The FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE (FAS) is the foreign affairs agency with primary responsibility for the United States Department of Agriculture 's (USDA) overseas programs—market development, international trade agreements and negotiations, and the collection of statistics and market information. It also administers the USDA's export credit guarantee and food aid programs and helps increase income and food availability in developing nations by mobilizing expertise for agriculturally led economic growth. In 2003, FAS began to return to a long-abandoned role in national security . The FAS mission statement reads, "Linking U.S. agriculture to the world to enhance export opportunities and global food security ", and its motto is "Linking U.S. Agriculture to the World".
* 1 Roots in analysis * 2 International trade policy * 3 Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations * 4 FAS is reconstituted * 5 Major events * 6 Food aid * 7 International development and national security
* 8 Heads of Service and ambassadors
* 8.1 Heads of Service * 8.2 General Sales Managers * 8.3 Heads of International Development * 8.4 Ambassadors
* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography
* 12 Further reading
* 12.1 U.S. government websites * 12.2 Other publications and documents * 12.3 Oral Histories On Line * 12.4 Media Articles (chronological order)
* 13 External links
ROOTS IN ANALYSIS
USDA posted its first employee abroad in 1882, with assignment of Edmund Moffat to London. In 1894, USDA created a Section of Foreign Markets in its Division of Statistics, which by 1901 numbered seven employees. Roster of the Section of Foreign Markets in 1901.
It was succeeded over the next few decades by increasingly larger units. Creation of this series of units in Washington to analyze foreign competition and demand for agricultural commodities was paralleled by assignment abroad of agricultural statistical agents, commodity specialists, and "agricultural commissioners ".
Moffat went out as a "statistical agent" of USDA's Division of
Statistics but with the status of Deputy
Consul General on the roster
of the Department of State at London. Subsequent USDA officials
assigned overseas, however, did not enjoy diplomatic or consular
status. This impeded their work, which at that point consisted mainly
of collecting, analyzing, and transmitting to Washington
time-sensitive market information on agricultural commodities.
1922 telegram from agricultural commissioner at
The analytical unit in Washington, by the early 1920s supervised by Leon Estabrook, deputy chief of USDA's Bureau of Agricultural Economics , compiled publications based on reports from the USDA's overseas staff, U.S. consuls abroad, and data collected by the Rome-based International Institute of Agriculture .
In 1924, USDA officials Nils Olsen and Louis Guy Michael and
Congressman John Ketcham began drafting legislation to create an
agricultural attaché service with diplomatic status. The legislation
passed the House multiple times, but it did not pass the Senate until
1930, in part due to opposition from then-Commerce Secretary Herbert
Hoover . Hoover, however, eventually supported the legislation in
order to garner support of the farm bloc during his presidential
campaign. Accordingly, the
Foreign Agricultural Service
The law stipulated that the FAS consist of overseas USDA officials.
The USDA also created a
Foreign Agricultural Service
INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY
Cover art for the Bureau of Agricultural Economics weekly circular in the 1930s.
In 1934, Congress passed the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act , which
stipulated that the President must consult with the Secretary of
Agriculture when negotiating tariff reductions for agricultural
commodities. Secretary of Agriculture
Henry A. Wallace delegated this
responsibility to the
Foreign Agricultural Service
This new responsibility spurred a change in field reporting from overseas offices. In order to negotiate tariff agreements, the FAS needed comprehensive information on the domestic agricultural policies of trading partners, and the primary source of this information was the agency's field offices abroad. Thus, in addition to traditional commodity reporting, the attachés and commissioners were called on to add policy analysis to their portfolios.
On December 1, 1938, the
Foreign Agricultural Service
OFFICE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL RELATIONS
OFAR logo used 1939-1953, taken from a 1952 publication cover.
OFAR began handling food aid in 1941 when President Roosevelt and the
Congress authorized $1.35 billion of food assistance to Great Britain.
