The Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore (Italian
pronunciation: [katteˈdraːle di ˈsanta maˈriːa del
ˈfjoːre]; in English "
Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Flower") is the
main church of Florence, Italy. Il Duomo di Firenze, as it is
ordinarily called, was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style with the
Arnolfo di Cambio
Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 with
the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi. The exterior of the
basilica is faced with polychrome marble panels in various shades of
green and pink bordered by white and has an elaborate 19th-century
Gothic Revival façade by Emilio De Fabris.
The cathedral complex, located in Piazza del Duomo, includes the
Baptistery and Giotto's Campanile. These three buildings are part of
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site covering the historic centre of
Florence and are a major attraction to tourists visiting Tuscany. The
basilica is one of Italy's largest churches, and until development of
new structural materials in the modern era, the dome was the largest
in the world. It remains the largest brick dome ever constructed.
The cathedral is the mother church of the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese
of Florence, whose archbishop is currently Giuseppe Betori.
2.1 Plan and structure
3 Main Portal
6 Other burials
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Santa Maria del Fiore was built on the site of Florence's second
cathedral dedicated to Saint Reparata; the first was the Basilica
di San Lorenzo di Firenze whose first building was consecrated as a
church in 393 by St. Ambrose of Milan. The ancient structure, founded
in the early 5th century and having undergone many repairs, was
crumbling with age, according to the 14th-century
Nuova Cronica of
Giovanni Villani, and was no longer large enough to serve the
growing population of the city. Other major Tuscan cities had
undertaken ambitious reconstructions of their cathedrals during the
Late Medieval period, such as Pisa and particularly Siena where the
enormous proposed extensions were never completed.
Giotto's bell tower (campanile)
The new church was designed by
Arnolfo di Cambio
Arnolfo di Cambio and approved by city
council in 1294. Di Cambio was also architect of the church of Santa
Croce and the Palazzo Vecchio. He designed three wide naves ending
under the octagonal dome, with the middle nave covering the area of
Santa Reparata. The first stone was laid on September 9, 1296, by
Cardinal Valeriana, the first papal legate ever sent to Florence. The
building of this vast project was to last 140 years; Arnolfo's plan
for the eastern end, although maintained in concept, was greatly
expanded in size.
The Duomo, as if completed, in a fresco by Andrea di Bonaiuto, painted
in the 1360s, before the commencement of the dome
After Arnolfo died in 1310, work on the cathedral slowed for thirty
years. When the relics of
Saint Zenobius were discovered in 1330 in
Santa Reparata, the project gained a new impetus. In 1331, the Arte
della Lana, the guild of wool merchants, took over patronage for the
construction of the cathedral and in 1334 appointed Giotto to oversee
the work. Assisted by Andrea Pisano, Giotto continued di Cambio's
design. His major accomplishment was the building of the campanile.
When Giotto died the January 8th of 1337,
Andrea Pisano continued the
building until work was halted due to the
Black Death in 1348.
In 1349, work resumed on the cathedral under a series of architects,
starting with Francesco Talenti, who finished the campanile and
enlarged the overall project to include the apse and the side chapels.
In 1359, Talenti was succeeded by
Giovanni di Lapo Ghini (1360–1369)
who divided the center nave in four square bays. Other architects were
Alberto Arnoldi, Giovanni d'Ambrogio, Neri di Fioravante and Andrea
Orcagna. By 1375, the old church Santa Reparata was pulled down. The
nave was finished by 1380, and by 1418, only the dome remained
Procession outside the cathedral during the 18th century
On 18 August 1418, the
Arte della Lana
Arte della Lana announced an architectural
design competition for erecting Neri's dome. The two main competitors
were two master goldsmiths,
Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi,
the latter of whom was supported by Cosimo de Medici. Ghiberti had
been the winner of a competition for a pair of bronze doors for the
Baptistery in 1401 and lifelong competition between the two remained
sharp. Brunelleschi won and received the commission.
Ghiberti, appointed coadjutator, drew a salary equal to Brunelleschi's
and, though neither was awarded the announced prize of 200 florins,
was promised equal credit, although he spent most of his time on other
projects. When Brunelleschi became ill, or feigned illness, the
project was briefly in the hands of Ghiberti. But Ghiberti soon had to
admit that the whole project was beyond him. In 1423, Brunelleschi was
back in charge and took over sole responsibility.
