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The FOREIGN RELATIONS OF JAPAN (日本の国際関係, Nihon no kokusai kankei) is handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan .

Japanese foreign relations had to begin anew in 1945, when it was defeated in war and stripped of all of its foreign conquests and possessions. See History of Japanese foreign relations . The United States, acting for the Allied powers, occupied Japan
Japan
1945-51. Since gaining full independence with the Treaty of San Francisco
Treaty of San Francisco
, Japanese diplomatic policy has been based on close partnership with the United States and the emphasis on the international cooperation such as the United Nations
United Nations
. In the Cold War
Cold War
, Japan
Japan
took a part in the Western world 's confrontation of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in East Asia
East Asia
. In the rapid economic developments in the 1960s and 1970s, Japan
Japan
recovered its influences and became regarded as one of the major powers in the world. However, Japanese influences are regarded as negative by two particular countries: China
China
and South Korea
South Korea
.

During the Cold War, Japanese foreign policy was not self-assertive, relatively focused on their economic growth. However, the end of the Cold War
Cold War
and bitter lessons from the Gulf War
Gulf War
changed the policy slowly. Japanese government decided to participate in the Peacekeeping operations by the UN, and sent their troops to Cambodia
Cambodia
, Mozambique
Mozambique
, Golan Heights
Golan Heights
and the East Timor
East Timor
in the 1990s and 2000s. After the September 11 attacks in 2001, Japanese naval vessels have been assigned to resupply duties in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the present date. The Ground Self-Defense Force also dispatched their troops to Southern Iraq
Iraq
for the restoration of basic infrastructures.

Beyond its immediate neighbors, Japan
Japan
has pursued a more active foreign policy in recent years, recognizing the responsibility which accompanies its economic strength. Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda stressed a changing direction in a policy speech to the National Diet : " Japan
Japan
aspires to become a hub of human resource development as well as for research and intellectual contribution to further promote cooperation in the field of peace-building." This follows the modest success of a Japanese-conceived peace plan which became the foundation for nationwide elections in Cambodia
Cambodia
in 1998.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Links

* 2 East Asia
East Asia

* 2.1 China
China
* 2.2 Korea * 2.3 Mongolia * 2.4 Taiwan
Taiwan

* 3 Southeast Asia

* 3.1 Brunei
Brunei
* 3.2 Cambodia
Cambodia
* 3.3 Indonesia
Indonesia
* 3.4 Malaysia
Malaysia
* 3.5 Philippines
Philippines
* 3.6 Thailand
Thailand
* 3.7 Vietnam
Vietnam

* 4 South Asia
South Asia

* 4.1 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* 4.2 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* 4.3 India
India
* 4.4 Nepal
Nepal
* 4.5 Pakistan
Pakistan
* 4.6 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

* 5 South and Central Asia * 6 North America * 7 Central America and the Caribbean * 8 South America

* 9 Oceania

* 9.1 Australia
Australia
* 9.2 New Zealand
New Zealand
* 9.3 Tonga
Tonga

* 10 Europe

* 10.1 Modern era

* 11 Africa
Africa
* 12 Western Asia * 13 Debates and frictions * 14 Disputed territories * 15 See also * 16 References * 17 Further reading * 18 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Japanese foreign relations

LINKS

* Foreign relations of Meiji Japan
Japan
* International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) * Diplomatic history of World War I
Diplomatic history of World War I
* International relations (1919–1939)
International relations (1919–1939)
* Causes of World War II * Diplomatic history of World War II

* Cold War
Cold War

* History of Sino-Japanese relations , China * France– Japan
Japan
relations * Germany– Japan
Japan
relations * Greater East Asia
East Asia
Co-Prosperity Sphere , 1930-1945

* History of Japan–Korea relations

* Japan–North Korea relations * Japan– South Korea
South Korea
relations

* Japanese foreign policy on Southeast Asia

* Japan–Russia relations

* Japan– Soviet Union
Soviet Union
relations

* Japan–United Kingdom relations * Japan– United States
United States
relations

EAST ASIA

CHINA

Main articles: Sino-Japanese relations and History of Sino-Japanese relations Old Embassy of Japan
Japan
in China
China

During the Meiji Era , China
China
was one of the first countries to feel Japanese Imperialism . After the establishment of the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) in 1949, relations with Japan
Japan
changed from hostility and an absence of contact to cordiality and extremely close cooperation in many fields. During the 1960s the two countries resumed trade for the first time since World War II
World War II
under the Liao–Takasaki Agreement. On 29 September 1972, Japan
Japan
and China
China
signed a treaty establishing diplomatic relations between the states. The 1990s led to an enormous growth in China’s economic welfare. Trade between Japan and China
China
was one of the many reasons China
China
was able to grow in the double-digit rates during the 1980s and 1990s. Japan
Japan
was in the forefront among leading industrialized nations in restoring closer economic and political relations with China. Resumption of Japan's multibillion-dollar investments to China
China
and increased visits to China by Japanese officials, culminating in the October 1992 visit of Emperor Akihito
Akihito
, gave a clear indication that Japan
Japan
considered closer ties with China
China
in its economic and strategic interest. Despite a 1995 apology regarding World War II
World War II
by Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama , tensions still remain, mostly because many Chinese feel there is a lack of true remorse for wartime crimes committed by Imperial Japanese forces. This has been reinforced by numerous visits to the Yasukuni Shrine by Japanese Prime Ministers, attempts to revise textbooks by Japanese nationalists, the continued dispute over Japan's atrocities in the Nanking Massacre
Nanking Massacre
, and the resurgence of nationalism and militarism in Japan.

KOREA

Main articles: Japan– South Korea
South Korea
relations and Japan–North Korea relations See also: History of Japan–Korea relations and Japan–Korea disputes

Japan
Japan
strongly supports the U.S. in its efforts to encourage North Korea to abide by the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Despite the 31 August 1998 North Korean missile test which overflew the Home Islands, Japan
Japan
has maintained its support for the Korean Energy Development Organization (KEDO) and the Agreed Framework , which seeks to freeze the North Korean nuclear program. The U.S., Japan, and South Korea closely coordinate and consult trilaterally on policy toward North Korea, at least on a government level. Japan
Japan
has limited economic and commercial ties with North Korea. Japanese normalization talks halted when North Korea
North Korea
refused to discuss a number of issues with Japan.

Japan
Japan
and South Korea
South Korea
have had many disputes . Former South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun rejected a conference with the Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi following his visits to the controversial Yasukuni Shrine . Other long-running issues between the two countries include territorial disputes over the Liancourt Rocks and disagreement about whether or not the matter of World War II-era forced prostitution has been resolved.

MONGOLIA

Main article: Mongolia– Japan
Japan
relations

* Formal relations started in 1972 * Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar
Ulaanbaatar
. * Mongolia has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
. * Japan
Japan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs- Mongolia * Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Japan
Japan
(in Mongolian)

TAIWAN

Main article: Japan–Taiwan relations

Taiwan
Taiwan
was ceded to Japan
Japan
in 1895 and was a major Japanese prefecture in World War II
World War II
. Following the unconditional surrender of Japan
Japan
to Allied Powers after World War II, Taiwan
Taiwan
was relinquished by Japan
Japan
as a stolen territory from China
China
(like Manchukuo
Manchukuo
) by the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951. Current relations are guided by the 1972 Japan–PRC Joint Communique . Since the joint Communique, Japan
Japan
has maintained non-governmental, working-level relations with Taiwan. Japan
Japan
refers to the Republic of China
China
on Taiwan
Taiwan
with the neutral name "Taiwan."