During this period OFAR also led negotiations that resulted in
creation of the
International Wheat Council , and began assisting
Latin American countries to develop their agriculture. This latter
effort was related to the need for strategic commodities as World War
II loomed, as well as the need to tie South America closer to the
Allies and thereby to keep
After the war OFAR was instrumental in carrying out land reform in
At this point OFAR directed the work of overseas technical assistance programs while the Department of State directed the work of the agricultural attachés. Frictions began to develop as the Department of State began to deny USDA requests for information from the attachés, leading to pressure from both agricultural producer groups and influential congressmen for the attachés to be returned to USDA control.
OFAR participated actively with the Department of State in negotiating the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), signed in 1947 and expanded through subsequent negotiation rounds, although agriculture was not a major focus until the Uruguay Round of negotiations. At the same time, OFAR was heavily involved in founding the UN Food and Agriculture Organization , with Director of Foreign Agricultural Relations Leslie A. Wheeler playing a particularly instrumental role.
FAS IS RECONSTITUTED
On March 10, 1953, Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson abolished OFAR and reconstituted the Foreign Agricultural Service. In April 1954 FAS handed off national security–related technical assistance to the International Cooperation Administration (USAID\'s forerunner) and began to concentrate on foreign market development for U.S. agricultural commodities, signaling a radical shift in the agency's focus. On September 1, 1954, following passage of H.R. 8033 (P.L. 83-690), the agricultural attachés were transferred back from State Department to FAS.
In the same year, Congress passed Public Law 480 (P.L. 83-480), the Food for Peace Act, which became the backbone of FAS's food aid and market development efforts. Agricultural attachés began negotiating agreements for concessional sale of U.S. farm commodities to foreign countries on terms of up to 30 years and in their own local currencies. The old FAS logo, 1953-2003
In 1955 FAS began signing cooperative agreements with groups representing American producers of specific commodities in order to expand foreign demand. The first such agreement was signed with the National Cotton Council . This activity came to be called the Market Development Cooperator Program , and the groups themselves to be called "cooperators".
In 1961 the General Sales Manager of USDA's Commodity Stabilization Service (CSS) and his staff were merged into FAS, bringing with them operational responsibility for export credit and food aid programs. In particular, the General Sales Manager was responsible for setting prices for export sale of USDA-owned surplus commodities that had been acquired through domestic farm support programs. At the same time, the CSS Barter and Stockpiling Manager was also moved to FAS. In the postwar era USDA's Commodity Credit Corporation was heavily involved in efforts to barter CCC-owned commodities acquired via domestic farm support programs for strategic commodities available from foreign countries short of hard currency. By the mid-1960s, however, as European and Asian economies recovered, the emphasis on barter waned.
In 1969 the General Sales Manager and his staff were split off to
form a separate USDA agency, the Export Marketing Service (EMS). In
1974, however, EMS was re-merged with FAS. In 1977, under pressure
from the Congress, the Carter Administration created an "Office of the
General Sales Manager" nominally headed by the General Sales Manager,
but in reality still a subunit of FAS and subordinate to the FAS
Administrator. In 1981 the
The Foreign Agricultural Service, a foreign affairs agency since 1930, was included in the Foreign Service Act of 1980 . Agricultural attachés were offered the choice of remaining civil servants or being grandfathered into the Foreign Service . Since that time the vast majority of agricultural officers overseas, just like State Department officials overseas, have been Foreign Service Officers. Since 1953, 12 former agricultural attachés have been confirmed as American Ambassadors .