Work started on the dome in 1420 and was completed in 1436. The
cathedral was consecrated by
Pope Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV on March 25, 1436, (the
first day of the year according to the Florentine calendar). It was
the first 'octagonal' dome in history to be built without a temporary
wooden supporting frame. It was one of the most impressive projects of
the Renaissance. During the consecration in 1436, Guillaume Dufay's
Nuper rosarum flores
Nuper rosarum flores was performed. The structure of this motet
was strongly influenced by the structure of the dome.
The Duomo and
Baptistery of St. John from Piazza del Duomo
The decoration of the exterior of the cathedral, begun in the 14th
century, was not completed until 1887, when the polychrome marble
façade was completed with the design of Emilio De Fabris. The floor
of the church was relaid in marble tiles in the 16th century.
The exterior walls are faced in alternate vertical and horizontal
bands of polychrome marble from
Prato (green), Siena
(red), Lavenza and a few other places. These marble bands had to
repeat the already existing bands on the walls of the earlier adjacent
baptistery the Battistero di San Giovanni and Giotto's Bell Tower.
There are two side doors: the Doors of the Canonici (south side) and
the Door of the Mandorla (north side) with sculptures by Nanni di
Banco, Donatello, and Jacopo della Quercia. The six side windows,
notable for their delicate tracery and ornaments, are separated by
pilasters. Only the four windows closest to the transept admit light;
the other two are merely ornamental. The clerestory windows are round,
a common feature in Italian Gothic.
During its long history, this cathedral has been the seat of the
Florence (1439), heard the preachings of Girolamo
Savonarola and witnessed the murder of
Giuliano di Piero de' Medici
Giuliano di Piero de' Medici on
Sunday, 26 April 1478 (with Lorenzo Il Magnifico barely escaping
death), in the Pazzi conspiracy.
Plan and structure
Plan of the church with various extension phases
The cathedral of
Florence is built as a basilica, having a wide
central nave of four square bays, with an aisle on either side. The
chancel and transepts are of identical polygonal plan, separated by
two smaller polygonal chapels. The whole plan forms a Latin cross. The
nave and aisles are separated by wide pointed Gothic arches resting on
The dimensions of the building are enormous: building area 8,300
square metres (89,340 square feet), length 153 metres (502 feet),
width 38 metres (125 feet), width at the crossing 90 metres (300
feet). The height of the arches in the aisles is 23 metres (75 feet).
The height of the dome is 114.5 metres (375.7 feet).
By the beginning of the 15th century, after a hundred years of
construction, the structure was still missing its dome. The basic
features of the dome had been designed by
Arnolfo di Cambio
Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296.
His brick model, 4.6 metres (15.1 ft) high, 9.2 metres (30.2
feet) long, was standing in a side aisle of the unfinished building,
and had long been sacrosanct. It called for an octagonal dome
higher and wider than any that had ever been built, with no external
buttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.
Smarthistory - Brunelleschi's Dome
The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses had been made
when Neri di Fioravanti's model was chosen over a competing one by
Giovanni di Lapo Ghini. That architectural choice, in 1367, was one
of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with
the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean
dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly
makeshifts. Furthermore, the use of buttresses was forbidden in
Florence, as the style was favored by central Italy's traditional
enemies to the north. Neri's model depicted a massive inner dome,
open at the top to admit light, like Rome's Pantheon, but enclosed in
a thinner outer shell, partly supported by the inner dome, to keep out
the weather. It was to stand on an unbuttressed octagonal drum. Neri's
dome would need an internal defense against spreading (hoop stress),
but none had yet been designed.
Dome seen from the Giotto's Campanile
The building of such a masonry dome posed many technical problems.
Brunelleschi looked to the great dome of the Pantheon in Rome for
solutions. The dome of the Pantheon is a single shell of concrete, the
formula for which had long since been forgotten. The Parthenon had
employed structural centring to support the concrete dome while it
cured . This could not be the solution in the case of a dome this
size and would put the church out of use. For the height and breadth
of the dome designed by Neri, starting 52 metres (171 ft) above
the floor and spanning 44 meters (144 ft), there was not enough
Tuscany to build the scaffolding and forms. Brunelleschi
chose to follow such design and employed a double shell, made of
sandstone and marble. Brunelleschi would have to build the dome out of
brick, due to its light weight compared to stone and being easier to
form, and with nothing under it during construction. To illustrate his
proposed structural plan, he constructed a wooden and brick model with
the help of
Donatello and Nanni di Banco, a model which is still
displayed in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. The model served as a
guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, so as to
ensure Brunelleschi's control over the construction.
