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The Foreign relations of Japan
Japan
(日本の国際関係, Nihon no kokusai kankei) are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.

Map of countries with diplomatic missions of Japan
Japan
shown in blue

Japanese foreign relations had to begin anew in 1945, when it was defeated in war and stripped of all of its foreign conquests and possessions. See History of Japanese foreign relations. The United States, acting for the Allied powers, occupied Japan
Japan
1945-51. Since gaining full independence with the Treaty of San Francisco, Japanese diplomatic policy has been based on close partnership with the United States and the emphasis on the international cooperation such as the United Nations. In the Cold War, Japan
Japan
took a part in the Western world's confrontation of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in East Asia. In the rapid economic developments in the 1960s and 1970s, Japan
Japan
recovered its influences and became regarded as one of the major powers in the world. However, Japanese influences are regarded as negative by two particular countries: China
China
and South Korea.[1] During the Cold War, Japanese foreign policy was not self-assertive, relatively focused on their economic growth. However, the end of the Cold War
Cold War
and bitter lessons from the Gulf War
Gulf War
changed the policy slowly. Japanese government decided to participate in the Peacekeeping operations by the UN, and sent their troops to Cambodia, Mozambique, Golan Heights
Golan Heights
and the East Timor
East Timor
in the 1990s and 2000s.[2] After the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in 2001, Japanese naval vessels have been assigned to resupply duties in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the present date. The Ground Self-Defense Force also dispatched their troops to Southern Iraq
Iraq
for the restoration of basic infrastructures. Beyond its immediate neighbors, Japan
Japan
has pursued a more active foreign policy in recent years, recognizing the responsibility which accompanies its economic strength. Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda stressed a changing direction in a policy speech to the National Diet: " Japan
Japan
aspires to become a hub of human resource development as well as for research and intellectual contribution to further promote cooperation in the field of peace-building."[3] This follows the modest success of a Japanese-conceived peace plan which became the foundation for nationwide elections in Cambodia
Cambodia
in 1998.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Links

2 Asia

2.1 Southeast Asia 2.2 South Asia

3 Western Asia 4 Africa 5 Americas

5.1 North America 5.2 Central America and the Caribbean 5.3 South America

6 Europe

6.1 Modern era

7 Oceania 8 Debates and frictions 9 Disputed territories 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Japanese foreign relations Links[edit]

Foreign relations of Meiji Japan International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) Diplomatic history of World War I International relations (1919–1939) Causes of World War II Diplomatic history of World War II Cold War

History of Sino-Japanese relations, China France– Japan
Japan
relations Germany– Japan
Japan
relations Greater East Asia
East Asia
Co-Prosperity Sphere, 1930-1945 History of Japan–Korea relations

Japan– North Korea
North Korea
relations Japan– South Korea
South Korea
relations

Japanese foreign policy on Southeast Asia Japan– Russia
Russia
relations

Japan– Soviet Union
Soviet Union
relations

Japan– United Kingdom
United Kingdom
relations Japan– United States
United States
relations

Asia[edit] Southeast Asia[edit]

Embassy of Indonesia
Indonesia
in Japan

By 1990 Japan's interaction with the vast majority of Asia-Pacific countries, especially its burgeoning economic exchanges, was multifaceted and increasingly important to the recipient countries. The developing countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) regarded Japan
Japan
as critical to their development. Japan's aid to the ASEAN countries totaled US $1.9 billion in Japanese fiscal year (FY) 1988 versus about US $333 million for the United States
United States
during U.S. FY 1988. Japan
Japan
was the number one foreign investor in the ASEAN countries, with cumulative investment as of March 1989 of about US $14.5 billion, more than twice that of the United States. Japan's share of total foreign investment in ASEAN countries in the same period ranged from 70 to 80 percent in Thailand
Thailand
to 20 percent in Indonesia. In the late 1980s, the Japanese government was making a concerted effort to enhance its diplomatic stature, especially in Asia. Toshiki Kaifu's much publicized spring 1991 tour of five Southeast Asian nations—Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines—culminated in a 3 May major foreign policy address in Singapore, in which he called for a new partnership with the ASEAN and pledged that Japan
Japan
would go beyond the purely economic sphere to seek an "appropriate role in the political sphere as a nation of peace." As evidence of this new role, Japan
Japan
took an active part in promoting negotiations to resolve the Cambodian conflict. In 1997, the ASEAN member nations and the People's Republic of China, South Korea
South Korea
and Japan
Japan
agreed to hold yearly talks to further strengthen regional cooperation, the ASEAN Plus Three
ASEAN Plus Three
meetings. In 2005 the ASEAN plus Three countries together with India, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
held the inaugural East Asia
East Asia
Summit (EAS). South Asia[edit] In South Asia, Japan's role is mainly that of an aid donor. Japan's aid to seven South Asian countries totaled US$1.1 billion in 1988 and 1989, dropping to just under US$900 million in 1990. Except for Pakistan, which received heavy inputs of aid from the United States, all other South Asian countries receive most of their aid from Japan. Four South Asian nations—India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka—are in the top ten list of Tokyo's aid recipients worldwide. A point to note is that Indian Government has a no receive aid policy since the tsunami that struck India
India
but Indian registerred NGOs look to Japan
Japan
for much investment in their projects Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu
Toshiki Kaifu
signaled a broadening of Japan's interest in South Asia
South Asia
with his swing through the region in April 1990. In an address to the Indian parliament, Kaifu stressed the role of free markets and democracy in bringing about "a new international order," and he emphasized the need for a settlement of the Kashmir territorial dispute between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
and for economic liberalization to attract foreign investment and promote dynamic growth. To India, which was very short of hard currency, Kaifu pledged a new concessional loan of ¥100 billion (about US$650 million) for the coming year.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Afghanistan 1930-11-19[4] See Afghanistan– Japan
Japan
relations Afghan–Japanese relations have existed as far back as World War II, and have been mainly positive. The Japanese government in 1974 started feasibility study under grant aid to develop and built television in Afghanistan.

 Bangladesh 1972-02[4] See Bangladesh– Japan
Japan
relations Bangladeshi–Japanese relations were established in February 1972.[5] Japan
Japan
is Bangladesh's 11th-largest export market; imports from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
make up 26% of all Japanese imports from the least developed countries, second only to those from Cambodia. Common imports from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to Japan
Japan
include leather goods, ready-made garments, and shrimp.[6] By 2004, Japan
Japan
had become Bangladesh's fourth-largest source of foreign direct investment, behind the United States, United Kingdom, and Malaysia. Japan's political goals in its relationship with Bangladesh
Bangladesh
include gaining support for their bid to join the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council, and securing markets for their finished goods. Japan
Japan
is a significant source of development aid to Bangladesh.[7]

 Bhutan 1986-03-28[4] See Foreign relations of Bhutan

 Brunei 1984-04-02[4] See Brunei– Japan
Japan
relations Brunei
Brunei
has an embassy in Tokyo, and Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan.[8] Relations has been established since 2 April 1984.[8]

 Burma 1954-12-01[4] Foreign relations of Burma

 Cambodia 1953[4] See Cambodia– Japan
Japan
relations Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Phnom Penh. Trade is sizable between the two countries:

Japan
Japan
to Cambodia: 14.0 billion yen (2006) Cambodia
Cambodia
to Japan: 9.5 billion yen (2006)

Japanese investment in Cambodia
Cambodia
includes Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
Commercial Bank, a joint venture of Hyundai Switzerland
Switzerland
and Japanese SBI Group, opened in 2008. Japan
Japan
remains Cambodia’s top donor country providing some US$1.2 billion in total overseas development assistance (ODA) during the period since 1992.[9] In 2006, Japanese and Cambodian governments signed an agreement outlining a new Japanese aid program worth US$59 million.[10] The Japanese Government has provided significant assistance for demining and education.[11][12]

Japanese embassy in Cambodia

 China 1972[4] See China– Japan
Japan
relations

Old Embassy of Japan
Japan
in China

During the Meiji Era, China
China
was one of the first countries to feel Japanese Imperialism. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) in 1949, relations with Japan
Japan
changed from hostility and an absence of contact to cordiality and extremely close cooperation in many fields. During the 1960s the two countries resumed trade for the first time since World War II
World War II
under the Liao–Takasaki Agreement. On 29 September 1972, Japan
Japan
and China
China
signed a treaty establishing diplomatic relations between the states. The 1990s led to an enormous growth in China’s economic welfare. Trade between Japan and China
China
was one of the many reasons China
China
was able to grow in the double-digit rates during the 1980s and 1990s. Japan
Japan
was in the forefront among leading industrialized nations in restoring closer economic and political relations with China. Resumption of Japan's multibillion-dollar investments to China
China
and increased visits to China by Japanese officials, culminating in the October 1992 visit of Emperor Akihito, gave a clear indication that Japan
Japan
considered closer ties with China
China
in its economic and strategic interest. Despite a 1995 apology regarding World War II
World War II
by Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama, tensions still remain, mostly because many Chinese feel there is a lack of true remorse for wartime crimes committed by Imperial Japanese forces. This has been reinforced by numerous visits to the Yasukuni Shrine
Yasukuni Shrine
by Japanese Prime Ministers, attempts to revise textbooks by Japanese nationalists, the continued dispute over Japan's atrocities in the Nanking Massacre, and the resurgence of nationalism and militarism in Japan.

 East Timor 2002-05-20[4] See East Timor– Japan
Japan
relations

 India 1952-04-28[4] See India– Japan
Japan
relations

Indian, Japanese and US naval warships take part in a military exercise near Bōsō Peninsula
Bōsō Peninsula
in 2007. India
India
is one of the only three nations with whom Japan
Japan
has a security pact, the other two being the United States
United States
and Australia.[13]

Throughout history, bilateral foreign relations between Japan
Japan
and India
India
have generally been friendly and strong. In December 2006, Prime Minister Singh's visit to Japan
Japan
culminated in the signing of the "Joint Statement Towards Japan– India
India
Strategic and Global Partnership." According to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's arc of freedom theory, it is in Japan's interests to develop closer ties with India, world's most populous democracy, while its relations with China
China
remain chilly. To this end, Japan
Japan
has funded many infrastructure projects in India, most notably in New Delhi's metro subway system and Maruti. India
India
and Japan have signed a deal to build high speed trains in India[14] Indian applicants have been welcomed in 2006/7 to the JET Programme, starting with just one slot available in 2006 and 41 in 2007. India
India
and Japan
Japan
signed a security cooperation agreement in which both will hold military exercises, police the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and conduct military-to-military exchanges on fighting terrorism, making India
India
one of only three countries, the others being the United States
United States
and Australia, with which Japan
Japan
has such a security pact.[13] There are 25,000 Indians in Japan
Japan
as of 2008.

 Indonesia 1958-04[4] See Indonesia– Japan
Japan
relations

Indonesia
Indonesia
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and a consulate in Osaka. Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Jakarta
Jakarta
and consulates in Medan, Denpasar, Surabaya, and Makassar. Japan
Japan
is Indonesia's largest export partner. Both countries are members of the G20 major economies
G20 major economies
and APEC.

 Kazakhstan 1992-01-26[4]

 North Korea [4] See Japan– North Korea
North Korea
relations Japan
Japan
strongly supports the U.S. in its efforts to encourage North Korea to abide by the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA). Despite the 31 August 1998 North Korean missile test which overflew the Home Islands, Japan
Japan
has maintained its support for the Korean Energy Development Organization (KEDO) and the Agreed Framework, which seeks to freeze the North Korean nuclear program. The U.S., Japan, and South Korea closely coordinate and consult trilaterally on policy toward North Korea, at least on a government level. Japan
Japan
has limited economic and commercial ties with North Korea. Japanese normalization talks halted when North Korea
North Korea
refused to discuss a number of issues with Japan.

 South Korea 1965-12[4] See Japan– South Korea
South Korea
relations Japan
Japan
and South Korea
South Korea
have had many disputes. Former South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun
Roh Moo-hyun
rejected a conference with the Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi
Junichiro Koizumi
following his visits to the controversial Yasukuni Shrine. Other long-running issues between the two countries include The Sea of Japan
Japan
naming dispute, territorial disputes over the Liancourt Rocks
Liancourt Rocks
and disagreement about whether or not the matter of World War II-era forced prostitution has been resolved.

 Kyrgyzstan 1992-01-26[4]

 Laos 1955-03-05[4] See Japan- Laos
Laos
relations

 Malaysia 1957-08-31[4] See Japan– Malaysia
Malaysia
relations Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and consulates in George Town and Kota Kinabalu. Malaysia
Malaysia
maintains an embassy in Tokyo. The Japanese and Malaysian governments had visited each other on multiple occasions. Notable visits include the King of Malaysia
Malaysia
visiting Japan in 2005 while in 2006, the Emperor and Empress of Japan
Japan
visited Malaysia.

 Maldives 1967-11-06[4] See Foreign relations of the Maldives

 Mongolia 1972[4] See Mongolia– Japan
Japan
relations

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.[15] Mongolia
Mongolia
has an embassy in Tokyo. Japan
Japan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs- Mongolia Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Japan
Japan
(in Mongolian)

   Nepal 1956-07-28[4] See Japan– Nepal
Nepal
relations

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Kathmandu. Nepal
Nepal
has an embassy in Tokyo.

 Pakistan 1952-04-28[4] See Japan– Pakistan
Pakistan
relations

There has been a regular exchange of high level visits between the two countries. The 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations, jointly celebrated by the two countries in 2002, was a significant landmark in the history of this friendship. There are at least 10,000 Pakistanis residing in Japan.

 Philippines 1956-07[4] See Japan- Philippines
Philippines
relations Relations between Japan
Japan
and the Philippines
Philippines
were generally very strong since the end of World War II. It span a period from before the 16th century to the present. The Philippines
Philippines
gained independence from the United States
United States
in 1946. Diplomatic relations
Diplomatic relations
were re-established in 1956, when a war reparations agreement was concluded. By the end of the 1950s, Japanese companies and individual investors had begun to return to the Philippines
Philippines
and in 1975, Japan
Japan
displaced the United States as the main source of investment in the Philippines.