Trade tensions with the
European Economic Community (EEC) boiled over
in 1962 with the first "Chicken War ", a trade dispute arising from
the EEC's application of protective tariffs on poultry meat imported
from the United States in retaliation for President Kennedy\'s
imposition of a ceiling on textile imports and raising of tariffs on
carpets, glass and bicycles. FAS negotiators and analysts, including
future Administrator Rolland "Bud" Anderson, supported talks that
resulted in the EEC paying $26 million in damages, though in
Anderson's words, "We won the battle but lost the war as U.S. exports
of these products to Europe soon became insignificant". The so-called
"Chicken War" was a precursor to numerous other trade disputes,
including the 2002 "Poultry War", when
In 1972 a short grain crop in the USSR resulted in the Soviet Union
quietly concluding grain purchasing contracts from a relatively small
number of the secretive private multinational grain traders who
dominated world trade in cereals. Because crop surveys in mid-spring
had given the impression of a normal crop, FAS's agricultural attaché
in Moscow chose not to follow up with additional crop observation
travel, and thus missed a severe drought that set in after the last
trip. As a result of this lapse, international grain traders and
exporting nations were unaware of the Soviets' dire need for massive
grain imports. By the time the scope of Soviet purchases became known,
the USSR had locked in supplies at low, subsidized prices, leaving
other importers and consumers scrambling for what was left at
significantly higher prices. This event, known as the "Great Grain
Robbery ", led to creation in the
Foreign Agricultural Service
In the 1980s, the
European Economic Community (EEC) emerged as a
competitor for export sales, particularly of grain. EEC export
restitutions (subsidies) undercut U.S. sales, with the result that
farm-state Members of Congress, led by Senator
Bob Dole of
FAS has managed food assistance programs since 1941, and today uses a mix of statutory authorities. The traditional programs are Section 416(b) of the Agricultural Act of 1949, which makes surplus commodities available for donation overseas, and Title I of Public Law 480 ( Food for Peace ), which authorizes concessional sales. These programs were designed to support government-to-government transactions. The 1985 Farm Bill created the Food for Progress program , which facilitated delivery of food aid through non-governmental organizations as well as foreign governments. Food for Progress can draw on multiple sources, including in-kind surplus commodities and appropriated funds.
The most recent addition to the array of FAS-implemented food aid
programs is the McGovern/Dole International Food for Education and
Child Nutrition Program . Named in honor of Senator Dole and Senator
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND NATIONAL SECURITY
The FAS Millennium logo, 2003-2013, based in part on the USDA "rolling fields" logo
After a nine-year hiatus from international agricultural development
work at USDA, on July 12, 1963, Secretary
Orville Freeman ordered
creation of an International Agricultural Development Service (IADS),
which was subordinate to the same Assistant Secretary of Agriculture
as but separate from FAS. IADS served as USDA's liaison with
In 1977, Quentin West proposed consolidating three USDA units involved in technical assistance and development work into a single agency to be called the Office of International Cooperation and Development: the Foreign Development Division, the Science and Education Administration, an interagency consortium funded by foreign currency earnings, and FAS' International Organization Affairs Staff. West's proposal was accepted and thus OICD was created, with responsibility for technical assistance, training, foreign currency-funded research, and international organization liaison. In 1994 USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development was merged with FAS, bringing technical assistance back to FAS after a 40-year absence.
In 2003 FAS posted agricultural officers to Baghdad, not for the by-then traditional purposes of market intelligence and market development, but to reconstruct the Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture. FAS also began organizing USDA contributions to Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Iraq and Afghanistan. This marked FAS' return to national security work. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack has pledged to continue and to expand that work. FAS' role in national security work, however, remains controversial.