SOUTHEAST ASIA

Embassy of Indonesia
Indonesia
in Japan
Japan

By 1990 Japan's interaction with the vast majority of Asia-Pacific countries, especially its burgeoning economic exchanges, was multifaceted and increasingly important to the recipient countries. The developing countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) regarded Japan
Japan
as critical to their development. Japan's aid to the ASEAN countries totaled US $1.9 billion in Japanese fiscal year (FY) 1988 versus about US $333 million for the United States
United States
during U.S. FY 1988. Japan
Japan
was the number one foreign investor in the ASEAN countries, with cumulative investment as of March 1989 of about US $14.5 billion, more than twice that of the United States. Japan's share of total foreign investment in ASEAN countries in the same period ranged from 70 to 80 percent in Thailand
Thailand
to 20 percent in Indonesia
Indonesia
.

In the late 1980s, the Japanese government was making a concerted effort to enhance its diplomatic stature, especially in Asia. Toshiki Kaifu 's much publicized spring 1991 tour of five Southeast Asian nations— Malaysia
Malaysia
, Brunei
Brunei
, Thailand, Singapore
Singapore
, and the Philippines
Philippines
—culminated in a 3 May major foreign policy address in Singapore, in which he called for a new partnership with the ASEAN and pledged that Japan
Japan
would go beyond the purely economic sphere to seek an "appropriate role in the political sphere as a nation of peace." As evidence of this new role, Japan
Japan
took an active part in promoting negotiations to resolve the Cambodian conflict.

In 1997, the ASEAN member nations and the People's Republic of China, South Korea
South Korea
and Japan
Japan
agreed to hold yearly talks to further strengthen regional cooperation, the ASEAN Plus Three meetings. In 2005 the ASEAN plus Three countries together with India
India
, Australia and New Zealand
New Zealand
held the inaugural East Asia
East Asia
Summit (EAS).

BRUNEI

Main article: Brunei– Japan
Japan
relations

Brunei
Brunei
has an embassy in Tokyo, and Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan . Relations has been established since 2 April 1984.

CAMBODIA

Main article: Cambodia– Japan
Japan
relations

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
. Trade is sizable between the two countries:

* Japan
Japan
to Cambodia: 14.0 billion yen (2006) * Cambodia
Cambodia
to Japan: 9.5 billion yen (2006)

Japanese investment in Cambodia
Cambodia
includes Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
Commercial Bank , a joint venture of Hyundai Switzerland
Switzerland
and Japanese SBI Group , opened in 2008. Japan
Japan
remains Cambodia’s top donor country providing some US$1.2 billion in total overseas development assistance (ODA) during the period since 1992. In 2006, Japanese and Cambodian governments signed an agreement outlining a new Japanese aid program worth US$59 million.

The Japanese Government has provided significant assistance for demining and education.

* Japanese embassy in Cambodia

INDONESIA

Main article: Indonesia– Japan
Japan
relations

* Indonesia
Indonesia
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and a consulate in Osaka
Osaka
. Japan has an embassy in Jakarta
Jakarta
and consulates in Medan
Medan
, Denpasar
Denpasar
, Surabaya
Surabaya
, and Makassar
Makassar
. * Japan
Japan
is Indonesia's largest export partner. * Both countries are members of the G20 major economies and APEC
APEC
.

MALAYSIA

Main article: Japan– Malaysia
Malaysia
relations

Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, and consulates in George Town and Kota Kinabalu . Malaysia
Malaysia
maintains an embassy in Tokyo. The Japanese and Malaysian governments had visited each other on multiple occasions. Notable visits include the King of Malaysia
Malaysia
visiting Japan in 2005 while in 2006, the Emperor and Empress of Japan
Japan
visited Malaysia.

PHILIPPINES

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Main article: Japan– Philippines
Philippines
relations

Relations between Japan
Japan
and the Philippines
Philippines
were generally very strong since the end of World War II
World War II
. It span a period from before the 16th century to the present. The Philippines
Philippines
gained independence from the United States
United States
in 1946. Diplomatic relations were re-established in 1956, when a war reparations agreement was concluded. By the end of the 1950s, Japanese companies and individual investors had begun to return to the Philippines
Philippines
and in 1975, Japan displaced the United States
United States
as the main source of investment in the Philippines.

THAILAND

Main article: Japan– Thailand
Thailand
relations

Japan– Thailand
Thailand
relations span a period from the 17th century to the present. Contacts had an early start with Japanese trade on Red seal ships and the installation of Japanese communities on Siamese soil, only to be broken off with Japan's period of seclusion . Contacts resumed in the 19th century and developed to the point where Japan
Japan
is today one of Thailand's foremost economic partners. Thailand
Thailand
and Japan share the distinction of never having lost sovereignty during the Colonial period.

VIETNAM

Main article: Japan–Vietnam relations

Vietnamese–Japanese relations stretch back to the at least the 16th century, when the two countries engaged in friendly trade. Modern relations between the two countries are based on Vietnam
Vietnam
's developing economy and Japan's role as an investor and foreign aid donor.

COUNTRY FORMAL RELATIONS BEGAN NOTES

Brunei
Brunei
1984-04-02 See Brunei– Japan
Japan
relations

Burma 1954-12-01 Foreign relations of Burma

Cambodia
Cambodia
1953 See Cambodia– Japan
Japan
relations

East Timor
East Timor
2002-05-20 See East Timor– Japan
Japan
relations

Indonesia
Indonesia
1958-04 See Indonesia– Japan
Japan
relations

Laos
Laos
1955-03-05 See Japan- Laos
Laos
relations

Malaysia
Malaysia
1957-08-31 See Japan– Malaysia
Malaysia
relations

Philippines
Philippines
1956-07 See Japan- Philippines
Philippines
relations

Singapore
Singapore
1966-04-26 See Foreign relations of Singapore
Singapore

Thailand
Thailand
1887-09-26 SeeJapan– Thailand
Thailand
relations

Vietnam
Vietnam
1973-09-21 See Japan–Vietnam relations

SOUTH ASIA

In South Asia
South Asia
, Japan's role is mainly that of an aid donor. Japan's aid to seven South Asian countries totaled US$1.1 billion in 1988 and 1989, dropping to just under US$900 million in 1990. Except for Pakistan
Pakistan
, which received heavy inputs of aid from the United States, all other South Asian countries receive most of their aid from Japan. Four South Asian nations— India
India
, Pakistan, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, and Sri Lanka —are in the top ten list of Tokyo's aid recipients worldwide. A point to note is that Indian Government has a no receive aid policy since the tsunami that struck India
India
but Indian registerred NGOs look to Japan
Japan
for much investment in their projects

Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu signaled a broadening of Japan's interest in South Asia
South Asia
with his swing through the region in April 1990. In an address to the Indian parliament , Kaifu stressed the role of free markets and democracy in bringing about "a new international order," and he emphasized the need for a settlement of the Kashmir territorial dispute between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
and for economic liberalization to attract foreign investment and promote dynamic growth. To India, which was very short of hard currency, Kaifu pledged a new concessional loan of ¥100 billion (about US$650 million) for the coming year.