 Singapore 1966-04-26[4] See Foreign relations of Singapore

 Sri Lanka 1952[4] See Foreign relations of Sri Lanka

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Colombo.[16] Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
has an embassy in Tokyo[17]

 Taiwan 1952[4] See Japan– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations Taiwan
Taiwan
was ceded to Japan
Japan
in 1895 and was a major Japanese prefecture in World War II. Following the unconditional surrender of Japan
Japan
to Allied Powers after World War II, Taiwan
Taiwan
was relinquished by Japan
Japan
as a stolen territory from China
China
(like Manchukuo) by the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951. Current relations are guided by the 1972 Japan–PRC Joint Communique. Since the joint Communique, Japan
Japan
has maintained non-governmental, working-level relations with Taiwan. Japan
Japan
refers to the Republic of China
China
on Taiwan
Taiwan
with the neutral name "Taiwan."

 Tajikistan 1992-01-26[4] See Foreign relations of Tajikistan

 Thailand 1887-09-26[4] See Japan– Thailand
Thailand
relations Japan– Thailand
Thailand
relations span a period from the 17th century to the present. Contacts had an early start with Japanese trade on Red seal ships and the installation of Japanese communities on Siamese soil, only to be broken off with Japan's period of seclusion. Contacts resumed in the 19th century and developed to the point where Japan
Japan
is today one of Thailand's foremost economic partners. Thailand
Thailand
and Japan share the distinction of never having lost sovereignty during the Colonial period.

 Turkmenistan 1992-01-26[4] See Foreign relations of Turkmenistan

 Uzbekistan 1992-01-26[4] See Foreign relations of Uzbekistan

 Vietnam 1973-09-21[4] See Japan– Vietnam
Vietnam
relations Vietnamese–Japanese relations stretch back to the at least the 16th century, when the two countries engaged in friendly trade. Modern relations between the two countries are based on Vietnam's developing economy and Japan's role as an investor and foreign aid donor.

Western Asia[edit] Japan
Japan
has expanded ties with the Middle East, including controversial water supply activities in Iraq.[18] Japan's contribution to peacekeeping troops in Sudan
Sudan
remains steady.[19]

Country Formal relations began Notes

 Armenia 1992-09-07 See Armenia– Japan
Japan
relations

Armenia
Armenia
has an embassy in Tokyo. Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Yerevan. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
about relations with Armenia

 Azerbaijan 1992-01-27 See Foreign relations of Azerbaijan#Asia

 Bahrain 1974-05-15 See Bahrain– Japan
Japan
relations

 Georgia 1992-08-03 See Georgia– Japan
Japan
relations

Japan
Japan
has extended foreign aid to Georgia for various economic and cultural development projects. The balance of trade between the two nations is heavily in favor of Japan, with Japan
Japan
exporting automobiles and manufactured goods, and Georgia exporting food products and chemicals. Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze
Eduard Shevardnadze
made an official visit to Japan in March 1999 and President Mikheil Saakashvili
Mikheil Saakashvili
visited Japan
Japan
in March 2007. Since November 2006, Georgia has maintained an embassy in Tokyo. Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Tbilisi. Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Japan Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
about the relations with Georgia

 Iran 1878 See Iran– Japan
Japan
relations Japan's foreign policy towards and investments in Iran
Iran
have historically been dominated by the desire to secure reliable energy supplies; Iran
Iran
is Japan's third-largest oil supplier after Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.[20] Iran
Iran
and Japan
Japan
signed a visa-free travel arrangement in 1974, but it was terminated in April 1992 due to large-scale illegal Iranian migration to Japan.[21] Iran and Japan
Japan
also cooperate on regional foreign policy issues in the Middle East, such as the reconstruction of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[22] Since 2004, Japan
Japan
has been working on developing Iran's largest on-shore oil field, located at Azadegan.[23]

 Iraq 1939-11 See Foreign relations of Iraq

 Israel 1952-05-15 See Israel– Japan
Japan
relations The Japanese government refrained from appointing a Minister Plenipotentiary to Israel
Israel
until 1955. Relations between the two states were distant at first, but after 1958, as demand no break occurred. This had been at the same time that OPEC had imposed an oil embargo against several countries, including Japan.

 Jordan 1954 See Foreign relations of Jordan

 Kurdistan

See Japan–Kurdistan Region relations

 Kuwait 1961 See Foreign relations of Kuwait

 Lebanon 1954-11

The embassy of Japan
Japan
in Lebanon
Lebanon
is located in the Serail Hill Area, Army Street, Zokak El-Blat, Beirut. The current ambassador is Yoshihisa Kuroda.[24] The embassy of Lebanon
Lebanon
in Japan
Japan
is located in Nagatachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo.[25] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan: Japan– Lebanon
Lebanon
Relations

 Saudi Arabia 1955-06 See Japan– Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
relations Saudi Arabian – Japan
Japan
relations were established during the past half a century. Saudi–Japanese relations are based on mutual respect and common interests in all areas.

 Oman 1972-05

 Qatar 1972 See Japan– Qatar
Qatar
relations

 Syria 1953-12

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Damascus Syria
Syria
has an Embassy of Syria
Syria
in Tokyo.

 Turkey 1890s See Japan– Turkey
Turkey
relations

First embassies were opened in 1925. Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Ankara
Ankara
and a consulate-general in Istanbul.[26] Turkey
Turkey
has an embassy in Tokyo.[27] There are 10,000 Turks living in Japan. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Japan

 United Arab Emirates 1972-05 Foreign relations of United Arab Emirates

 Yemen 1970 North Yemen; 1974 South Yemen

Africa[edit] Japan
Japan
is increasingly active in Africa. In May 2008, the first Hideyo Noguchi Africa
Africa
Prize will be awarded at Fourth Tokyo
Tokyo
International Conference on African Development (TICAD IV),[28] which signals a changing emphasis in bilateral relations.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Algeria 1962 See Foreign relations of Algeria

 Angola 1976-09 See Angola– Japan
Japan
relations Angola– Japan
Japan
relations were established in September 1976, shortly after Angola
Angola
received formal sovereignty. As of 2007, economic relations played "a fundamental role in the bilateral relations between the two governments".[29] Susumu Shibata is the ambassador of Japan
Japan
to Angola.[30]

 Benin 1960-08-01 See Foreign relations of Benin

 Botswana 1966-09 See Foreign relations of Botswana

 Burkina Faso 1962-07-01 See Foreign relations of Burkina Faso

 Burundi 1962-07-01 See Foreign relations of Burundi

 Cameroon 1960-01-01 See Foreign relations of Cameroon

 Cape Verde 1975-07-11 See Foreign relations of Cape Verde

 Central African Republic 1960-08-13 See Foreign relations of Central African Republic

 Chad 1960-08-11 See Foreign relations of Chad

 Comoros 1977-11-14 See Foreign relations of Comoros

 Côte d'Ivoire 1960-08-07 See Foreign relations of Côte d'Ivoire

 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960-08-18 See Foreign relations of Democratic Republic of the Congo

 Djibouti 1977-06-27 See Foreign relations of Djibouti

 Egypt 1922 See Egypt– Japan
Japan
relations Japan
Japan
considers Egypt
Egypt
to be a key player in the Middle East
Middle East
and, as such, sees Egypt
Egypt
as a vital part of its diplomacy in the region.[31] The two heads of government have been known to support each other on issues pertaining to the peace process in the Middle East.[32] Additionally, the two countries claim to share a common vision for world peace.[33] The two countries maintain a "Joint Committee" dedicated to exploring developments in areas of mutual interest to the two countries.[34]

 Equatorial Guinea 1968-11-12 See Foreign relations of Equatorial Guinea

 Eritrea 1993-09 See Foreign relations of Eritrea

 Ethiopia 1927-06 See Foreign relations of Ethiopia

 Gabon 1960-08-17 See Foreign relations of Gabon

 Ghana 1957-03-06 See Foreign relations of Ghana Japan
Japan
and Ghana
Ghana
maintain a special relationship and Ghana
Ghana
has an embassy in Tokyo, and Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Accra.