HEADS OF SERVICE AND AMBASSADORS
HEADS OF SERVICE
From 1930 to about 1934, division heads in USDA, including the heads
Foreign Agricultural Service
NAME TERM AGENCY
Foreign Agricultural Service
Leslie A. Wheeler
Foreign Agricultural Service
Leslie A. Wheeler 1938–1939 Foreign Agricultural Service
Leslie A. Wheeler 1939–1948 Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations
Dennis A. FitzGerald 1948–1949 Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations
Fred J. Rossiter 1949 Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations
Stanley Andrews 1949–1952 Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations
Francis A. Flood 1952 Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations
John J. Haggerty 1952–1953 Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations
Francis R. Wilcox 1953 Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations
Romeo Ennis Short 1953 Foreign Agricultural Service
Clayton E. Whipple 1953-1954 Foreign Agricultural Service
William G. Lodwick 1954–1955 Foreign Agricultural Service
Gwynn Garnett 1955–1958 Foreign Agricultural Service
Maxwell S. Myers 1958–1961 Foreign Agricultural Service
Robert C. Tetro 1961–1962 Foreign Agricultural Service
Raymond A. Ioanes 1962–1973 Foreign Agricultural Service
David L. Hume 1973–1977 Foreign Agricultural Service
Thomas R. Hughes 1977–1981 Foreign Agricultural Service
Richard A. Smith 1981–1985 Foreign Agricultural Service
Thomas O. Kay 1985–1989 Foreign Agricultural Service
Rolland E. Anderson 1989–1991 Foreign Agricultural Service
Duane C. Acker 1991–1992 Foreign Agricultural Service
Stephen L. Censky 1992-1993 Foreign Agricultural Service
Richard B. Schroeter 1993-1994 Foreign Agricultural Service
August Schumacher, Jr. 1994–1997 Foreign Agricultural Service
Lon S. Hatamiya 1997–1999 Foreign Agricultural Service
Timothy J. Galvin 1999–2001 Foreign Agricultural Service
Mattie R. Sharpless 2001 Foreign Agricultural Service
Mary T. Chambliss 2001-2002 Foreign Agricultural Service
A. Ellen Terpstra 2002–2006 Foreign Agricultural Service
Michael W. Yost 2006–2009 Foreign Agricultural Service
Suzanne K. Hale 2009 Foreign Agricultural Service
Michael V. Michener 2009 Foreign Agricultural Service
John D. Brewer 2010-2011 Foreign Agricultural Service
Suzanne E. Heinen 2011-2012, 2012-2013 Foreign Agricultural Service
Philip C. Karsting 2013-2017 Foreign Agricultural Service
Holly Higgins 2017 Foreign Agricultural Service
GENERAL SALES MANAGERS
General Sales Managers since 1955 have been (periods as acting GSM are in italics):
NAME TERM AGENCY
Francis C. Daniels 1955–1959 Commodity Stabilization Service
Sylvester J. Meyers 1959–1961 ditto
Frank LeRoux 1961–1966 Foreign Agricultural Service
James A. Hutchins, Jr. 1966-1967, 1968-1969 ditto
George Parks 1967–1968 ditto
Clifford Pulvermacher 1969–1972 Export Marketing Service
Laurel Meade 1972–1974 ditto
George S. Shanklin 1974 Foreign Agricultural Service
James Hutchinson 1974–1977 ditto
Kelly Harrison 1977–1981 ditto
Alan Tracy 1981–1982 ditto
Melvin Sims 1982–1989 ditto
F. Paul Dickerson 1989–1991 ditto
Christopher E. Goldthwait 1991-1993, 1993–1999 ditto
Richard Fritz 1999–2001 ditto
Mary T. Chambliss 2001 ditto
Franklin D. Lee 2001-2002 ditto
W. Kirk Miller 2002–2009 ditto
Patricia R. Sheikh 2009 ditto
John D. Brewer 2009 ditto
Christian Foster 2010 ditto
Janet A. Nuzum 2010-2011 ditto
Suzanne E. Heinen 2011-2013 ditto
Philip C. Karsting 2013-2014 ditto
Asif J. Chaudhry 2014-2015 ditto
Suzanne Palmieri 2015-2016 ditto
Allison Thomas 2016- ditto
HEADS OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Administrators of the Office of International Cooperation and Development and its predecessors from creation until it was merged with FAS in 1994 were (periods as acting Administrator are in italics):
NAME TERM AGENCY
Matthew Drosdoff 1964–1966 International Agricultural Development Service
Lester R. Brown 1966–1969 ditto
Quentin West 1969–1972 Foreign Economic Development Service
Foreign Development Division,
Economic Research Service
