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The Focke-Wulf
Focke-Wulf
Fw 61 is often considered the first practical, functional helicopter, first flown in 1936.[1] It was also known as the Fa 61, as Focke began a new company—Focke-Achgelis—after development had begun.

Contents

1 Design and development 2 Operational history 3 Specifications (Fw 61) 4 See also 5 References

5.1 Notes 5.2 Bibliography

6 External links

Design and development[edit]

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Fw 61 on a Deutsche Bundespost
Deutsche Bundespost
postage stamp, 1979

Professor Henrich Focke, through his development of the Fw 186, and through his work on the C.19 and licence-built C.30 autogyros,[2] came to the conclusion that the limitations of autogyros could be eliminated only by an aircraft capable of vertical flight, the helicopter. He and engineer Gerd Achgelis
Gerd Achgelis
started the design for this helicopter in 1932. A free-flying model, built in 1934 and propelled by a small two-stroke engine, brought the promise of success. Today, the model can be seen in the Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum
in Munich. On 9 February 1935, Focke received an order for the building of a prototype, which was designated the Fw 61; Focke referred to it as the F 61. Roluf Lucht of the technical office of the RLM extended the order for a second aircraft on 19 December 1935. The airframe was based on that of a well-tried training aircraft, the Focke-Wulf
Focke-Wulf
Fw 44 Stieglitz. Using rotor technology licensed from the Cierva Autogiro Company, a single radial engine drove twin rotors, set on tubular steel outriggers to the left and right of the fuselage.[2] Each main rotor consisted of three articulated and tapered blades, driven by the engine through gears and shafts. Longitudinal and directional control was achieved using cyclic pitch and asymmetric rotor lift.[3] The counter-rotation of the two rotors solved the problem of torque-reaction as also shown by Louis Bréguet. The small horizontal-axis propeller directly driven by the engine was purely to provide the necessary airflow to cool the engine during low speed or hovering flight and provided negligible forward thrust.[4][2] Only two aircraft were produced.[1] The first prototype, the V 1 D-EBVU, had its first free flight on 26 June 1936 with Ewald Rohlfs at the controls.[4] By early 1937, the second prototype, V 2 D-EKRA, was completed and flown for its first flight. On 10 May 1937, it accomplished its first autorotation landing with the engine turned off. Operational history[edit]

A replica of Fw 61, ILA 2006 at the Hubschraubermuseum in Bückeburg

In February 1938, the Fw 61 was demonstrated by Hanna Reitsch
Hanna Reitsch
indoors at the Deutschlandhalle
Deutschlandhalle
sports stadium in Berlin, Germany.[5] It subsequently set several records for altitude, speed and flight duration culminating, in June 1938, with an altitude record of 3,427 m (11,243 ft),[2] breaking the unofficial 605 meter altitude record of the TsAGI
TsAGI
1-EA from the Soviet Union set in August 1932, and a straight line flight record of 230 km (143 mi). Neither of these machines appear to have survived World War II, although a replica is on display at the Hubschraubermuseum in Bückeburg, Germany. Specifications (Fw 61)[edit]

Data from Aircraft of the Third Reich[6] General characteristics

Crew: one Length: 7.3 m (23 ft 11 in) fuselage only Height: 2.65 m (8 ft 8 in) Empty weight: 800 kg (1,764 lb) Max takeoff weight: 950 kg (2,094 lb) Powerplant: 1 × Bramo Sh.14A
Bramo Sh.14A
7-cyl. air-cooled radial piston engine, 119 kW (160 hp) Main rotor diameter: 2× 7 m (23 ft 0 in) Main rotor area: 76.97 m2 (828.5 sq ft)

Performance

Maximum speed: 112 km/h (70 mph; 60 kn) at sea level Cruise speed: 90 km/h (56 mph; 49 kn) Range: 230 km (143 mi; 124 nmi) Service ceiling: 3,427 m (11,243 ft) Rate of climb: 3.50 m/s (689 ft/min)

See also[edit]

Related development

Focke-Achgelis
Focke-Achgelis
Fa 223

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Flettner Fl 265 Flettner Fl 282 Gyroplane Laboratoire Sikorsky R-4