 Guinea 1960-04-22 See Foreign relations of Guinea

 Guinea-Bissau 1974-08-01 See Foreign relations of Guinea

 Kenya 1963 See Foreign relations of Kenya

 Lesotho 1971-07 See Foreign relations of Lesotho

 Liberia 1961-09-27 See Foreign relations of Liberia

 Libya 1957 See Foreign relations of Libya

 Madagascar 1960–07-05 See Foreign relations of Madagascar

 Malawi 1967-11 See Foreign relations of Malawi

 Mali 1959-10-04 See Foreign relations of Mali

 Mauritania 1960-11-29 See Foreign relations of Mauritania

 Mauritius 1968-03-12 See Foreign relations of Mauritius

 Morocco 1956 See Foreign relations of Morocco

 Mozambique 1977-01 See Foreign relations of Mozambique

 Namibia 1990-03-22 See Foreign relations of Namibia

 Niger 1960-08-03 See Foreign relations of Niger

 Nigeria 1960-10-01 See Foreign relations of Nigeria Japan
Japan
and Nigeria
Nigeria
engage in strong economic and political cooperation. Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1960.[35]

 Rwanda 1962-07-01 See Foreign relations of Rwanda

 São Tomé and Príncipe 1975-07-22 See Foreign relations of São Tomé and Príncipe

 Senegal 1960-10-04 See Foreign relations of Senegal

 Seychelles 1976-06-29 See Foreign relations of Seychelles

 Sierra Leone 1961-04-27 See Foreign relations of Sierra Leone

 Republic of the Congo 1960 See Foreign relations of Republic of the Congo

 Somalia 1960-07 See Foreign relations of Somalia

 South Africa 1910 See Foreign relations of South Africa

 South Sudan 2011-07-09 See Foreign relations of South Sudan

 Sudan 1956-01-06 See Foreign relations of Sudan

 Swaziland 1971-05 See Foreign relations of Swaziland

 Tanzania 1964 See Foreign relations of Tanzania

 The Gambia 1965-02-18 See Foreign relations of the Gambia

 Togo 1960-04-27 See Foreign relations of Togo

 Tunisia 1956-06 See Foreign relations of Tunisia Japan
Japan
and Tunisia
Tunisia
have a mutual free visa agreement.

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Cité Mahrajène, Tunis.[36] Tunisia
Tunisia
has an embassy in Kudanminami, Chiyoda, Tokyo.[37]

 Uganda 1962-10-09 See Foreign relations of Uganda

 Zambia 1964-10 See Foreign relations of Zambia

 Zimbabwe 1980-04-18 See Foreign relations of Zimbabwe

Americas[edit] North America[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Barbados 29 August 1967[4] See Barbados– Japan
Japan
relations Japan
Japan
was accredited to Barbados
Barbados
from its embassy in Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago) and an honorary consulate in Bridgetown. Since January 2016, Japan
Japan
opened a new embassy directly in Bridgetown, Barbados. Barbados
Barbados
is represented towards Japan
Japan
through a non-resident ambassador in Bridgetown.

 Canada 1928-01-21[4] See Canada– Japan
Japan
relations Diplomatic relations
Diplomatic relations
between both countries officially began in 1950 with the opening of the Japanese consulate in Ottawa. In 1929, Canada opened its Tokyo
Tokyo
legation, the first in Asia;[38] and in that same year, Japan
Japan
its Ottawa
Ottawa
consulate to legation form.[39] Some Canadian–Japanese contacts predate the mutual establishment of permanent legations. The first known Japanese immigrant to Canada, Manzo Nagano, landed in New Westminster, British Columbia in 1877.[40] Japan's consulate in Vancouver was established in 1889, 40 years before its embassy was opened in Ottawa
Ottawa
in 1929.[41] Canadians G. G. Cochran helped in founding Doshisha University
Doshisha University
in Kyoto, and Davidson McDonald helped in establishing Aoyama Gakuin University in Tokyo.[39] In the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, a Canadian steamship, the RMS Empress of Australia
Australia
and her captain, Samuel Robinson achieved international acclaim for stalwart rescue efforts during the immediate aftermath of that disaster.[42] Canadian military attaché Herbert Cyril Thacker served in the field with Japanese forces in the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
(1904–05), for which the Japanese government awarded him the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Third Class[43] and the Japanese War medal for service during that campaign.[44] Canada
Canada
and Japan
Japan
have had diplomatic relations since 1928. Both countries are characterized by their active role in the Asia-Pacific community, as well as a relationship consisting of important economic, political, and socio-cultural ties. As major international donors, both Canada
Canada
and Japan
Japan
are strongly committed to promoting human rights, sustainable development and peace initiatives. Canada– Japan
Japan
relations are underpinned by their partnership in multilateral institutions: the G-7/8; the United Nations; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Quad (Canada, the European Union, Japan
Japan
and the United States), and by their common interest in the Pacific community, including participation in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
forum (APEC) and the ASEAN Regional Forum
ASEAN Regional Forum
(ARF). Emperor Akihito
Akihito
and Empress Michiko
Michiko
visited Canada
Canada
in 2009.[45]

 Mexico 1888[4] See Japan– Mexico
Mexico
relations The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation concluded in 1888 between Japan
Japan
and Mexico
Mexico
was the nation's first "equal" treaty with any country;[19] which overshadows Tokugawa Ieyasu's pre-Edo period initiatives which sought to establish official relations with the New Spain
Spain
in Mexico.[46] In 1897, the 35 members of the so-called Enomoto Colonization Party settle in the Mexican state of Chiapas. This was the first organized emigration from Japan
Japan
to Latin America.[19] President Álvaro Obregón
Álvaro Obregón
was awarded Japan's Order of the Chrysanthemum at a special ceremony in Mexico
Mexico
City. On 27 November 1924, Baron Shigetsuma Furuya, Special
Special
Ambassador from Japan
Japan
to Mexico, conferred the honor on Obregón. It was reported that this had been the first time that the Order had been conferred outside the Imperial family.[47] In 1952, Mexico
Mexico
becomes the second country to ratify the San Francisco Peace Treaty, preceded only by the United Kingdom.[19] Mexico
Mexico
and Japan
Japan
on 17 September 2004, signed the "Agreement Between Japan
Japan
and The United Mexican States For The Strengthening of The Economic Partnership." This was the among many historic steps led by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi
Junichiro Koizumi
to strengthen global economic stability.