Quentin West 1977–1980 Office of International Cooperation and Development
Ruth Zagorin 1980-1981 ditto
Joan S. Wallace 1981–1989 ditto
Robert Scherle 1989-1990 ditto
Steve Abrams 1990 ditto
Duane Acker 1990–1992 ditto
John Miranda 1992-1993 ditto
Lynnett M. Wagner 1993–1994 ditto
Agricultural officers who have served or are serving as Ambassadors are:
NAME AGRICULTURAL POSTS AMBASSADORSHIPS, PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTMENTS, SIGNIFICANT APPOINTMENTS
Lester D. Mallory
assistant agricultural commissioner,
Charles R. Burrows assistant agricultural attaché (rank of vice consul), Buenos Aires Honduras 1960-65
Howard R. Cottam agricultural economist, Paris; agricultural attaché, Rome Kuwait 1963-69
Clarence A. Boonstra assistant agricultural attaché, Havana; agricultural attaché, Manila, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro and Lima Costa Rica 1967-69
H. Reiter Webb assistant agricultural attaché, London; agricultural attaché, Cairo Chief Negotiator for Textile Matters with rank of Ambassador 1979-81 (not confirmed by the Senate)
George S. Vest agricultural attaché (vice consul), Quito European Community 1981-85, Director General of the Foreign Service 1985-89
Christopher E. Goldthwait assistant agricultural attaché, Bonn; agricultural attaché and counselor at Lagos Chad 1999-2004
Mattie R. Sharpless administrative assistant, Paris (OECD); assistant agricultural attaché, Brussels USEC; agricultural attaché, Bern; agricultural counselor, Rome; agricultural minister-counselor, Paris Central African Republic 2001-2002
Suzanne K. Hale agricultural attaché and agricultural trade officer, Tokyo; agricultural minister-counselor, Beijing and Tokyo Federated States of Micronesia 2004-2007
Patricia M. Haslach
agricultural attaché, New Delhi
Asif J. Chaudhry agricultural attaché, Warsaw; senior agricultural attaché, counselor, and acting minister-counselor, Moscow; agricultural minister-counselor, Cairo Moldova 2008-2011, Foreign Policy Advisor to the Chief of Naval Operations, 2011-2014
Allan Mustard agricultural attaché, Moscow; agricultural trade officer, Istanbul; agricultural counselor, Vienna; agricultural minister-counselor, Moscow, Mexico City, and New Delhi Turkmenistan, 2015-
Agricultural Trade Act of 1978
Chief Agricultural Negotiator
Commodity Credit Corporation
Dennis A. FitzGerald
Foreign Agricultural Trade System of the United States
Foreign Market Development Program
Iowa Hog Lift
Leslie A. Wheeler
Market Access Program
* Stanley Andrews
Targeted Export Assistance Program
* Under Secretary of Agriculture for Farm and Foreign Agricultural
Unified Export Strategy
United States Department of Agriculture
United States Foreign Service
* ^ "FAS Mission Statement". Retrieved April 10, 2010.
* ^ National Archives, Record Group 59, General Records of the
Department of State, Consular Correspondence, 1785-1906, Instructions
to Consular Officers, Consular Instructions, 1800-1906, vol. 104, p.
99, call number A-1, Entry 59
* ^ Official Register of the United States Government, 1901, vol.
1, p. 1094
* ^ Moffat's status is attested in the British diplomatic lists in
London, the Official Register of the United States Government, and the
State Department Register.
* ^ Clem, The U.S. Agricultural Attaché, His History and His Work
* ^ Letter from Secretary
Henry C. Wallace to the Hon. Milton
William Shreve , May 3, 1924, in the National Archives, Record Group
16, Records of the Secretary of Agriculture, General Correspondence
1906-1970 (1924), Box 1032.
* ^ Papers of Nils Olsen and Reminiscences of Leslie A. Wheeler
* ^ Organization and Functions of the Office of Foreign
* ^ Progress in tariff negotiations is documented in the annual
Report of the Secretary of Agriculture for the years 1935 -1939.
* ^ Report of the Secretary of Agriculture, 1935, p. 6.
* ^ Reorganization Plan No. II
* ^ Secretary's Memorandum 825, June 30, 1939
* ^ National Archives, Record Group 16, General Correspondence of
the Office of the Secretary of Agriculture, 170/6/34/1, Box 3024, and
also Reminiscences of Leslie A. Wheeler.