Interior of the dome
Brunelleschi's solutions were ingenious, such as his use of the
catenary arch for support. The spreading problem was solved by a
set of four internal horizontal stone and iron chains, serving as
barrel hoops, embedded within the inner dome: one at the top, one at
the bottom, with the remaining two evenly spaced between them. A fifth
chain, made of wood, was placed between the first and second of the
stone chains. Since the dome was octagonal rather than round, a simple
chain, squeezing the dome like a barrel hoop, would have put all its
pressure on the eight corners of the dome. The chains needed to be
rigid octagons, stiff enough to hold their shape, so as not to deform
the dome as they held it together.
The Duomo viewed from the heights of Piazzale Michelangelo
Each of Brunelleschi's stone chains was built like an octagonal
railroad track with parallel rails and cross ties, all made of
sandstone beams 43 centimetres (17 in) in diameter and no more
than 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) long. The rails were connected
end-to-end with lead-glazed iron splices. The cross ties and rails
were notched together and then covered with the bricks and mortar of
the inner dome. The cross ties of the bottom chain can be seen
protruding from the drum at the base of the dome. The others are
hidden. Each stone chain was supposed to be reinforced with a standard
iron chain made of interlocking links, but a magnetic survey conducted
in the 1970s failed to detect any evidence of iron chains, which if
they exist are deeply embedded in the thick masonry walls.
Brunelleschi also included vertical "ribs" set on the corners of the
octagon, curving towards the center point. The Ribs, 13 feet (4
meters) deep, are supported by 16 concealed ribs radiating from
center. The ribs had slits to take beams that supported platforms,
thus allowing the work to progress upward without the need for
A circular masonry dome can be built without supports, called
centering, because each course of bricks is a horizontal arch that
resists compression. In Florence, the octagonal inner dome was thick
enough for an imaginary circle to be embedded in it at each level, a
feature that would hold the dome up eventually, but could not hold the
bricks in place while the mortar was still wet. Brunelleschi used a
herringbone brick pattern to transfer the weight of the freshly laid
bricks to the nearest vertical ribs of the non-circular
Baptistery of St. John next to the cathedral
The outer dome was not thick enough to contain embedded horizontal
circles, being only 60 centimetres (2 ft) thick at the base and
30 centimetres (1 ft) thick at the top. To create such circles,
Brunelleschi thickened the outer dome at the inside of its corners at
nine different elevations, creating nine masonry rings, which can be
observed today from the space between the two domes. To counteract
hoop stress, the outer dome relies entirely on its attachment to the
inner dome and has no embedded chains.
A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for
calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like
all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could
learn from the large scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of
material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting
machines and lewissons for hoisting large stones. These specially
designed machines and his structural innovations were Brunelleschi's
chief contribution to architecture. Although he was executing an
aesthetic plan made half a century earlier, it is his name, rather
than Neri's, that is commonly associated with the dome.
Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned
and he had to undergo another competition, even though there had been
evidence that Brunelleschi had been working on a design for a lantern
for the upper part of the dome. The evidence is shown in the
curvature, which was made steeper than the original model. He was
declared the winner over his competitors
Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio
Ciaccheri. His design (now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo)
was for an octagonal lantern with eight radiating buttresses and eight
high arched windows. Construction of the lantern was begun a few
months before his death in 1446. Then, for 15 years, little progress
was possible, due to alterations by several architects. The lantern
was finally completed by Brunelleschi's friend
Michelozzo in 1461. The
conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross, containing
holy relics, by
Verrocchio in 1469. This brings the total height of
the dome and lantern to 114.5 meters (375 ft). This copper ball
was struck by lightning on 17 July 1600 and fell down. It was replaced
by an even larger one two years later.
Cupola of the Dome
The commission for this bronze ball [atop the lantern] went to the
sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this
time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci. Fascinated by
Filippo's [Brunelleschi's] machines, which
Verrocchio used to hoist
the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of them and, as a result,
is often given credit for their invention.