 United States 1846[4] See Japan– United States
United States
relations

Yasuo Fukuda
Yasuo Fukuda
and George W. Bush

The United States
United States
is Japan's closest ally, and Japan
Japan
relies on the U.S. for its national security to a high degree. As two of the world's top three economic powers, both countries also rely on close economic ties for their wealth, despite ongoing and occasionally acrimonious trade frictions. Although its constitution and government policy preclude an offensive military role for Japan
Japan
in international affairs, Japanese cooperation with the United States
United States
through the 1960 U.S.– Japan
Japan
Security Treaty has been important to the peace and stability of East Asia. Currently, there are domestic discussions about possible reinterpretation of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution. All postwar Japanese governments have relied on a close relationship with the United States as the foundation of their foreign policy and have depended on the mutual security treaty for strategic protection. The relationship probably hit a post-war nadir around the early 1990s, when Japan's "economic rise" was seen as a threat to American power. Japan
Japan
was the primary financier of the Gulf War, yet received major criticism in some US circles for its refusal to commit actual military support. Following the collapse of the so-called Bubble economy
Bubble economy
and the 1990s boom in the US, the Japanese economy was perceived as less of a threat to US interests. Some observers still feel that Japan's willingness to deploy troops in support of current US operations in Iraq, as spearheaded by Koizumi and the conservative Liberal Democratic Party, reflects a vow not to be excluded from the group of countries the US considers friends. This decision may reflect a realpolitik understanding of the threat Japan
Japan
faces from a rapidly modernizing China, which from its continued and indeed growing pattern of anti-Japanese demonstrations reveals the belief that old historical scores remain unsettled.

Central America and the Caribbean[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Antigua and Barbuda 1982-10-04 See Foreign relations of Antigua and Barbuda

 Bahamas 1975-03-11 See Foreign relations of the Bahamas

 Barbados 1967-09-27 See Barbados– Japan
Japan
relations

 Belize 1982-11-03 See Foreign relations of Belize

 Costa Rica 1935-02 See Foreign relations of Costa Rica

 Cuba 1929-12-21 See Foreign relations of Cuba

 Dominica 1978-12-11 See Foreign relations of Dominica

 Dominican Republic 1934-11 See Foreign relations of the Dominican Republic

 El Salvador 1935-02 See Foreign relations of El Salvador

 Grenada 1975-04-11 See Grenada– Japan
Japan
relations

 Guatemala 1935-02 See Foreign relations of Guatemala

 Haiti 1931 See Foreign relations of Haiti

 Honduras 1935-02 See Foreign relations of Honduras

 Jamaica 1964-03-17 See Foreign relations of Jamaica

 Nicaragua 1935-02 See Foreign relations of Nicaragua

 Panama 1904-01-07 See Foreign relations of Panama

The Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Panama
Panama
City and Panama
Panama
has an embassy in Tokyo The Japan
Japan
and Panama
Panama
have a strong bilateral relationship.

 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1985-01-14 See Foreign relations of Saint Kitts and Nevis

 Saint Lucia 1980-01-11 See Foreign relations of Saint Lucia

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1980-04-15 See Foreign relations of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

 Trinidad and Tobago 1964-05 See Foreign relations of Trinidad and Tobago

South America[edit] Main article: Japan– Latin America
Latin America
relations Japan
Japan
has continued to extend significant support to development and technical assistance projects in Latin America.[48]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Argentina 1898-02-03 See Argentina– Japan
Japan
relations Argentina
Argentina
maintains an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and Japan
Japan
maintains an embassy in Buenos Aires. Diplomatic relations
Diplomatic relations
were restored by the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty
San Francisco Peace Treaty
in 1952. Argentine president Arturo Frondizi visited Japan
Japan
in 1960, and subsequently bilateral trade and Japanese investment into Argentina
Argentina
have increased in importance. Japanese imports were primarily foodstuffs and raw materials, while exports were mostly machinery and finished products. Members of the Imperial Family of Japan
Japan
have visited Argentina
Argentina
on a number of occasions, including Prince and Princess Takamado in 1991, Emperor and Empress Akihito
Akihito
in 1997 and Prince and Princess Akishino in 1998. Argentine President Raúl Alfonsín
Raúl Alfonsín
visit Japan
Japan
in 1986, as did President Carlos Menem
Carlos Menem
in 1990, 1993 and 1998.

 Bolivia 1914-04-13 See Foreign relations of Bolivia

 Brazil 1895 See Brazil– Japan
Japan
relations

Brazil
Brazil
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and consulates-general in Hamamatsu
Hamamatsu
and Nagoya.[49] Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Brasília
Brasília
and consulates-general in Belém, Curitiba, Manaus, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo
São Paulo
and consular offices in Recife
Recife
and Porto Alegre.[50]

 Chile 1897-09-25

During World War II, relations between both countries were severed. In 1943, President Juan Antonio Ríos
Juan Antonio Ríos
suspended relations with Japan
Japan
and in February 1945, he declared a "state of belligerancy". Finally, on 12 April 1945, Chile
Chile
declared war against Japan. Relations were re-established by the signing of San Francisco Peace Treaty
San Francisco Peace Treaty
in 1952. Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Santiago de Chile Chile
Chile
has an embassy and a consulate-general in Tokyo
Tokyo
and three honorary consulates in Osaka, Sapporo
Sapporo
and Nagasaki.

 Colombia 1908-05-25 See Colombia– Japan
Japan
relations The relationship was officially established in 1908, only interrupted between 1942 and 1954 with the surge of World War II. Relations are mostly based on commercial trade that has favored Japan
Japan
interests such as Colombian coffee (which Japan
Japan
exports a lot), cultural exchanges and technological and philanthropic aid to Colombia.[51]

 Ecuador 1918-08-26 See Foreign relations of Ecuador

 Guyana 1967-05-02 See Foreign relations of Guyana

 Paraguay 1919-11-17

Commercial relations started prior to the establishment of diplomatic relations. Trade agreement was signed in Asuncion
Asuncion
on 17 November 1919.[52] Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Asuncion.[53] Paraguay
Paraguay
has an embassy in Tokyo.[54] There are around 7,000 Paraguayans who are of Japanese descent, whose ancestors came to Paraguay
Paraguay
between 1936 and 1959. (See also Japanese Paraguayan) Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
about relations with Paraguay Paraguayan Ministry of Foreign Relations about relations with Japan

 Peru 1873-08-21 See Japan– Peru
Peru
relations

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Lima.[55] Peru
Peru
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and a consulate-general in Nagoya.[56]

 Suriname 1975-12-06 See Foreign relations of Suriname

 Uruguay 1921-09-24

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Montevideo.[57] Uruguay
Uruguay
has an embassy in Tokyo. There are a few hundred people of Japanese descent living in Uruguay. (See also Japanese Uruguayan) Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
about relations with Uruguay

 Venezuela 1938-08-19 See Japan– Venezuela
Venezuela
relations Formal diplomatic relations between the countries were established in August 1938.[58] Venezuela
Venezuela
broke off diplomatic ties with Japan
Japan
(and the other Axis Powers) in December 1941, shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.[59] In 1999, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
made a three-day trip to Japan. He made another two-day trip in 2009, during which he met Prime Minister Taro Aso.