* ^ National Archives, Record Group 16, Records of the Office of
the Secretary of Agriculture, General Correspondence, 1906-75, Foreign
Relations (1940), Box 87. Memorandum for the Secretary, June 25, 1940,
"Re: Need for clearer publicity on Inter-American cartel," from
* ^ A B Reminiscences of Leslie A. Wheeler
* ^ "The United States Farmer and the World Around Him", speech by
John J. Haggerty, Director of Foreign Agricultural Relations,
contained in the Journal of Farm Economics, December 1952
* ^ Memorandum by Fred J. Rossiter, Assistant Administrator,
Foreign Agricultural Service, January 26, 1954
* ^ Secretary's Memorandum 1320, Supplement 1, March 10, 1953
* ^ Memorandum of Understanding between USDA and Department of
State on "Conduct of Technical Assistance Overseas," April 14, 1954,
and also Memorandum "To All Employees of the Foreign Agricultural
Service" from acting Administrator Clayton E. Whipple, November 19,
* ^ Howard, et al, Partners in Developing Farm Markets Overseas
* ^ Commodity Stabilization Service Notice General No. 305, June
28, 1955; Secretary's Memorandum 1446, February 24, 1961
* ^ National Archives, Record Group 166, Records of the Foreign
Agricultural Service, Policy Correspondence 1951-1964, Boxes 2, 4, 6,
* ^ Secretary's Memorandum No. 1648, Supplement 1, March 28, 1969
* ^ Secretary's Memorandum 1833, Supplement 1, February 1, 1974
* ^ Secretary's Memorandum 2001, November 27, 1979, and interview
with George Pope, former Assistant Administrator for Export Credits,
Foreign Agricultural Service
* ^ Interview with George Pope
* ^ Morgan, Merchants of Grain; Luttrell, "The Russian Wheat Deal -
Hindsight vs. Foresight, Reprint No. 81"
* ^ Oral history of R. Keith Severin.
* ^ Partially derived from information on the FAS website at
* ^ Interview with Mary T. Chambliss, former Deputy Administrator
for Export Credits, Foreign Agricultural Service
* ^ Personal recollections of Verle Lanier, Richard Rortvedt, and
Mollie Iler, augmented by information gleaned from past issues of the
FAS Letter and miscellaneous records from the National Archives and
* ^ Interview with Hal G. Wynne, former budget director, Foreign
Agricultural Service, cited in Mustard.
* ^ Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994
* ^ Rebuilding Agriculture and Food Security in Iraq, News About
Iraqi Agricultural Reconstruction (2003–Present)
* ^ USDA at Work for Agriculture in Afghanistan, November 2010
* ^ Foreign Service Journal, May 2009, FAS At a Crossroads:
Reshaping Ag Diplomacy (pp. 27-31)
* ^ Statement by Michael V. Michener Administrator, Foreign
Agricultural Service, U.S. Department Of Agriculture, before the
Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Subcommittee on National
Security and Foreign Affairs, Washington, DC, Tuesday, May 19, 2009
* ^ Washington Post, "Tom Vilsack: Leading 'an Everyday, Every-Way'
USDA", May 21, 2009
* ^ Jerry Hagstrom, "Interagency debate over FAS role heats up",
Government Executive, October 9, 2009.