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Japan
Japan
have been close friends since after World War II since Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
extended a great support for Japanese development plans at the UN secretarial discussions.

AFGHANISTAN

Afghan–Japanese relations have existed as far back as World War II , and have been mainly positive. The Japanese government in 1974 started feasibility study under grant aid to develop and built television in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
.

BANGLADESH

Main article: Bangladesh– Japan
Japan
relations

Bangladeshi–Japanese relations were established in February 1972. Japan
Japan
is Bangladesh's 11th-largest export market; imports from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
make up 26% of all Japanese imports from the least developed countries , second only to those from Cambodia
Cambodia
. Common imports from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to Japan
Japan
include leather goods, ready-made garments, and shrimp. By 2004, Japan
Japan
had become Bangladesh's fourth-largest source of foreign direct investment , behind the United States , United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and Malaysia
Malaysia
. Japan's political goals in its relationship with Bangladesh
Bangladesh
include gaining support for their bid to join the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council , and securing markets for their finished goods. Japan
Japan
is a significant source of development aid to Bangladesh.

INDIA

Main article: India– Japan
Japan
relations Indian , Japanese and US naval warships take part in a military exercise near Bōsō Peninsula in 2007. India
India
is one of the only three nations with whom Japan
Japan
has a security pact, the other two being the United States
United States
and Australia.

Throughout history, bilateral foreign relations between Japan
Japan
and India
India
have generally been friendly and strong. In December 2006, Prime Minister Singh's visit to Japan
Japan
culminated in the signing of the "Joint Statement Towards Japan– India
India
Strategic and Global Partnership."

According to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe
Shinzo Abe
's arc of freedom theory, it is in Japan's interests to develop closer ties with India, world's most populous democracy, while its relations with China
China
remain chilly. To this end, Japan
Japan
has funded many infrastructure projects in India, most notably in New Delhi
New Delhi
's metro subway system and Maruti . India
India
and Japan
Japan
have signed a deal to build high speed trains in India
India

Indian applicants have been welcomed in 2006/7 to the JET Programme , starting with just one slot available in 2006 and 41 in 2007.

India
India
and Japan
Japan
signed a security cooperation agreement in which both will hold military exercises, police the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and conduct military-to-military exchanges on fighting terrorism , making India one of only three countries, the others being the United States
United States
and Australia, with which Japan
Japan
has such a security pact. There are 25,000 Indians in Japan
Japan
as of 2008.

NEPAL

Main article: Japan–Nepal relations

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Kathmandu
Kathmandu
. * Nepal
Nepal
has an embassy in Tokyo.

PAKISTAN

Main article: Japan– Pakistan
Pakistan
relations

* There has been a regular exchange of high level visits between the two countries. * The 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations, jointly celebrated by the two countries in 2002, was a significant landmark in the history of this friendship. * There are at least 10,000 Pakistanis residing in Japan.

SRI LANKA

Main article: Japan– Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
relations

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Colombo. * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo

SOUTH AND CENTRAL ASIA

COUNTRY FORMAL RELATIONS BEGAN NOTES

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
1930-11-19 See Foreign relations of Afghanistan
Afghanistan

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
1972-02 See Foreign relations of Bangladesh
Bangladesh

Bhutan
Bhutan
1986-03-28 See Foreign relations of Bhutan
Bhutan

India
India
1952-04-28 See Further information: India– Japan
Japan
relations

Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
1992-01-26 See Kazakhstan– Japan
Japan
relations

Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
1992-01-26 See Kyrgyzstan– Japan
Japan
relations

Maldives
Maldives
1967-11-06 See Foreign relations of the Maldives
Maldives

Nepal
Nepal
1956-07-28 See Foreign relations of Nepal
Nepal

Pakistan
Pakistan
1952-04-28 See Japan– Pakistan
Pakistan
relations

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
1952 See Foreign relations of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
1992-01-26 See Foreign relations of Tajikistan
Tajikistan

Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
1992-01-26 See Foreign relations of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan

Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
1992-01-26 See Foreign relations of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan

NORTH AMERICA

COUNTRY FORMAL RELATIONS BEGAN NOTES

Barbados
Barbados
29 August 1967 See Barbados– Japan
Japan
relations

Japan
Japan
is accredited to Barbados
Barbados
from its embassy in Port of Spain ( Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
) and an honorary consulate in Bridgetown . Barbados
Barbados
is represented in Japan
Japan
through a non-resident ambassador in Bridgetown.

Canada
Canada
1950 See Canada– Japan
Japan
relations

Diplomatic relations between both countries officially began in 1950 with the opening of the Japanese consulate in Ottawa
Ottawa
. In 1929, Canada opened its Tokyo
Tokyo
legation , the first in Asia; and in that same year, Japan
Japan
its Ottawa
Ottawa
consulate to legation form.

Some Canadian–Japanese contacts predate the mutual establishment of permanent legations. The first known Japanese immigrant to Canada, Manzo Nagano, landed in New Westminster, British Columbia in 1877. Japan's consulate in Vancouver was established in 1889, 40 years before its embassy was opened in Ottawa
Ottawa
in 1929.

Canadians G. G. Cochran helped in founding Doshisha University
Doshisha University
in Kyoto, and Davidson McDonald helped in establishing Aoyama Gakuin University in Tokyo.

In the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake
1923 Great Kantō earthquake
, a Canadian steamship, the RMS Empress of Australia
Australia
and her captain, Samuel Robinson achieved international acclaim for stalwart rescue efforts during the immediate aftermath of that disaster.

Canadian military attaché Herbert Cyril Thacker served in the field with Japanese forces in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), for which the Japanese government awarded him the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Third Class and the Japanese War medal for service during that campaign.

Canada
Canada
and Japan
Japan
have had diplomatic relations since 1928. Both countries are characterized by their active role in the Asia-Pacific community, as well as a relationship consisting of important economic, political, and socio-cultural ties. As major international donors, both Canada
Canada
and Japan
Japan
are strongly committed to promoting human rights, sustainable development and peace initiatives.

Canada– Japan
Japan
relations are underpinned by their partnership in multilateral institutions: the G-7/8; the United Nations; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , the Quad (Canada, the European Union, Japan
Japan
and the United States), and by their common interest in the Pacific community, including participation in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF).

Emperor Akihito
Akihito
and Empress Michiko
Michiko
visited Canada
Canada
in 2009.

Mexico
Mexico
1888 See Japan– Mexico
Mexico
relations

The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation concluded in 1888 between Japan
Japan
and Mexico
Mexico
was the nation's first "equal" treaty with any country; which overshadows Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
's pre-Edo period initiatives which sought to establish official relations with the New Spain
Spain
in Mexico.

In 1897, the 35 members of the so-called Enomoto Colonization Party settle in the Mexican state of Chiapas. This was the first organized emigration from Japan
Japan
to Latin America.

President Álvaro Obregón
Álvaro Obregón
was awarded Japan's Order of the Chrysanthemum at a special ceremony in Mexico
Mexico
City. On 27 November 1924, Baron Shigetsuma Furuya, Special
Special
Ambassador from Japan
Japan
to Mexico, conferred the honor on Obregón. It was reported that this had been the first time that the Order had been conferred outside the Imperial family.