Europe[edit]

34th G8 summit
34th G8 summit
(Tōyako Town, Hokkaidō)

In what became known as the Tenshō embassy, the first ambassadors from Japan
Japan
to European powers reached Lisbon, Portugal
Portugal
in August 1584. From Lisbon, the ambassadors left for the Vatican in Rome, which was the main goal of their journey. The embassy returned to Japan
Japan
in 1590, after which time the four nobleman ambassadors were ordained by Alessandro Valignano
Alessandro Valignano
as the first Japanese Jesuit fathers. A second embassy, headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga
Hasekura Tsunenaga
and sponsored by Date Masamune, was also a diplomatic mission to the Vatican. The embassy left 28 October 1613 from Ishinomaki, Miyagi
Ishinomaki, Miyagi
Prefecture, in the northern Tōhoku region
Tōhoku region
of Japan, where Date was daimyō. It traveled to Europe by way of New Spain, arriving in Acapulco
Acapulco
on 25 January 1614, Mexico
Mexico
City in March, Havana
Havana
in July, and finally Seville
Seville
on 23 October 1614. After a short stop-over in France, the embassy reached Rome
Rome
in November 1615, where it was received by Pope Paul V. After return travel by way of New Spain
New Spain
and the Philippines, the embassy reached the harbor of Nagasaki
Nagasaki
in August 1620. While the embassy was gone, Japan
Japan
had undergone significant change, starting with the 1614 Osaka
Osaka
Rebellion, leading to a 1616 decree from the Tokugawa shogunate that all interaction with non-Chinese foreigners was confined to Hirado
Hirado
and Nagasaki. In fact, the only western country that was allowed to trade with Japan
Japan
was the Dutch Republic. This was the beginning of "sakoku", where Japan
Japan
was essentially closed to the western world until 1854. Modern era[edit]

Embassy of Japan
Japan
in Bratislava, Slovakia.

Although cultural and non-economic ties with Western Europe
Western Europe
grew significantly during the 1980s, the economic nexus remained by far the most important element of Japanese – West European relations throughout the decade. Events in West European relations, as well as political, economic, or even military matters, were topics of concern to most Japanese commentators because of the immediate implications for Japan. The major issues centred on the effect of the coming West European economic unification on Japan's trade, investment, and other opportunities in Western Europe. Some West European leaders were anxious to restrict Japanese access to the newly integrated European Union, but others appeared open to Japanese trade and investment. In partial response to the strengthening economic ties among nations in Western Europe
Western Europe
and to the United States–Canada– Mexico
Mexico
North American Free Trade Agreement, Japan
Japan
and other countries along the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
rim began moving in the late 1980s toward greater economic cooperation. On 18 July 1991, after several months of difficult negotiations, Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu
Toshiki Kaifu
signed a joint statement with the Dutch prime minister and head of the European Community Council, Ruud Lubbers, and with the European Commission
European Commission
president, Jacques Delors, pledging closer Japanese – European Community consultations on foreign relations, scientific and technological cooperation, assistance to developing countries, and efforts to reduce trade conflicts. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials hoped that this agreement would help to broaden Japanese – European Community political links and raise them above the narrow confines of trade disputes.

Country Formal relations began Notes

 Albania 1922-04;re-established in 1981 See Albania– Japan
Japan
relations Albania
Albania
and Japan
Japan
resumed established diplomatic relations in March 1981.[60]

Albania
Albania
has an embassy in Tokyo.

 Austria 1869-10-18 See Austria– Japan
Japan
relations

Austria
Austria
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and 4 honorary consulates (in Hiroshima, Nagoya, Osaka
Osaka
and Sapporo). Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Vienna
Vienna
and an honorary consulate in Salzburg.

 Belgium 1866-08-01 See Belgium– Japan
Japan
relations

 Bulgaria 1890s See Bulgaria– Japan
Japan
relations

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and an honorary consulate in Yokohama.[61] Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Sofia.[62] Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
about relations with Bulgaria

 Croatia 1992-03-05 See Croatia– Japan
Japan
relations

 Cyprus 1960-08-16 See Foreign relations of Cyprus

 Czech Republic 1920-1-12 See Czech Republic– Japan
Japan
relations[63]

 Denmark 1867 See Denmark– Japan
Japan
relations

 Estonia 1921-01-26 See Foreign relations of Estonia#Relations by country

 European Union 1959 See Japan– European Union
European Union
relations

 Finland 1919-09-06 See Foreign relations of Finland#Asia

 France 1858-10-09 See France– Japan
Japan
relations The history of Franco–Japanese relations (日仏関係, Nichi-Futsu kankei) goes back to the early 17th century, when a Japanese samurai and ambassador on his way to Rome
Rome
landed for a few days in Southern France, creating a sensation. France
France
and Japan
Japan
have enjoyed a very robust and progressive relationship spanning centuries through various contacts in each other's countries by senior representatives, strategic efforts, and cultural exchanges.

 Germany 24 January 1861 See Germany– Japan
Japan
relations Regular meetings between the two countries have led to several cooperations. In 2004 German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi
Junichiro Koizumi
agreed upon cooperations in the assistance for reconstruction of Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan,[64][65] the promotion of economic exchange activities,[66] youth and sports exchanges[67] as well as exchanges and cooperation in science, technology and academic fields.[68]

 Greece 1899-06 See Greece– Japan
Japan
relations There has been a Greek embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
since 1960, and a Japanese embassy in Athens
Athens
since the same year, when it was decided to upgrade the Japanese Consulate which had opened in 1956. Since then the two countries have enjoyed excellent relations in all fields, and cooperate closely.[69]

 Holy See 1942-03 The first Papal visit to Japan
Japan
took place in 1981. the present Apostolic Nuncio to Japan
Japan
is Joseph Chennoth (since 2011) Japan
Japan
first sent an ambassador, Ken Harada, to the Vatican during World War II.

 Hungary 1921 See Hungary– Japan
Japan
relations

Hungary
Hungary
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and two honorary consulates (in Hamamatsu
Hamamatsu
and Osaka).[70] Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Budapest.[71] Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
about relations with Hungary

 Iceland 1956 See Foreign relations of Iceland#Rest of world

 Ireland 1957 See Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland#Asia

 Italy 1867-03-31 See Foreign relations of Italy#Asia and Oceania

 Kosovo 2009-02-25 See Japan– Kosovo
Kosovo
relations Japan
Japan
recognised it on 18 March 2008.[72] The first Ambassador of Japan
Japan
to the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
is Akio Tanaka. He is subordinate to the Japanese Embassy in Vienna, Austria[73]

 Lithuania 1919;1991-10-10 See Japan– Lithuania
Lithuania
relations

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Vilnius, established in 1997.[74] In 1998, Lithuania
Lithuania
has an embassy in Tokyo.[75] Ambassador to Lithuania
Lithuania
is Miyoko Akashi, ambassador to Japan
Japan
is Dainius Kamaitis. In 2007 the Emperor and Empress of Japan
Japan
Akihito
Akihito
and Michiko
Michiko
paid an official visit in Lithuania.