* ^ Jerry Hagstrom, "Conflict Over FAS/
* Clem, Alan L. (July 1960). The U.S. Agricultural Attaché, His History and His Work, FAS M-91. Washington: USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. * Crawford, Douglas M. (1964). "Our Agricultural Attachés". Farmer's World. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. * Estabrook, Leon M. (1936). Life of an American: Memoirs of Leon M. Estabrook. Washington: unpublished manuscript, held in Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, call number 120 Es8 R. * FAS Letter. Washington: newsletter of the Foreign Agricultural Service. 1957–1977. * Howard, James O.; Vernon Harness; Jimmy D. Minyard; Richard E. Passig (1989). Partners in Developing Farm Markets Overseas. Washington: U.S. Agricultural Export Development Council. * Hutson, John B. (1953). Reminiscences of John B. Hutson. New York: Oral History Collection of Columbia University. * Luttrell, Clifton B. (October 1973). The Russian Wheat Deal – Hindsight vs. Foresight (PDF). St. Louis: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . * Mayer, Martin (1983). The Diplomats. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-14230-4 . * Morgan, Dan (2000). Merchants of Grain: The Power and Profits of the Five Giant Companies at the Center of the World's Food Supply. iUniverse. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-595-14210-1 . * Mustard, Allan (2003). A study of management doctrines and leadership philosophies of selected organizations with international missions. Arlington, Virginia: Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. pp. vi, 85 leaves : col. ill. ; 28 cm. * Official Register of the United States Government. Washington: USGPO. issues of 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1899, 1901, 1903, 1905, 1907, 1925-1959. Check date values in: date= (help ) * Olsen, Nils. Papers of Nils Olsen. special collections of the Iowa State University Library: unpublished. * Taylor, Henry Charles; Anne Dewees Taylor (1952). The Story of Agricultural Economics in the United States, 1840-1932. Ames: Iowa State College Press. p. 1121. ISBN 978-0-8371-7653-6 . * U.S. Department of Agriculture (issues of 1883-1885). Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture. Washington: USGPO. Check date values in: date= (help ) * U.S. Department of Agriculture (issues of 1893, 1903, 1905, 1920, 1922, 1931-1939, 1952-1954). Report of the Secretary of Agriculture. Washington: USGPO. Check date values in: date= (help ) * U.S. Department of State. Biographic Register. Washington: USGPO. * U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States. Washington: USGPO. * U.S. Department of State. Foreign Service List. Washington: USGPO.
* Wheeler, Leslie A. (1940). Reciprocal Trade Agreements—A New Method Of Tariff Making (Yearbook of Agriculture, 1940, pp. 585-595). Washington: USGPO. * Wheeler, Leslie A. (1952). Reminiscences of Leslie A. Wheeler. New York: Oral History Collection of Columbia University.
U.S. GOVERNMENT WEBSITES
* "Departmental Regulation 1051-001, Coordination of USDA Activities with Foreign Countries" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2009-04-02. * "Departmental Regulation 1051-002, International Activities and Agreements of USDA Agencies" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-04-02. * "National Archives, Records of the Foreign Agricultural Service". Retrieved 2009-03-23. * "U.S. Government Accountability Office reports on the Foreign Agricultural Service". Retrieved 2009-03-25. * "U.S. Code, Title 7 (Agriculture), Chapter 42 (Agricultural Commodity Set-Aside), Section 1748 (Annual reports by agricultural attachés)" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-24. * "U.S. Code, Title 7 (Agriculture), Chapter 42 (Agricultural Commodity Set-Aside), Section 1749 ( Attaché educational program)" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-24. * "U.S. Code, Title 7 (Agriculture), Chapter 43 (Foreign Market Development)" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-24. * "U.S. Code, Title 7 (Agriculture), Chapter 87 (Export Promotion)" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-24. Basic authority for the Foreign Agricultural Service resides in Subchapter V: Foreign Agricultural Service (7USC5692-5695). * "U.S. Code, Title 22 (Foreign Relations), Chapter 52 (Foreign Service), Sec. 3922 (Utilization of Foreign Service personnel system by other agencies)" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-24. * "U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Compilations of Agricultural Law, Index by Subject". Retrieved 2009-03-26. (scroll down to "AGRICULTURAL TRADE LAWS")
OTHER PUBLICATIONS AND DOCUMENTS
* "U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack
Announces Millions to Promote U.S. Food and Agricultural Exports,
January 26, 2010". Retrieved 2010-02-03.
* "Congressional Research Service, Agricultural Export and Food Aid
Programs, April 15, 2008". Retrieved 2009-03-24.
* "Congressional Research Service, Agricultural Exports and the 2007
Farm Bill, October 31, 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-24.
* "AgExporter, October 2004, Fighting World Hunger: U.S. Food Aid
Policy and the
Food for Peace Program" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-26.
* "AgExporter, December 2003, In Pursuit of Opportunity: FAS and
Foreign Market Development" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-26.
* "AgExporter, March 2003, Helping U.S. Producers Feed, Clothe and
House the World" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-23.
* "AgExporter, March 2003, FAS Attachés: U.S. Agriculture\'s Eyes
and Ears Abroad" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-26.