In 1952, Mexico
Mexico
becomes the second country to ratify the San Francisco Peace Treaty, preceded only by the United Kingdom.

Mexico
Mexico
and Japan
Japan
on 17 September 2004, signed the "Agreement Between Japan
Japan
and The United Mexican States For The Strengthening of The Economic Partnership." This was the among many historic steps led by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi to strengthen global economic stability.

United States
United States
1846 See Japan– United States
United States
relations Yasuo Fukuda
Yasuo Fukuda
and George W. Bush

The United States
United States
is Japan's closest ally, and Japan
Japan
relies on the U.S. for its national security to a high degree. As two of the world's top three economic powers, both countries also rely on close economic ties for their wealth, despite ongoing and occasionally acrimonious trade frictions.

Although its constitution and government policy preclude an offensive military role for Japan
Japan
in international affairs, Japanese cooperation with the United States
United States
through the 1960 U.S.– Japan
Japan
Security Treaty has been important to the peace and stability of East Asia
East Asia
. Currently, there are domestic discussions about possible reinterpretation of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution
Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution
. All postwar Japanese governments have relied on a close relationship with the United States
United States
as the foundation of their foreign policy and have depended on the mutual security treaty for strategic protection.

The relationship probably hit a post-war nadir around the early 1990s, when Japan's "economic rise" was seen as a threat to American power. Japan
Japan
was the primary financier of the Gulf War
Gulf War
, yet received major criticism in some US circles for its refusal to commit actual military support. Following the collapse of the so-called Bubble economy and the 1990s boom in the US, the Japanese economy was perceived as less of a threat to US interests. Some observers still feel that Japan's willingness to deploy troops in support of current US operations in Iraq, as spearheaded by Koizumi and the conservative Liberal Democratic Party , reflects a vow not to be excluded from the group of countries the US considers friends. This decision may reflect a realpolitik understanding of the threat Japan
Japan
faces from a rapidly modernizing China
China
, which from its continued and indeed growing pattern of anti-Japanese demonstrations reveals the belief that old historical scores remain unsettled.

CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

COUNTRY FORMAL RELATIONS BEGAN NOTES

Antigua and Barbuda 1982-10-04 See Foreign relations of Antigua and Barbuda

Bahamas 1975-03-11 See Foreign relations of the Bahamas

Barbados
Barbados
1967-09-27 See Barbados– Japan
Japan
relations

Belize
Belize
1982-11-03 See Foreign relations of Belize
Belize

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
1935-02 See Foreign relations of Costa Rica
Costa Rica

Cuba
Cuba
1929-12-21 See Foreign relations of Cuba
Cuba

Dominica
Dominica
1978-12-11 See Foreign relations of Dominica
Dominica

Dominican Republic 1934-11 See Foreign relations of the Dominican Republic

El Salvador
El Salvador
1935-02 See Foreign relations of El Salvador
El Salvador

Grenada 1975-04-11 See Grenada– Japan
Japan
relations

Guatemala
Guatemala
1935-02 See Foreign relations of Guatemala
Guatemala

Haiti
Haiti
re-established in 1956 See Foreign relations of Haiti
Haiti

Honduras
Honduras
1935-02 See Foreign relations of Honduras
Honduras

Jamaica
Jamaica
1964-03-17 See Foreign relations of Jamaica
Jamaica

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
1935-02 See Foreign relations of Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Panama
Panama
1904-01-07 See Foreign relations of Panama
Panama

* The Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Panama
Panama
City and Panama
Panama
has an embassy in Tokyo * The Japan
Japan
and Panama
Panama
have a strong bilateral relationship.

Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
1985-01-14 See Foreign relations of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
1980-01-11 See Foreign relations of Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1980-04-15 See Foreign relations of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
1964-05 See Foreign relations of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago

SOUTH AMERICA

Main article: Japan–Latin America relations

Japan
Japan
has continued to extend significant support to development and technical assistance projects in Latin America
Latin America
.

COUNTRY FORMAL RELATIONS BEGAN NOTES

Argentina
Argentina
1898-02-03 See Argentina– Japan
Japan
relations

Argentina
Argentina
maintains an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and Japan
Japan
maintains an embassy in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
. Diplomatic relations were restored by the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1952. Argentine president Arturo Frondizi
Arturo Frondizi
visited Japan
Japan
in 1960, and subsequently bilateral trade and Japanese investment into Argentina
Argentina
have increased in importance. Japanese imports were primarily foodstuffs and raw materials, while exports were mostly machinery and finished products.

Members of the Imperial Family of Japan
Japan
have visited Argentina
Argentina
on a number of occasions, including Prince and Princess Takamado in 1991, Emperor and Empress Akihito
Akihito
in 1997 and Prince and Princess Akishino in 1998. Argentine President Raúl Alfonsín visit Japan
Japan
in 1986, as did President Carlos Menem in 1990, 1993 and 1998.

Brazil
Brazil
1895-11 See Foreign relations of Brazil#Bilateral relations

* The Brazilian government declared war on the Japanese Empire on 22 August 1942.

Bolivia
Bolivia
1914-04-13 See Foreign relations of Bolivia
Bolivia

Chile
Chile
1897-09-25

* During World War II
World War II
, relations between both countries were severed. In 1943, President Juan Antonio Ríos suspended relations with Japan
Japan
and in February 1945, he declared a "state of belligerancy". Finally, on 12 April 1945, Chile
Chile
declared war against Japan. Relations were re-established by the signing of San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1952. * Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Santiago de Chile
Chile
* Chile
Chile
has an embassy and a consulate-general in Tokyo
Tokyo
and three honorary consulates in Osaka
Osaka
, Sapporo
Sapporo
and Nagasaki
Nagasaki
.

Colombia
Colombia
1908-05-25 See Colombia– Japan
Japan
relations

The relationship was officially established in 1908, only interrupted between 1942 and 1954 with the surge of World War II. Relations are mostly based on commercial trade that has favored Japan
Japan
interests such as Colombian coffee (which Japan
Japan
exports a lot), cultural exchanges and technological and philanthropic aid to Colombia.

Ecuador
Ecuador
1918-08-26 See Foreign relations of Ecuador
Ecuador

Guyana
Guyana
1967-05-02 See Foreign relations of Guyana
Guyana

Paraguay
Paraguay
1919-11-17

* Commercial relations started prior to the establishment of diplomatic relations. Trade agreement was signed in Asuncion
Asuncion
on 17 November 1919. * Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Asuncion
Asuncion
. * Paraguay
Paraguay
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
. * There are around 7,000 Paraguayans who are of Japanese descent, whose ancestors came to Paraguay
Paraguay
between 1936 and 1959. (See also Japanese Paraguayan ) * Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Paraguay * Paraguayan Ministry of Foreign Relations about relations with Japan

Peru
Peru
1873-08-21 See Foreign relations of Peru
Peru

Suriname
Suriname
1975-12-06 See Foreign relations of Suriname
Suriname

Uruguay
Uruguay
1921-09-24

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Montevideo . * Uruguay
Uruguay
has an embassy in Tokyo. * There are a few hundred people of Japanese descent living in Uruguay. (See also Japanese Uruguayan ) * Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Uruguay

Venezuela
Venezuela
1938-08-19 See Japan– Venezuela
Venezuela
relations

Formal diplomatic relations between the countries were established in August 1938. Venezuela
Venezuela
broke off diplomatic ties with Japan
Japan
(and the other Axis Powers ) in December 1941, shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor .

In 1999, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez made a three-day trip to Japan. He made another two-day trip in 2009, during which he met Prime Minister Taro Aso .

OCEANIA

See also: Japan–Oceania relations

AUSTRALIA

Katsuya Okada
Katsuya Okada
(left), Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
(centre) and Stephen Smith (right) Main article: Australia– Japan
Japan
relations

Australia
Australia
Japan
Japan
relations have generally warm as well as acknowledged mutuality of strong interests, beliefs and friendship, and has since continued to grow strongly over the years. However, memories of World War II
World War II
linger among the older members of the Australian public, as does a contemporary fear of Japanese economic domination over countries, particularly Australia, although such fears have fallen off in response to Japan's economic stagnation in the 1990s. At the same time, government and business leaders see Japan
Japan
as a vital export market and an essential element in Australia's strong future growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region.

Australia
Australia
is also a major source of food and raw materials for Japan. In 1990 Australia
Australia
accounted for 5.3 percent of total Japanese imports, a share that held relatively steady in the late 1980s. Due to its ability to export raw materials, Australia
Australia
had a trade surplus with Japan. Australia
Australia
was the largest single supplier of coal, iron ore, wool, and sugar to Japan
Japan
in 1990. Australia
Australia
is also a supplier of uranium . Japanese investment by 1988 made Australia
Australia
the single largest source of Japanese regional imports. Resource development projects in Australia
Australia
attracted Japanese capital, as did trade protectionism by necessitating local production for the Australian market. Investments in Australia
Australia
totaled US$8.1 billion in 1988, accounting for 4.4 percent of Japanese direct investment abroad. There is some tension regarding the issue of whaling.

NEW ZEALAND

Main article: Japan– New Zealand
New Zealand
relations

Japan– New Zealand
New Zealand
relations have had generally cordial relations since the post- World War II
World War II
period, with Japan
Japan
being a major trading partner with New Zealand. These relations have held together despite policy disputes over whaling and the International Whaling
Whaling
Commission .

New Zealand
New Zealand
sent an urban search and rescue team which had spent the previous three weeks searching buildings following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake , and 15 tonnes of rescue equipment with the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami . The government donated $2m to the Japanese Red Cross to support relief efforts.

TONGA

Main article: Japan–Tonga relations

Japan
Japan
and the Kingdom of Tonga
Tonga
have maintained official diplomatic relations since July 1970. Japan
Japan
is Tonga's leading donor in the field of technical aid. The Japanese government describes its relations with Tonga
Tonga
as "excellent", and states that "the Imperial family of Japan
Japan
and the Royal family of Tonga
Tonga
have developed a cordial and personal relationship over the years".

COUNTRY FORMAL RELATIONS BEGAN NOTES

Cook Islands
Cook Islands
2011-03-25 See Foreign relations of Cook Islands
Cook Islands

Fiji
Fiji
1970-10-01 See Foreign relations of Fiji
Fiji

Kiribati 1980-03 See Foreign relations of Kiribati

Marshall Islands 1988-12-09 See Foreign relations of Marshall Islands

Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia
1988-08-05 See Foreign relations of Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia

Nauru 1968-01-31 See Foreign relations of Nauru

Palau
Palau
1994-11-02 See Foreign relations of Palau
Palau

Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
1975-09 See Foreign relations of Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea

Samoa
Samoa
1971 See Foreign relations of Samoa
Samoa

Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
1978-09 See Foreign relations of Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands

Tuvalu
Tuvalu
1979-04 See Foreign relations of Tuvalu
Tuvalu

Vanuatu
Vanuatu
1981-01 See Foreign relations of Vanuatu
Vanuatu

Niue 2015-08-04 See Foreign relations of Niue

EUROPE

34th G8 summit
34th G8 summit
(Tōyako Town , Hokkaidō )

In what became known as the Tenshō embassy , the first ambassadors from Japan
Japan
to European powers reached Lisbon
Lisbon
, Portugal
Portugal
in August 1584. From Lisbon, the ambassadors left for the Vatican in Rome, which was the main goal of their journey. The embassy returned to Japan
Japan
in 1590, after which time the four nobleman ambassadors were ordained by Alessandro Valignano
Alessandro Valignano
as the first Japanese Jesuit fathers .

A second embassy, headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga
Hasekura Tsunenaga
and sponsored by Date Masamune , was also a diplomatic mission to the Vatican. The embassy left 28 October 1613 from Ishinomaki , Miyagi Prefecture
Prefecture
, in the northern Tōhoku region
Tōhoku region
of Japan, where Date was daimyō . It traveled to Europe by way of New Spain
New Spain
, arriving in Acapulco
Acapulco
on 25 January 1614, Mexico
Mexico
City in March, Havana
Havana
in July, and finally Seville
Seville
on 23 October 1614. After a short stop-over in France, the embassy reached Rome
Rome
in November 1615, where it was received by Pope Paul V
Pope Paul V
. After return travel by way of New Spain
New Spain
and the Philippines
Philippines
, the embassy reached the harbor of Nagasaki
Nagasaki
in August 1620. While the embassy was gone, Japan
Japan
had undergone significant change, starting with the 1614 Osaka
Osaka
Rebellion , leading to a 1616 decree from the Tokugawa shogunate that all interaction with non-Chinese foreigners was confined to Hirado
Hirado
and Nagasaki
Nagasaki
. In fact, the only western country that was allowed to trade with Japan
Japan
was the Dutch Republic. This was the beginning of "sakoku ", where Japan
Japan
was essentially closed to the western world until 1854.

MODERN ERA

Embassy of Japan
Japan
in Bratislava
Bratislava
, Slovakia.

Although cultural and non-economic ties with Western Europe
Western Europe
grew significantly during the 1980s, the economic nexus remained by far the most important element of Japanese – West European relations throughout the decade. Events in West European relations, as well as political, economic, or even military matters, were topics of concern to most Japanese commentators because of the immediate implications for Japan. The major issues centred on the effect of the coming West European economic unification on Japan's trade, investment, and other opportunities in Western Europe. Some West European leaders were anxious to restrict Japanese access to the newly integrated European Union , but others appeared open to Japanese trade and investment. In partial response to the strengthening economic ties among nations in Western Europe
Western Europe
and to the United States–Canada– Mexico
Mexico
North American Free Trade Agreement , Japan
Japan
and other countries along the Asia-Pacific rim began moving in the late 1980s toward greater economic cooperation.

On 18 July 1991, after several months of difficult negotiations, Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu signed a joint statement with the Dutch prime minister and head of the European Community Council, Ruud Lubbers , and with the European Commission president, Jacques Delors , pledging closer Japanese – European Community consultations on foreign relations, scientific and technological cooperation, assistance to developing countries, and efforts to reduce trade conflicts. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials hoped that this agreement would help to broaden Japanese – European Community political links and raise them above the narrow confines of trade disputes.