 Luxembourg 1927-11[4]

 Macedonia 1994-03[4]

Both countries established diplomatic relations in March 1994.[76]

 Netherlands 1609 See Japan– Netherlands
Netherlands
relations The relations between Japan
Japan
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
after 1945 have been a triangular relationship. The invasion and Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies during World War II
World War II
brought about the destruction of the colonial state in Indonesia, as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government as they could, weakening the post-war grip the Netherlands
Netherlands
had over the territory. Under pressure from the United States, the Netherlands
Netherlands
recognised Indonesian sovereignty in 1949 (see United States
United States
of Indonesia).

 Norway 1905-11-01[4]

 Moldova 1992-03-16

Japan
Japan
has a non resident ambassador in Ukraine. Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova, Nicolae Tăbăcaru paid a visit to Japan
Japan
from 31 January to 4 February 1999. It was a first official visit of a Cabinet Member of the Republic of Moldova
Moldova
to Japan. The visit has strengthened the friendly relations between Japan
Japan
and the Republic of Moldova. Since 2000 Japan
Japan
implements in Moldova
Moldova
the grant programme for the improvement of agriculture and private farming. Embassy of the Republic of Moldova
Moldova
in China Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova Japanese ministry of foreign affairs about Moldova

 Montenegro 24 July 2006 See Japan– Montenegro
Montenegro
relations Japan
Japan
recognised Montenegro
Montenegro
on 16 June 2006 and established diplomatic relations on 24 July 2006. Montenegro
Montenegro
had declared war on Japan
Japan
in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
and never signed a peace treaty until 2006, shortly before the opening of diplomatic relations. The war lasted for 101 years. Trade, mostly related to electronics, exports from Japan
Japan
to Montenegro
Montenegro
(163 million yen per annum) outweigh Japan's imports (2 million yen per annum).

 Poland 1919-03 See Foreign relations of Poland

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Warsaw. Poland
Poland
has an embassy in Tokyo

 Portugal 1860-08-03 See Japan– Portugal
Portugal
relations See also: Category:Japan– Portugal
Portugal
relations

 Romania 1902-06-18 See Foreign relations of Romania#Asia: East Asia

The first representation of Romania
Romania
in Japan
Japan
was opened in 1921 Japan
Japan
was represented in Romania
Romania
through its embassy in Vienna (Austria). After World War II, both states resumed their diplomatic relations in 1959. Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Bucharest.[77] Romania
Romania
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and four honorary consulates (in Atami, Osaka, Nagoya
Nagoya
and Yokohama).[78] Japanese Ministry of Foreign affairs about relations with Romania

 Russia 1855-02-07 See Japan– Russia
Russia
relations Japan's relations with Russia
Russia
are hampered by the two sides' inability to resolve their territorial dispute over the four islands that make up the Northern Territories (Kuriles), which the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
seized towards the end of World War II. The stalemate has prevented conclusion of a peace treaty formally ending the war. The dispute over the Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands
exacerbated the Japan–Russo relations when the Japanese government published a new guideline for school textbooks on 16 July 2008 to teach Japanese children that their country has sovereignty over the Kuril Islands. The Russian public was outraged by the action the Foreign Minister of Russia
Russia
criticized the action while reaffirming its sovereignty over the islands.[79][80]

 Serbia reestablished in 1952 See Japan– Serbia
Serbia
relations

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Belgrade. Serbia
Serbia
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and an honorary consulate in Osaka.

 Slovenia 1992-10-12

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Ljubljana.[81] Slovenia
Slovenia
has an embassy in Tokyo.[82] Japan
Japan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Slovenia

 Spain First contact in 1584, officialized in 1868. Relations were broken on Apr. 11, 1945 and reestablished in 1952 See Japan– Spain
Spain
relations

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Madrid
Madrid
and consulates in Barcelona
Barcelona
and Las Palmas. Spain
Spain
has an embassy in Tokyo. Since 1997, every year a Japan– Spain
Spain
Symposium for the cultural exchange between the two countries is held. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
about relations with Spain Spanish Embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
about Spanish relations with Japan

 Sweden 1868[4] See Japan– Sweden
Sweden
relations

  Switzerland February 6, 1864

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Bern
Bern
and a general consulate in Geneva.[83][84] Switzerland
Switzerland
has an embassy in Tokyo. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
about relations with Switzerland Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Japan

 Ukraine 1992-01-26 See Japan– Ukraine
Ukraine
relations

Japan
Japan
extended diplomatic recognition to the Ukrainian state on 28 December 1991, immediately after the breakup of the Soviet Union Ukraine
Ukraine
maintains an embassy in Tokyo.[85] Japan
Japan
maintains an embassy in Kiev.[86]

 United Kingdom 1854-10-14 See Japan– United Kingdom
United Kingdom
relations The relationship between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Japan
Japan
began in 1600 with the arrival of William Adams (Adams the Pilot, Miura Anjin) on the shores of Kyūshū
Kyūshū
at Usuki in Ōita Prefecture. During the Sakoku period (1641–1853) there were no relations, but the treaty of 1854 saw the resumption of ties which, despite the hiatus of the Second World War, remain very strong in the present day. Today, the United Kingdom views Japan
Japan
as it's closest ally in the Asia Pacific
Asia Pacific
region, while Japan
Japan
views the UK as it's closest ally in Europe.

Oceania[edit] See also: Japan–Oceania relations

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Australia 1947[4] See Australia– Japan
Japan
relations

Katsuya Okada
Katsuya Okada
(left), Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
(centre) and Stephen Smith (right)

Australia– Japan
Japan
relations have generally warm as well as acknowledged mutuality of strong interests, beliefs and friendship, and has since continued to grow strongly over the years. However, memories of World War II
World War II
linger among the older members of the Australian public, as does a contemporary fear of Japanese economic domination over countries, particularly Australia, although such fears have fallen off in response to Japan's economic stagnation in the 1990s. At the same time, government and business leaders see Japan
Japan
as a vital export market and an essential element in Australia's strong future growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region. Australia
Australia
is also a major source of food and raw materials for Japan. In 1990 Australia
Australia
accounted for 5.3 percent of total Japanese imports, a share that held relatively steady in the late 1980s. Due to its ability to export raw materials, Australia
Australia
had a trade surplus with Japan. Australia
Australia
was the largest single supplier of coal, iron ore, wool, and sugar to Japan
Japan
in 1990. Australia
Australia
is also a supplier of uranium. Japanese investment by 1988 made Australia
Australia
the single largest source of Japanese regional imports. Resource development projects in Australia
Australia
attracted Japanese capital, as did trade protectionism by necessitating local production for the Australian market. Investments in Australia
Australia
totaled US$8.1 billion in 1988, accounting for 4.4 percent of Japanese direct investment abroad. There is some tension regarding the issue of whaling.