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c Goebel, Greg. "European Helicopter
Helicopter
Pioneers." vectorsite.net. Retrieved: 10 October 2015. ^ a b c d Ford, Roger (2013). Germany's Secret Weapons of World War II. London, United Kingdom: Amber Books. p. 224. ISBN 9781909160569.  ^ J.R.Smith; Antony L. Kay (1972). " Focke-Wulf
Focke-Wulf
Fw 61". German Aircraft of the Second World War. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ a b J.R.Smith; Antony L. Kay (21 April 1938). " Helicopter
Helicopter
Progress". Flight: 380–3.  ^ Ruffin 2005, p. 19. ^ Green 2010, pp. 356–357.

Bibliography[edit]

Coates, Steve and Jean-Christophe Carbonel. Helicopters of the Third Reich. Crowborough, UK: Classic Publications Ltd., 2002. ISBN 1-903223-24-5. Green, William. Aircraft of the Third Reich, Vol.1. London: Aerospace Publishing Limited, (First ed.) 2010. ISBN 978-1-900732-06-2. Nowarra, Heinz J. German Helicopters, 1928-1945. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 1990. ISBN 0-88740-289-5. Ruffin, Steven A. Aviation's Most Wanted: The Top 10 book of Winged Wonders, Lucky Landings and Other Aerial Oddities. Washington D.C.: Potomac Books, 2005. ISBN 1-57488-674-6. Smith, J. Richard. Focke-Wulf, an Aircraft Album. London: Ian Allan Ltd., 1973. ISBN 0-7110-0425-0. Smith, J. Richard and Anthony Kay. German Aircraft of the Second World War. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1972 (3rd edition 1978). ISBN 0-370-00024-2. Witkowski, Ryszard. Rotorcraft of the Third Reich. Redbourn, UK: Mushroom Model Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-83-89450-43-2.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Focke-Wulf
Focke-Wulf
Fw 61.

French & German Helicopter
Helicopter
Pioneers (Fa 61) Focke Wulf Fw61 Heinrich Focke—Fa 61 Virtual Aviation Museum Focke Wulf FW 61 Warbirds Resource Group German static replica Focke Wulf Fw 61 luftwaffe at youtube.com Vertical Rewind: Spoils of War Archive

v t e

Focke-Wulf
Focke-Wulf
aircraft

Company designations, pre-1933

A 3 A 4 A 5 A 6 A 7 A 16 A 17 GL 18 F 19 A 20 A 21 GL 22 K 23 S 24 A 26 A 28 A 29 A 32 A 33 A 36 A 38 S 39 A 43 A 47 S 48

S 1 S 2 W 4 W 7

C.20 (cierva under licence) C.30 (Cierva under licence)

RLM designations, 1933-1945

Fw 40 Fw 42 Fw 43 Fw 44 Fw 47 Fw 55 Fw 56 Fw 57 Fw 58 Fw 61 Fw 62 Ta 152 Ta 154 Fw 159 Ta 183 Fw 186 Fw 187 Fw 189 Fw 190 Fw 191 Fw 200 Fw 206 Fw 238 Fw 249 Fw 250 Fw 281 Ta 254 Fw 261 Ta 283 Fw 300 Ta 400

Company designations, post-1945

Fw 260 Fw 300

Projects

Project I Project II Project III Project IV Project V Project VI Project VII "Flitzer" Project VIII

1000x1000x1000 Rochen Super Lorin Super TL Triebflügel Volksjäger

v t e

Reich Air Ministry aircraft designations

1 to 100

B 9 Gö 9 Do 10 Do 11 Wn 11 Do 12 Do 13 Do 14 Do 15 Wn 15 Do 16 Wn 16 Do 17 Do 18 Do 19 Do 20 Do 22 Do 23 Do 24 Kl 25 Do 26 Kl 26 M 27 Do 29 Kl 31 Kl 32 W 33 L 33 W 34 Kl 35 Kl 36 HD 37 HD 38 G 38 DFS 39 BV 40 DFS 40 A 40 Fw 42 He 42 Fw 43 HD 43 Fw 44 He 45 He 46 Ju 46 Fw 47 Ju 47 K 47 A 48 He 49 Ju 49 He 50 A 50 He 51 K 51 Ju 52 K 53 NR 54 Fw 55 NR 55 Fw 56 Fw 57 Fw 58 He 58 He 59 He 60 Ju 60 Fw 61 He 61 Fw 62 He 62 He 63 Ar 64 He 64 Ar 65 He 65 Ar 66 He 66 Ar 67 Ar 68 Ar 69 He 70 He 71 He 72 He 74 Ar 76 Ar 77 Ar 79 Ar 80 Ar 81 Ju 85 Ju 86 Ju 87 Ju 88 Ju 89 Ju 90 Ar 95 Ar 96 Fi 97 Fi 98 Fi 99 He 100