Leonardo might have also participated in the design of the bronze
ball, as stated in the G manuscript of Paris "Remember the way we
soldered the ball of Santa Maria del Fiore".
The decorations of the drum gallery by Baccio d'Agnolo were never
finished after being disapproved by no one less than Michelangelo.
A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo dei
Canonici in the Piazza del Duomo, looking thoughtfully up towards his
greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the
panorama of Florence. It is still the largest masonry dome in the
The building of the cathedral had started in 1296 with the design of
Arnolfo di Cambio
Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed in 1469 with the placing of
Verrochio's copper ball atop the lantern. But the façade was still
unfinished and would remain so until the 19th century.
Façade of the cathedral
The original façade, designed by
Arnolfo di Cambio
Arnolfo di Cambio and usually
attributed to Giotto, was actually begun twenty years after Giotto's
death. A mid-15th-century pen-and-ink drawing of this
so-called Giotto's façade is visible in the Codex Rustici, and in the
Bernardino Poccetti in 1587, both on display in the Museum
of the Opera del Duomo. This façade was the collective work of
several artists, among them
Andrea Orcagna and Taddeo Gaddi. This
original façade was completed in only its lower portion and then left
unfinished. It was dismantled in 1587-1588 by the Medici court
architect Bernardo Buontalenti, ordered by Grand Duke Francesco I de'
Medici, as it appeared totally outmoded in
Renaissance times. Some of
the original sculptures are on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo,
behind the cathedral. Others are now in the Berlin Museum and in the
Louvre. The competition for a new façade turned into a huge
corruption scandal. The wooden model for the façade of Buontalenti is
on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo. A few new designs had been
proposed in later years, but the models (of Giovanni Antonio Dosio,
Giovanni de' Medici with
Alessandro Pieroni and Giambologna) were not
accepted. The façade was then left bare until the 19th century.
Main portal by Augusto Passaglia
Statue of Saint Reparata, to whom the previous cathedral was
dedicated, in the main portal
In 1864, a competition held to design a new façade was won by Emilio
De Fabris (1808–1883) in 1871. Work began in 1876 and was completed
in 1887. This neo-gothic façade in white, green and red marble forms
a harmonious entity with the cathedral, Giotto's bell tower and the
Baptistery, but some think it is excessively decorated.
The whole façade is dedicated to the Mother of Christ.
The three huge bronze doors date from 1899 to 1903. They are adorned
with scenes from the life of the Madonna. The mosaics in the lunettes
above the doors were designed by Niccolò Barabino. They represent
(from left to right): Charity among the founders of Florentine
philanthropic institutions; Christ enthroned with Mary and John the
Baptist; and Florentine artisans, merchants and humanists. The
pediment above the central portal contains a half-relief by Tito
Sarrocchi of Mary enthroned holding a flowered scepter. Giuseppe
Cassioli sculpted the right-hand door.
On top of the façade is a series of niches with the twelve Apostles
with, in the middle, the Madonna with Child. Between the rose window
and the tympanum, there is a gallery with busts of great Florentine
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2012) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
Interior of the cathedral
Huge clock decorated by Paolo Uccello.
Dante and the Divine Comedy.
Trompe l'oeil of Niccolò da Tolentino.
Vasari's fresco begun in 1568, and completed by
Federico Zuccari in
Detail under the dome.
The Last Judgement (detail) under the dome.
Tomb of Antonio d'Orso by Tino da Camaino.
The Gothic interior is vast and gives an empty impression. The
relative bareness of the church corresponds with the austerity of
religious life, as preached by Girolamo Savonarola.
Many decorations in the church have been lost in the course of time,
or have been transferred to the Museum Opera del Duomo, such as the
magnificent cantorial pulpits (the singing galleries for the
Luca della Robbia
Luca della Robbia and Donatello.
As this cathedral was built with funds from the public, some important
works of art in this church honour illustrious men and military
leaders of Florence:
Lorenzo Ghiberti had a large artistic impact on the cathedral.
Ghiberti worked with
Filippo Brunelleschi on the cathedral for
eighteen years and had a large number of projects on almost the whole
east end. Some of his works were the stained glass designs, the bronze
Saint Zenobius and marble revetments on the outside of the
Dante Before the City of
Domenico di Michelino
Domenico di Michelino (1465).
