powerful than the Qin Dynasty which had ruled all of China
China
during the 3rd century BC. The adjective "former" is used to distinguish it from the "Later Qin" state (384-417). The severe defeat of the Former Qin
Former Qin
in the Battle of Fei River
Battle of Fei River
in 383 encouraged uprisings, which split the Former Qin
Former Qin
territory into two noncontiguous pieces after the death of Fu Jiān. One fragment, at present-day Taiyuan, Shanxi
Shanxi
was soon overwhelmed in 386 by the Xianbei under the Later Yan
Later Yan
and the Dingling. The other struggled in greatly reduced territories around the border of present-day Shaanxi
Shaanxi
and Gansu until disintegration in 394 following years of invasions by Western Qin and Later Qin. In 327, the Gaochang
Gaochang
commandery was created by the Former Liang
Former Liang
under the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
ruler Zhang Gui. After this, significant Han Chinese settlement occurred, meaning that a major part of the population becoming Chinese. In 383, the General Lu Guang of Former Qin
Former Qin
seized control of the region.[6] All rulers of Former Qin
Former Qin
proclaimed themselves "Emperor", except for Fu Jiān who claimed the title "Heavenly Prince" (Tian Wang) but was posthumoustly considered an emperor.

Contents

1 Rulers of the Former Qin 2 Rulers family tree 3 See also 4 Notes and references

Rulers of the Former Qin[edit]

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations

Chinese convention: use family and given names

Gaozu (高祖 Gāozǔ) Jingming (景明 Jǐngmíng) Fu Jiàn (苻健 Fú Jiàn) 351-355 Huangshi (皇始 Huángshǐ) 351-355

None King Li (厲王 Lìwáng) ¹ Fu Sheng (苻生 Fú Shēng) 355-357 Shouguang (壽光 Shòuguāng) 355-357

Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ) Xuanzhao (宣昭 Xuānzhāo) Fu Jiān (苻堅 Fú Jiān) 357-385 Yongxing (永興 Yǒngxīng) 357-359 Ganlu (甘露 Gānlù) 359-364 Jianyuan (建元 Jiànyuán) 365-385

None Aiping (哀平 āipíng) Fu Pi (苻丕 Fú Pī) 385-386 Taian (太安 Tàiān) 385-386

Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Gao (高 Gāo) Fu Deng (苻登 Fú Dēng) 386-394 Taichu (太初 Tàichū) 386-394

None Houzhu (後主 Hòuzhǔ) Fu Chong (苻崇 Fú Chóng) several months in 394 Yanchu (延初 Yán Chū) 394

¹ Fu Sheng was posthumously given the title "wang" even though he had reigned as emperor. Rulers family tree[edit]

Former Qin

Fu Huaigui 苻怀归

Fu Hong (苻洪) 285-350 Huiwu

Fu Jian (苻健) 317–355 Jingming 景明 (r.352-355)

Fu Xiong

Fu Chang

Fu Sheng (苻生) 335-357 Li 厲 (r.355-357)

Fu Jian 苻坚 (337–385) Xuanzhao 宣昭 (r. 357-385)

Fu Deng 苻登 (343-394) Gao 高 (r. 386-394)

Fu Pi 苻丕 (d. 386) Aiping 哀平 (r. 385-386)

Fu Chong (苻崇) d.394; r.394

See also[edit]

Chinese history Chinese sovereign Di (Wu Hu) Fu Jian (other) Wang Meng Battle of Fei River

Notes and references[edit]

^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AAF%AE%CA&king=%BFp%AB%D2&reign=%A5%C3%A9M&yy=7&ycanzi=&mm=1&dd=&dcanzi=%A4%FE%A8%B0 ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 99. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AAF%AE%CA&king=%A7%B5%AAZ%AB%D2&reign=%A4%D3%A4%B8&yy=10&ycanzi=&mm=8&dd=&dcanzi=%A8%AF%A4%A1 ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 106. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 58–59. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.  ^ Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved 17 May 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved 17 May 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

v t e

Sixteen Kingdoms

History

Uprising of the Five Barbarians Disaster of Yongjia Shi Le's unification of North China Wei–Jie war Wei- Xianbei
Xianbei
war Fu Jian's unification of North China Huan Wen's expeditions Battle of Fei River Liu Yu's expeditions

The 16 Kingdoms

Cheng Han Former Zhao Later Zhao Former Liang Later Liang Western Liang Northern Liang Southern Liang Former Qin Later Qin Western Qin Former Yan Later Yan Northern Yan Southern Yan Xia

Other states

Ran Wei Northern Wei Western Shu Western Yan Duan Yuwen Chouchi Zhai Wei Dai Huan Chu Duan Qi

Involved

Jin Dynasty Jie Xiongnu Qiang Xianbei Di

Key personalities

Liu Yuan Shi Le Sima Yue Ran Min Huan Wen Fu Jian Xie Xuan Liu Yu

Histories of the Era

Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Ki

.