 Cook Islands 2011-03-25[4] See Foreign relations of Cook Islands

 Fiji 1970-10-01[4] See Foreign relations of Fiji

 Kiribati 1980-03[4] See Foreign relations of Kiribati

 Marshall Islands 1988-12-09[4] See Foreign relations of Marshall Islands

 Federated States of Micronesia 1988-08-05[4] See Foreign relations of Federated States of Micronesia

 Nauru 1968-01-31[4] See Foreign relations of Nauru

 New Zealand 1952[4] See Japan– New Zealand
New Zealand
relations Japan– New Zealand
New Zealand
relations have had generally cordial relations since the post- World War II
World War II
period, with Japan
Japan
being a major trading partner with New Zealand. These relations have held together despite policy disputes over whaling and the International Whaling
Whaling
Commission. New Zealand
New Zealand
sent an urban search and rescue team which had spent the previous three weeks searching buildings following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, and 15 tonnes of rescue equipment with the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.[87] The government donated $2m to the Japanese Red Cross to support relief efforts.[88][89]

 Palau 1994-11-02[4] See Foreign relations of Palau

 Papua New Guinea 1975-09[4] See Foreign relations of Papua New Guinea

 Samoa 1971[4] See Foreign relations of Samoa

 Solomon Islands 1978-09[4] See Foreign relations of Solomon Islands

 Tonga 1970[4] See Japan– Tonga
Tonga
relations Japan
Japan
and the Kingdom of Tonga
Tonga
have maintained official diplomatic relations since July 1970.[90] Japan
Japan
is Tonga's leading donor in the field of technical aid.[90] The Japanese government describes its relations with Tonga
Tonga
as "excellent", and states that "the Imperial family of Japan
Japan
and the Royal family of Tonga
Tonga
have developed a cordial and personal relationship over the years".[90]

 Tuvalu 1979-04[4] See Foreign relations of Tuvalu

 Vanuatu 1981-01[4] See Foreign relations of Vanuatu

 Niue 2015-08-04[4] See Foreign relations of Niue

Debates and frictions[edit]

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Japan
Japan
has formally issued apologies for its military occupations before and during World War II, but that has done little in helping to improve its relationships with neighboring countries, especially the People's Republic of China, North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea. These countries still insist that Japan
Japan
has yet to formally express remorse for its wrongdoings in the 20th century, despite some formal statements of regret from Prime Ministers Hosokawa Morihiro
Hosokawa Morihiro
and Murayama Tomiichi. Japan’s official stance is that all war-related reparation claims have been resolved (except with North Korea). Unofficial visits to the controversial Yasukuni Jinja
Yasukuni Jinja
by past Prime Ministers belonging to the Liberal Democratic Party and the exclusion or generalization of some elements of Japan’s military history in a number school textbooks have also clouded the issue. In 2004 the People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and South Korea also criticized Japan
Japan
for sending its Ground Self Defence Forces to Iraq, which was seen as signalling a return to militarism. The government of Japan
Japan
insisted that its forces would only participate in reconstruction and humanitarian aid missions. There is a strong anti-Japanese sentiment in the People’s Republic of China, North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea. Antagonism is not inevitable however. South Korea
South Korea
and Japan
Japan
successfully dual-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup, bridging a physical and political gap between the two countries. The great popularity in Japan
Japan
of Bae Yong-joon, a South Korean actor, has also been seen as a sign that the two countries have moved closer together. Disputed territories[edit] Main article: Territorial disputes of Japan Japan
Japan
has several territorial disputes with its neighbors concerning the control of certain outlying islands. Japan
Japan
contests Russia's control of the Southern Kuril Islands (including Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group) which were occupied by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1945.[91] South Korea's assertions concerning Liancourt Rocks
Liancourt Rocks
(Japanese: "Takeshima", Korean: "Dokdo") are acknowledged, but not accepted by Japan.[92] Japan
Japan
has strained relations with the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) and the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) over the Senkaku Islands;[93] and with the People's Republic of China
China
over the status of Okinotorishima. These disputes are in part about irredentism; and they are also about the control of marine and natural resources, such as possible reserves of crude oil and natural gas. See also[edit]

Japan
Japan
portal

Foreign policy of Japan List of diplomatic missions in Japan List of diplomatic missions of Japan List of Japanese overseas military actions List of war apology statements issued by Japan Hotta Masayoshi Visa requirements for Japanese citizens

References[edit]

^ BBC World Service Poll, 6 March 2007 (PDF) ^ 国連平和維持活動(PKO), Ministry of Foreign Affairs ^ Komura, Masahiko. "Building Peacebuilders for the Future," Tokyo Peacebuilders Symposium 2008. 24 March 2008. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba mfat ^ "Japan– Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Relations". Japan: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. March 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2008.  ^ Abdul Matin, Muhammad (2005). "East Asian Security: A Bangladesh Perspective". In Sisodia, N. S.; Naidu, G. V. C. Changing Security Dynamic in Eastern Asia: Focus on Japan. Bibliophile South Asia. pp. 504–528. ISBN 81-86019-52-9.  ^ Ashrafur Rahman, Syed (October–December 2005). "Japan's Political and Economic Goals in Bangladesh" (PDF). Asian Affairs. 27 (4): 41–50. Retrieved 9 April 2008.  ^ a b "Brunei- Japan
Japan
Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Brunei). Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014.  ^ "Business in Cambodia
Cambodia
Japan
Japan
– Business People Technology". www.japaninc.com. 31 August 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2011.  ^ "Search". Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
Post. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ [1] Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Antara News :". Antara.co.id. 1 January 1970. Archived from the original on 23 June 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2011.  ^ a b "India, Japan
Japan
in security pact; a new architecture for Asia?". Reuters. 25 October 2008.  ^ India
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 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. Further reading[edit]

Barnhart, Michael A. Japan
Japan
and the World since 1868 (1995) excerpt Buckley, Roger. US- Japan
Japan
Alliance Diplomacy 1945-1990 (1992) Duus, Peter, ed. The Cambridge History of Japan, Vol. 6: The Twentieth Century (1989). Hook, Glenn D. et al. Japan's international relations: Politics, economics and security (3rd ed. 2011), covers 1945-2010. Kibata, Y. and I. Nish, eds. The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1600-2000: Volume I: The Political-Diplomatic Dimension, 1600-1930 (2000) excerpt, first of five topical volumes also covering social, economic and military relations between Japan
Japan
and Great Britain. Inoguchi, Takashi. Japan's Foreign Policy in an Era of Global Change (2013). Iriye, Akira. Japan
Japan
and the wider world: from the mid-nineteenth century to the present (1997) Lafeber, Walter. The Clash: A History of U.S.- Japan
Japan
Relations (1997), a standard scholarly history Malafaia, Thiago Corrêa. "Japanese International Relations: an assessment of the 1971-2011 period." Brazilian Political Science Review 10.1 (2016). online in English Scalapino, Robert A. The Foreign Policy of Modern Japan
Japan
(1977) online Shimamoto, Mayako, Koji Ito and Yoneyuki Sugita, eds. Historical Dictionary of Japanese Foreign Policy (2015) excerpt Togo, Kazuhiko. Japan's Foreign Policy 1945-2003 (Brill, 2005) online

External links[edit]

Various articles and discussion papers on Japan's foreign relations in the electronic journal of contemporary Japanese studies Rwanda: Kagame Addresses Japanese Senate Videos on Japan's Relations with the US from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives

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