This painting is especially interesting because it shows us, apart
from scenes of the Divine Comedy, a view on
Florence in 1465, a
Florence such as Dante himself could not have seen in his time.
Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood
Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood by
Paolo Uccello (1436). This
almost monochrome fresco, transferred to canvas in the 19th century,
is painted in terra verde, a color closest to the patina of bronze.
Equestrian statue of
Niccolò da Tolentino
Niccolò da Tolentino by Andrea del Castagno
(1456). This fresco, transferred on canvas in the 19th century, in the
same style as the previous one, is painted in a color resembling
marble. However, it is more richly decorated and gives more the
impression of movement. Both frescoes portray the condottieri as
heroic figures riding triumphantly. Both painters had problems when
applying in painting the new rules of perspective to foreshortening:
they used two unifying points, one for the horse and one for the
pedestal, instead a single unifying point.
Busts of Giotto (by Benedetto da Maiano), Brunelleschi (by Buggiano -
1447), Marsilio Ficino, and
Antonio Squarcialupi (a most famous
organist). These busts all date from the 15th and the 16th centuries.
Above the main door is the colossal clock face with fresco portraits
of four Prophets or Evangelists by
Paolo Uccello (1443). This
one-handed liturgical clock shows the 24 hours of the hora italica
(Italian time), a period of time ending with sunset at 24 hours. This
timetable was used until the 18th century. This is one of the few
clocks from that time that still exist and are in working order.
The church is particularly notable for its 44 stained glass windows,
the largest undertaking of this kind in Italy in the 14th and 15th
century. The windows in the aisles and in the transept depict saints
from the Old and the New Testament, while the circular windows in the
drum of the dome or above the entrance depict Christ and Mary. They
are the work of the greatest Florentine artists of their times, such
as Donatello, Lorenzo Ghiberti,
Paolo Uccello and Andrea del Castagno.
Christ crowning Mary as Queen, the stained-glass circular window above
the clock, with a rich range of coloring, was designed by Gaddo Gaddi
in the early 14th century.
Donatello designed the stained-glass window (Coronation of the Virgin)
in the drum of the dome (the only one that can be seen from the nave).
The beautiful funeral monument of Antonio d'Orso (1323), bishop of
Florence, was made by Tino da Camaino, the most important funeral
sculptor of his time.
The monumental crucifix, behind the Bishop's Chair at the high altar,
Benedetto da Maiano
Benedetto da Maiano (1495–1497). The choir enclosure is the
work of the famous Bartolommeo Bandinelli. The ten-paneled bronze
doors of the sacristy were made by Luca della Robbia, who has also two
glazed terracotta works inside the sacristy: Angel with Candlestick
and Resurrection of Christ.
In the back of the middle of the three apses is the altar of Saint
Zanobius, first bishop of Florence. Its silver shrine, a masterpiece
of Ghiberti, contains the urn with his relics. The central compartment
shows us one of his miracles, the reviving of a dead child. Above this
shrine is the painting Last Supper by the lesser-known Giovanni
Balducci. There was also a glass-paste mosaic panel The Bust of Saint
Zanobius by the 16th-century miniaturist Monte di Giovanni, but it is
now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo.
Many decorations date from the 16th-century patronage of the Grand
Dukes, such as the pavement in colored marble, attributed to Baccio
d'Agnolo and Francesco da Sangallo (1520–26). Some pieces of marble
from the façade were used, topside down, in the flooring (as was
shown by the restoration of the floor after the 1966 flooding).
It was suggested that the interior of the 45 metre (147 ft) wide
dome should be covered with a mosaic decoration to make the most of
the available light coming through the circular windows of the drum
and through the lantern. Brunelleschi had proposed the vault to
glimmer with resplendent gold, but his death in 1446 put an end to
this project, and the walls of the dome were whitewashed. Grand Duke
Cosimo I de' Medici
Cosimo I de' Medici decided to have the dome painted with a
representation of The Last Judgment. This enormous work,
3,600 metres² (38 750 ft²) of painted surface, was started
in 1568 by
Giorgio Vasari and
Federico Zuccari and would last till
1579. The upper portion, near the lantern, representing The 24 Elders
of Apoc. 4 was finished by Vasari before his death in 1574. Federico
Zuccari and a number of collaborators, such as Domenico Cresti,
finished the other portions: (from top to bottom) Choirs of Angels;
Christ, Mary and Saints; Virtues, Gifts of the Holy Spirit and
Beatitudes; and at the bottom of the cupola: Capital Sins and Hell.