101 to 200

Al 101 Al 102 Al 103 Fi 103 Fh 104 Kl 105 Kl 106 Kl 107 Bf 108 Bf 109 Bf 110 He 111 He 112 He 113 He 114 He 115 He 116 Hs 117 He 118 He 119 He 120 Hs 121 Hs 122 Hs 123 Hs 124 Hs 125 Hs 126 Hs 127 Hs 128 Hs 129 Hs 130 Bü 131 Hs 132 Bü 133 Bü 134 Ha 135 Ha 136 Hü 136 Ha 137 BV 138 Ha 139 Ha 140 BV 141 BV 142 BV 143 BV 144 Go 145 Go 146 Go 147 Ju 147 Go 149 Go 150 Kl 151 Ta 152 Kl 152 Ta 153 Ta 154 BV 155 Fi 156 Fi 157 Fi 158 Fw 159 Ju 160 Bf 161 He 162 Bf 162 Bf 163 Me 163 Me 164 Fi 166 FK 166 Fi 167 Fi 168 He 170 He 172 He 176 He 177 He 178 Bü 180 Bü 181 Bü 182 Ta 183 Fl 184 Fl 185 Fw 186 Ju 186 Fw 187 Ju 187 Ju 188 Fw 189 Fw 190 Fw 191 Ao 192 DFS 193 DFS 194 Ar 195 Ar 196 Ar 197 Ar 198 Ar 199 Fw 200

201 to 300

Si 201 Si 202 DFS 203 Si 204 Fw 206 Me 208 Me 209 Me 209 (1943) Me 210 Hü 211 Do 212 Do 214 Do 215 Do 216 Do 217 Hs 217 He 219 He 220 BV 222 Fa 223 Fa 224 Ao 225 Fa 225 BV 226 Ho 226 FGP 227 DFS 228 Ho 229 DFS 230 Ar 231 Ar 232 Ar 233 Ar 234 Do 235 BV 237 BV 238 Fw 238 Ar 239 Ar 240 Go 241 Go 242 Go 244 BV 246 Ju 248 BV 250 Fw 250 Ho 250 Ho 251 Ho 252 Ju 252 Fi 253 Ho 253 Ta 254 Ho 254 Fi 256 Sk 257 Fw 261 Me 261 Me 262 Me 263 Me 264 Fl 265 Me 265 Fa 266 Ho 267 Ju 268 Fa 269 He 270 We 271 Fw 272 He 274 He 275 He 277 He 278 He 280 Fl 282 Fa 283 Ta 283 Fa 284 Fl 285 Ju 286 Ju 287 Ju 288 Ju 290 Me 290 As 292 Hs 293 Hs 294 Hs 295 Ar 296 Hs 296 Hs 297 Hs 298 Fw 300

301-

Me 309 Me 310 Do 317 Do 318 He 319 Me 321 Ju 322 Me 323 Me 328 Me 329 Fa 330 DFS 331 DFS 332 Fi 333 Me 334 Do 335 Fa 336 Fl 339 E.340 WNF 342 He 343 Rk 344 So 344 Go 345 DFS 346 Rk 347 Ba 349 Ju 352 Me 362 Me 364 Ju 388 Ju 390 Fw 391 Ar 396 Ta 400 Me 409 Me 410 Do 417 He 419 ZMe 423 Ar 430 Ka 430 Ar 432 Do 435 Ar 440 Ju 452 Me 462 Ju 488 Fw 491 Me 509 Me 510 He 519 ZSO 523 Ar 532 Do 535 E.555 Me

.