* "Statement of A. Ellen Terpstra, Administrator, before the House
Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug
Administration, and Related Agencies". March 5, 2003. Retrieved
* Hanrahan, Charles E. (May 30, 2001). "IB98006: Agricultural Export
and Food Aid Programs". CRS Issue Brief for Congress. Congressional
Research Service. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
* "Senate Report 105-051 - Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and
Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1998".
* "AgExporter, November 1, 1995, USDA has long history in overseas
agricultural development". Retrieved 2009-03-24.
* "Mission of Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture : joint hearings before the Subcommittee on Foreign
Agriculture and Hunger of the Committee on Agriculture and the
Subcommittee on Information, Justice, Transportation, and Agriculture
of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives,
One Hundred Third Congress, first session, November 10 and 16, 1993".
* U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Public Affairs, Video
and Teleconference Division. "FAS recruiting video from 1990".
Retrieved 2011-01-20. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* "FAS Letter, 1957-1977,". Retrieved 2009-10-03.
* "Congressional Record, May 26, 1954, Statement by the Honorable
Congressman Samuel Yorty of California on the need to return
agricultural attachés to USDA" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-24.
* "Secretary Benson Creates New Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA
Press Release #583-53, March 11, 1953" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-24.
* "Organization and Functions of the Office of Foreign Agricultural
Relations, 1940". Retrieved 2009-03-27.
* "Memorandum 804, Describing Functions of the Foreign Agricultural
Service, January 28, 1939". Retrieved 2009-03-27.
Foreign Agricultural Service
ORAL HISTORIES ON LINE
* "Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training Oral Histories". Retrieved 2009-03-23. (use the search engine for a "Full Text" search on "Foreign Agricultural Service" in quotes) * "Oral History of Stanley Andrews at the Truman Presidential Library". Retrieved 2009-03-25. * "Oral History of Dennis A. Fitzgerald at the Truman Presidential Library". Retrieved 2009-03-25.
MEDIA ARTICLES (CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER)
* "Government Executive, January 27, 2010, Vilsack names more key deputies, by Jerry Hagstrom". Retrieved 2010-02-03. * "Government Executive, October 9, 2009, Interagency debate over FAS role heats up, by Jerry Hagstrom". Retrieved 2009-10-10. * "Progressive Farmer, October 9, 2009, Conflict Over FAS/USAID Roles: Clinton Strong Defender of FAS Traditional Purpose, by Jerry Hagstrom". Retrieved 2009-10-10. * "Lexington Clipper-Herald, October 5, 2009, Smith calls for hearing on new ag export markets, by Robert Pore". Retrieved 2009-10-10. * "AgWeek, October 5, 2009, Lugar questioning FAS role, by Jerry Hagstrom". Retrieved 2009-10-10. * "Foreign Service Journal, September 2009, Mission Cleavage (p. 61)". Retrieved 2010-12-06. * "Foreign Service Journal, May 2009, Hoping for a Break: Foreign Trade Agencies Under Pressure (pp. 15-22)". Retrieved 2009-05-04. * "Foreign Service Journal, May 2009, FAS At a Crossroads: Reshaping Ag Diplomacy (pp. 27-31)". Retrieved 2011-10-13. * "Foreign Service Journal, May 2009, Emerging Challenges: Farm Trade in the Age of Globalization (pp. 32-36)". Retrieved 2011-10-13. * "AgWeek, March 8, 2009, A Mess at FAS, by Jerry Hagstrom". Retrieved 2009-03-23. * "Foreign Service Journal, May 2003, An Unauthorized History of FAS" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-23. * "Foreign Service Journal, May 2003, High Stakes, High Hurdles: US Farm Trade Policy" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-23. * "Foreign Service Journal, May 2003, The Foreign Agricultural Service Today" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-23. * "Journal of Farm Economics, December 1952, The United States Farmer and the World Around Him". Retrieved 2009-03-26. * "Journal of Farm Economics, July 1930, News Items". Retrieved 2009-03-23.
* Official website
Foreign Agricultural Service
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