COUNTRY FORMAL RELATIONS BEGAN NOTES

Albania
Albania
1922-04;re-established in 1981 See Albania– Japan
Japan
relations

Albania
Albania
and Japan
Japan
resumed established diplomatic relations in March 1981.

* Albania
Albania
has an embassy in Tokyo.

Armenia
Armenia
1992-09-07 See Armenia– Japan
Japan
relations

* Armenia
Armenia
has an embassy in Tokyo. * Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Yerevan
Yerevan
. * Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia

Austria
Austria
1869-10-18 See Austria– Japan
Japan
relations

* Austria
Austria
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and 4 honorary consulates (in Hiroshima
Hiroshima
, Nagoya
Nagoya
, Osaka
Osaka
and Sapporo
Sapporo
). * Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Vienna
Vienna
and an honorary consulate in Salzburg
Salzburg
.

Belgium
Belgium
1866-08-01 See Belgium– Japan
Japan
relations

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1890s See Bulgaria– Japan
Japan
relations

* Bulgaria
Bulgaria
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and an honorary consulate in Yokohama
Yokohama
. * Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Sofia
Sofia
. * Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria

Croatia
Croatia
1992-03-05 See Croatia– Japan
Japan
relations

Cyprus
Cyprus
1960-08-16 See Foreign relations of Cyprus
Cyprus

Czech Republic
Czech Republic
1920-1-12 See Czech Republic– Japan
Japan
relations

Denmark
Denmark
1867 See Denmark– Japan
Japan
relations

Estonia
Estonia
1921-01-26 See Foreign relations of Estonia#Relations by country

European Union
European Union
1959 See Japan– European Union
European Union
relations

Finland
Finland
1919-09-06 See Foreign relations of Finland#Asia

France
France
1858-10-09 See France– Japan
Japan
relations

The history of Franco–Japanese relations (日仏関係, Nichi-Futsu kankei) goes back to the early 17th century, when a Japanese samurai and ambassador on his way to Rome
Rome
landed for a few days in Southern France
France
, creating a sensation. France
France
and Japan
Japan
have enjoyed a very robust and progressive relationship spanning centuries through various contacts in each other's countries by senior representatives, strategic efforts, and cultural exchanges.

Georgia 1992-08-03 See Georgia– Japan
Japan
relations

* Japan
Japan
has extended foreign aid to Georgia for various economic and cultural development projects. * The balance of trade between the two nations is heavily in favor of Japan, with Japan
Japan
exporting automobiles and manufactured goods, and Georgia exporting food products and chemicals. * Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze
Eduard Shevardnadze
made an official visit to Japan
Japan
in March 1999 and President Mikheil Saakashvili visited Japan
Japan
in March 2007. * Since November 2006, Georgia has maintained an embassy in Tokyo. * Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
. * Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Japan * Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Georgia

Germany
Germany
24 January 1861 See Germany– Japan
Japan
relations

Regular meetings between the two countries have led to several cooperations. In 2004 German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi agreed upon cooperations in the assistance for reconstruction of Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan, the promotion of economic exchange activities, youth and sports exchanges as well as exchanges and cooperation in science, technology and academic fields.

Greece
Greece
1899-06 See Greece– Japan
Japan
relations

There has been a Greek embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
since 1960, and a Japanese embassy in Athens
Athens
since the same year, when it was decided to upgrade the Japanese Consulate which had opened in 1956. Since then the two countries have enjoyed excellent relations in all fields, and cooperate closely.

Holy See
Holy See
1942-03 The first Papal visit to Japan
Japan
took place in 1981. the present Apostolic Nuncio to Japan
Japan
is Joseph Chennoth (since 2011) Japan
Japan
first sent an ambassador, Ken Harada , to the Vatican during World War II.

Hungary
Hungary
1921 See Hungary– Japan
Japan
relations

* Hungary
Hungary
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and two honorary consulates (in Hamamatsu and Osaka
Osaka
). * Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Budapest
Budapest
. * Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary

Iceland
Iceland
1956 See Foreign relations of Iceland#Rest of world

Ireland 1957 See Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland#Asia

Italy
Italy
1867-03-31 See Foreign relations of Italy#Asia and Oceania

Kosovo
Kosovo
2009-02-25 See Japan– Kosovo
Kosovo
relations

Japan
Japan
recognised it on 18 March 2008. The first Ambassador of Japan to the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
is Akio Tanaka. He is subordinate to the Japanese Embassy in Vienna
Vienna
, Austria
Austria

Lithuania
Lithuania
1919;1991-10-10 See Japan– Lithuania
Lithuania
relations

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Vilnius, established in 1997. * In 1998, Lithuania
Lithuania
has an embassy in Tokyo. * Ambassador to Lithuania
Lithuania
is Miyoko Akashi , ambassador to Japan
Japan
is Dainius Kamaitis . * In 2007 the Emperor and Empress of Japan
Japan
Akihito
Akihito
and Michiko
Michiko
paid an official visit in Lithuania.

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
1927-11

Macedonia 1994-03

Both countries established diplomatic relations in March 1994.

Netherlands
Netherlands
1609 See Japan– Netherlands
Netherlands
relations

The relations between Japan
Japan
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
after 1945 have been a triangular relationship. The invasion and Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies during World War II
World War II
brought about the destruction of the colonial state in Indonesia, as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government as they could, weakening the post-war grip the Netherlands
Netherlands
had over the territory. Under pressure from the United States, the Netherlands
Netherlands
recognised Indonesian sovereignty in 1949 (see United States
United States
of Indonesia
Indonesia
).

Norway
Norway
1905-11-01

Moldova
Moldova
1992-03-16

* Japan
Japan
has a non resident ambassador in Ukraine
Ukraine
. * Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova, Nicolae Tăbăcaru paid a visit to Japan
Japan
from 31 January to 4 February 1999. It was a first official visit of a Cabinet Member of the Republic of Moldova
Moldova
to Japan. The visit has strengthened the friendly relations between Japan
Japan
and the Republic of Moldova. * Since 2000 Japan
Japan
implements in Moldova
Moldova
the grant programme for the improvement of agriculture and private farming. * Embassy of the Republic of Moldova
Moldova
in China * Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova * Japanese ministry of foreign affairs about Moldova

Montenegro
Montenegro
24 July 2006 See Japan– Montenegro
Montenegro
relations

Japan
Japan
recognised Montenegro
Montenegro
on 16 June 2006 and established diplomatic relations on 24 July 2006. Montenegro
Montenegro
had declared war on Japan
Japan
in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War and never signed a peace treaty until 2006, shortly before the opening of diplomatic relations. The war lasted for 101 years. Trade, mostly related to electronics, exports from Japan
Japan
to Montenegro
Montenegro
(163 million yen per annum) outweigh Japan's imports (2 million yen per annum).

Poland
Poland
1919-03 See Foreign relations of Poland
Poland

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Warsaw
Warsaw
. * Poland
Poland
has an embassy in Tokyo

Portugal
Portugal
1860-08-03 See Japan– Portugal
Portugal
relations See also: Category:Japan–Portugal relations

Romania
Romania
1902-06-18 See Foreign relations of Romania#Asia: East Asia
East Asia

* The first representation of Romania
Romania
in Japan
Japan
was opened in 1921 * Japan
Japan
was represented in Romania
Romania
through its embassy in Vienna ( Austria
Austria
). * After World War II
World War II
, both states resumed their diplomatic relations in 1959. * Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Bucharest
Bucharest
. * Romania
Romania
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and four honorary consulates (in Atami , Osaka
Osaka
, Nagoya
Nagoya
and Yokohama
Yokohama
). * Japanese Ministry of Foreign affairs about relations with Romania

Russia
Russia
1855-02-07 See Japan–Russia relations

Japan's relations with Russia
Russia
are hampered by the two sides' inability to resolve their territorial dispute over the four islands that make up the Northern Territories (Kuriles ), which the Soviet Union seized towards the end of World War II
World War II
. The stalemate has prevented conclusion of a peace treaty formally ending the war. The dispute over the Kuril Islands exacerbated the Japan–Russo relations when the Japanese government published a new guideline for school textbooks on 16 July 2008 to teach Japanese children that their country has sovereignty over the Kuril Islands. The Russian public was outraged by the action the Foreign Minister of Russia
Russia
criticized the action while reaffirming its sovereignty over the islands.

Serbia
Serbia
reestablished in 1952 See Japan– Serbia
Serbia
relations

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Belgrade
Belgrade
. * Serbia
Serbia
has an embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
and an honorary consulate in Osaka .

Slovenia
Slovenia
1992-10-12

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Ljubljana
Ljubljana
. * Slovenia
Slovenia
has an embassy in Tokyo. * Japan
Japan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Slovenia

Spain
Spain
First contact in 1584, officialized in 1868. Relations were broken on Apr. 11, 1945 and reestablished in 1952

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Madrid
Madrid
and consulates in Barcelona
Barcelona
and Las Palmas . * Spain
Spain
has an embassy in Tokyo. * Since 1997, every year a Japan– Spain
Spain
Symposium for the cultural exchange between the two countries is held. * Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Spain * Spanish Embassy in Tokyo
Tokyo
about Spanish relations with Japan

Sweden
Sweden
1868 See Japan– Sweden
Sweden
relations

Switzerland
Switzerland
February 6, 1864

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Bern
Bern
and a general consulate in Geneva
Geneva
. * Switzerland
Switzerland
has an embassy in Tokyo. * Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Switzerland * Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Japan

Turkey
Turkey
1890s See Japan– Turkey
Turkey
relations

* First embassies were opened in 1925. * Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Ankara
Ankara
and a consulate-general in Istanbul . * Turkey
Turkey
has an embassy in Tokyo. * There are 10,000 Turks living in Japan. * Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Japan

Ukraine
Ukraine
1992-01-26 See Japan– Ukraine
Ukraine
relations

* Japan
Japan
extended diplomatic recognition to the Ukrainian state on 28 December 1991, immediately after the breakup of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Ukraine
Ukraine
maintains an embassy in Tokyo. * Japan
Japan
maintains an embassy in Kiev
Kiev
.

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
1854-10-14 See Japan–United Kingdom relations

The relationship between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Japan
Japan
began in 1600 with the arrival of William Adams (Adams the Pilot, Miura Anjin) on the shores of Kyūshū at Usuki in Ōita Prefecture
Prefecture
. During the Sakoku period (1641–1853) there were no relations, but the treaty of 1854 saw the resumption of ties which, despite the hiatus of the Second World War, remain very strong in the present day.

AFRICA

Japan
Japan
is increasingly active in Africa
Africa
. In May 2008, the first Hideyo Noguchi Africa
Africa
Prize will be awarded at Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD IV), which signals a changing emphasis in bilateral relations.

COUNTRY FORMAL RELATIONS BEGAN NOTES

Algeria
Algeria
1962 See Foreign relations of Algeria
Algeria

Angola
Angola
1976-09 See Angola– Japan
Japan
relations

Angola– Japan
Japan
relations were established in September 1976, shortly after Angola
Angola
received formal sovereignty . As of 2007, economic relations played "a fundamental role in the bilateral relations between the two governments". Susumu Shibata is the ambassador of Japan
Japan
to Angola.

Benin
Benin
1960-08-01 See Foreign relations of Benin
Benin

Botswana
Botswana
1966-09 See Foreign relations of Botswana
Botswana

Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
1962-07-01 See Foreign relations of Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso

Burundi
Burundi
1962-07-01 See Foreign relations of Burundi
Burundi

Cameroon
Cameroon
1960-01-01 See Foreign relations of Cameroon
Cameroon

Cape Verde
Cape Verde
1975-07-11 See Foreign relations of Cape Verde
Cape Verde

Central African Republic 1960-08-13 See Foreign relations of Central African Republic

Chad
Chad
1960-08-11 See Foreign relations of Chad
Chad

Comoros 1977-11-14 See Foreign relations of Comoros

Côte d\'Ivoire 1960-08-07 See Foreign relations of Côte d\'Ivoire

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
1960-08-18 See Foreign relations of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo

Djibouti
Djibouti
1977-06-27 See Foreign relations of Djibouti
Djibouti

Egypt
Egypt
1922 See Egypt– Japan
Japan
relations

Japan
Japan
considers Egypt
Egypt
to be a key player in the Middle East
Middle East
and, as such, sees Egypt
Egypt
as a vital part of its diplomacy in the region. The two heads of government have been known to support each other on issues pertaining to the peace process in the Middle East.

Additionally, the two countries claim to share a common vision for world peace. The two countries maintain a "Joint Committee" dedicated to exploring developments in areas of mutual interest to the two countries.

Equatorial Guinea 1968-11-12 See Foreign relations of Equatorial Guinea

Eritrea
Eritrea
1993-09 See Foreign relations of Eritrea
Eritrea

Ethiopia
Ethiopia
1927-06 See Foreign relations of Ethiopia
Ethiopia

Gabon
Gabon
1960-08-17 See Foreign relations of Gabon
Gabon

Ghana
Ghana
1957-03-06 See Foreign relations of Ghana
Ghana

Japan
Japan
and Ghana
Ghana
maintain a special relationship and Ghana
Ghana
has an embassy in Tokyo, and Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Accra
Accra
.

Guinea
Guinea
1960-04-22 See Foreign relations of Guinea
Guinea

Guinea-Bissau 1974-08-01 See Foreign relations of Guinea
Guinea

Kenya
Kenya
1963 See Foreign relations of Kenya
Kenya

Lesotho
Lesotho
1971-07 See Foreign relations of Lesotho
Lesotho

Liberia
Liberia
1961-09-27 See Foreign relations of Liberia
Liberia

Libya
Libya
1957 See Foreign relations of Libya
Libya

Madagascar
Madagascar
1960–07-05 See Foreign relations of Madagascar
Madagascar

Malawi
Malawi
1967-11 See Foreign relations of Malawi
Malawi

Mali
Mali
1959-10-04 See Foreign relations of Mali
Mali

Mauritania
Mauritania
1960-11-29 See Foreign relations of Mauritania
Mauritania

Mauritius
Mauritius
1968-03-12 See Foreign relations of Mauritius
Mauritius

Morocco
Morocco
1956 See Foreign relations of Morocco
Morocco

Mozambique
Mozambique
1977-01 See Foreign relations of Mozambique
Mozambique

Namibia
Namibia
1990-03-22 See Foreign relations of Namibia
Namibia

Niger
Niger
1960-08-03 See Foreign relations of Niger
Niger

Nigeria
Nigeria
1960-10-01 See Foreign relations of Nigeria
Nigeria

Japan
Japan
and Nigeria
Nigeria
engage in strong economic and political cooperation. Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1960.

Rwanda
Rwanda
1962-07-01 See Foreign relations of Rwanda
Rwanda

São Tomé and Príncipe 1975-07-22 See Foreign relations of São Tomé and Príncipe

Senegal
Senegal
1960-10-04 See Foreign relations of Senegal
Senegal

Seychelles
Seychelles
1976-06-29 See Foreign relations of Seychelles
Seychelles

Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
1961-04-27 See Foreign relations of Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone

Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
1960 See Foreign relations of Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo

Somalia
Somalia
1960-07 See Foreign relations of Somalia
Somalia

South Africa
Africa
1910 See Foreign relations of South Africa
Africa

South Sudan
South Sudan
2011-07-09 See Foreign relations of South Sudan
South Sudan

Sudan
Sudan
1956-01-06 See Foreign relations of Sudan
Sudan

Swaziland
Swaziland
1971-05 See Foreign relations of Swaziland
Swaziland

Tanzania
Tanzania
1964 See Foreign relations of Tanzania
Tanzania

The Gambia
The Gambia
1965-02-18 See Foreign relations of the Gambia
Foreign relations of the Gambia

Togo
Togo
1960-04-27 See Foreign relations of Togo
Togo

Tunisia
Tunisia
1956-06 See Foreign relations of Tunisia
Tunisia

Japan
Japan
and Tunisia
Tunisia
have a mutual free visa agreement.

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Cité Mahrajène, Tunis
Tunis
. * Tunisia
Tunisia
has an embassy in Kudanminami , Chiyoda , Tokyo
Tokyo
.

Uganda
Uganda
1962-10-09 See Foreign relations of Uganda
Uganda

Zambia
Zambia
1964-10 See Foreign relations of Zambia
Zambia

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
1980-04-18 See Foreign relations of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe

WESTERN ASIA

Japan
Japan
has expanded ties with the Middle East
Middle East
, including controversial water supply activities in Iraq. Japan's contribution to peacekeeping troops in Sudan
Sudan
remains steady.

COUNTRY FORMAL RELATIONS BEGAN NOTES

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
1992-01-27 See Foreign relations of Azerbaijan#Asia

Bahrain
Bahrain
1974-05-15 See Foreign relations of Bahrain
Bahrain

Iran
Iran
1878 See Iran– Japan
Japan
relations

Japan's foreign policy towards and investments in Iran
Iran
have historically been dominated by the desire to secure reliable energy supplies; Iran
Iran
is Japan's third-largest oil supplier after Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates . Iran
Iran
and Japan
Japan
signed a visa-free travel arrangement in 1974, but it was terminated in April 1992 due to large-scale illegal Iranian migration to Japan
Japan
. Iran
Iran
and Japan
Japan
also cooperate on regional foreign policy issues in the Middle East , such as the reconstruction of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict . Since 2004, Japan
Japan
has been working on developing Iran's largest on-shore oil field, located at Azadegan .

Iraq
Iraq
1939-11 See Foreign relations of Iraq
Iraq

Israel
Israel
1952-05-15 See Israel– Japan
Japan
relations

The Japanese government refrained from appointing a Minister Plenipotentiary to Israel
Israel
until 1955. Relations between the two states were distant at first, but after 1958, as demand no break occurred. This had been at the same time that OPEC had imposed an oil embargo against several countries, including Japan.

Jordan
Jordan
1954 See Foreign relations of Jordan
Jordan

Kuwait
Kuwait
1961 See Foreign relations of Kuwait
Kuwait

Lebanon
Lebanon
1954-11

* The embassy of Japan
Japan
in Lebanon
Lebanon
is located in the Serail Hill Area , Army Street, Zokak El-Blat, Beirut
Beirut
. The current ambassador is Yoshihisa Kuroda. * The embassy of Lebanon
Lebanon
in Japan
Japan
is located in Nagatachō , Chiyoda , Tokyo
Tokyo
. * The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan: Japan–Lebanon Relations

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
1955-06 See Japan– Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
relations

Saudi Arabian – Japan
Japan
relations were established during the past half a century. Saudi–Japanese relations are based on mutual respect and common interests in all areas.

Oman
Oman
1972-05 See Japan– Oman
Oman
relations

Qatar
Qatar
1972 SeeForeign relations of Qatar
Qatar

Syria
Syria
1953-12

* Japan
Japan
has an embassy in Damascus
Damascus
* Syria
Syria
has an Embassy of Syria
Syria
in Tokyo
Tokyo
.

United Arab Emirates 1972-05 Foreign relations of United Arab Emirates

Yemen
Yemen
1970 North Yemen; 1974 South Yemen

DEBATES AND FRICTIONS

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Japan
Japan
has formally issued apologies for its military occupations before and during World War II
World War II
, but that has done little in helping to improve its relationships with neighboring countries, especially the People\'s Republic of China
China
, North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea
South Korea
. These countries still insist that Japan
Japan
has yet to formally express remorse for its wrongdoings in the 20th century, despite some formal statements of regret from Prime Ministers Hosokawa Morihiro and Murayama Tomiichi . Japan’s official stance is that all war-related reparation claims have been resolved (except with North Korea). Unofficial visits to the controversial Yasukuni Jinja by past Prime Ministers belonging to the Liberal Democratic Party and the exclusion or generalization of some elements of Japan’s military history in a number school textbooks have also clouded the issue.

In 2004 the People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and South Korea also criticized Japan
Japan
for sending its Ground Self Defence Forces to Iraq
Iraq
, which was seen as signalling a return to militarism . The government of Japan
Japan
insisted that its forces would only participate in reconstruction and humanitarian aid missions.

There is a strong anti-Japanese sentiment in the People’s Republic of China, North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea. Antagonism is not inevitable however. South Korea
South Korea
and Japan
Japan
successfully dual-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup , bridging a physical and political gap between the two countries. The great popularity in Japan
Japan
of Bae Yong-joon , a South Korean actor, has also been seen as a sign that the two countries have moved closer together.

DISPUTED TERRITORIES

Japan
Japan
has several territorial disputes with its neighbors concerning the control of certain outlying islands.

Japan
Japan
contests Russia
Russia
's control of the Southern Kuril Islands (including Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group) which were occupied by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1945. South Korea
South Korea
's assertions concerning Liancourt Rocks (Japanese: "Takeshima", Korean: "Dokdo") are acknowledged, but not accepted by Japan. Japan
Japan
has strained relations with the People\'s Republic of China
China
(PRC) and the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) over the Senkaku Islands ; and with the People's Republic of China
China
over the status of Okinotorishima .

These disputes are in part about irredentism ; and they are also about the control of marine and natural resources, such as possible reserves of crude oil and natural gas .

SEE ALSO

* Japan
Japan
portal

* Foreign policy of Japan
Japan
* List of diplomatic missions in Japan
Japan
* List of diplomatic missions of Japan
Japan
* List of Japanese overseas military actions * List of war apology statements issued by Japan
Japan
* Hotta Masayoshi * Visa requirements for Japanese citizens
Visa requirements for Japanese citizens

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This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website