These frescoes are considered Zuccari's greatest work. But the quality
of the work is uneven because of the input of different artists and
the different techniques. Vasari had used true fresco, while Zuccari
had painted in secco. During the restoration work, which ended in
1995, the entire pictorial cycle of The Last Judgment was photographed
with specially designed equipment and all the information collected in
a catalogue. All the restoration information along with reconstructed
images of the frescos were stored and managed in the Thesaurus
Florentinus computer system.
Tomb of Filippo Brunelleschi.
The cathedral underwent difficult excavations between 1965 and 1974.
The archaeological history of this huge area was reconstructed through
the work of Dr. Franklin Toker: remains of Roman houses, an early
Christian pavement, ruins of the former cathedral of Santa Reparata
and successive enlargements of this church. Close to the entrance, in
the part of the crypt open to the public, is the tomb of Brunelleschi.
While its location is prominent, the actual tomb is simple and humble.
That the architect was permitted such a prestigious burial place is
proof of the high esteem he was given by the Florentines.[citation
Zenobius of Florence
Conrad II of Italy
Giotto di Bondone
Pope Nicholas II
Pope Stephen IX
Roman Catholic Marian churches
List of largest domes in the world
Santa Reparata, Florence
Inferno (Dan Brown novel)
History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes
^ Ermengem, Kristiaan Van. "Duomo di Firenze, Florence". A View On
Cities. Retrieved 2016-02-05.
^ Bartlett, pp. 36–37; according to Bartlett, the people of Florence
continued to call the cathedral by its former name for some time after
^ a b Barlett, 36.
^ Zucconi, Guido (1995). Florence: An Architectural Guide. San
Giovanni Lupatoto, Vr, Italy: Arsenale Editrice srl.
^ King, pp. 76–79.
^ "Santa Maria Del Fiore Church (Dome) Firenze Italy".
En.firenze-online.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
^ King, p. 10
^ a b "Brunelleschi's Dome". Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved
December 19, 2012.
^ King, p. 9.
^ King, p. 7.
^ Lancaster, Lynne (2005) Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial
Rome: Innovations in Context, Cambridge University Press, p. 44
^ PBS' The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance, Birth of a Dynasty
(see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FFDJK8jmms at the 20:15 mark)
^ The Secrets of the Florentine Dome: The Secrets of the Florentine
Dome, accessdate: January 25, 2017
^ Stevenson, Niel (2007) Architecture Explained. ISBN 0756628687.
^ King, pp. 70–73.
^ King, p. 97.
^ Mueller, Tom (February 10, 2014). "Mystery of Florence's Cathedral
Dome May Be Solved". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 31
^ NationalGeographic.com 2014-02 Il Duomo Tom Mueller
^ NationalGeographic.com 2014-02 Il Doumo Design Video
^ King, pp. 105-107.
^ Gartner, Peter,
Filippo Brunelleschi 1377-1446, p 95.
^ King, p. 69.
^ Paolo Galluzzi, "Leonard de Vinci, engineer and architect", p. 50
^ Figures vary. archINFORM gives a 45 m wide tambour, while Santa
Maria del Fiore at
Structurae gives a 43 m diameter of the cupola,
others as little as 42 m.
^ As referenced in "
Cupola di Santa Maria del Fiore: il cantiere di
restauro 1980-1995" by
Cristina Acidini Luchinat
Cristina Acidini Luchinat and Riccardo Dalla
Negra published by
Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato
Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (Roma) in
1995 (ISBN 8824039561)
^ Thesaurus Florentinus project page (in Italian), Soprintendenza ai
Beni Architettonici e Paesaggisitici di Firenze, Ministero dei Beni
Bartlett, Kenneth R. (1992). The Civilization of the Italian
Renaissance. Toronto: D.C. Heath and Company. ISBN 0-669-20900-7
King, Ross (2000). Brunelleschi’s Dome: How a
Reinvented Architecture. London: Chatto & Windus.
Jepson, Tim (2001). The National Geographic Traveler,
Tuscany. National Geographic Society. ISBN 90-215-9720-9.
Henry A. Millon (ed.) (1994). Italian
Renaissance Architecture: from
Brunelleschi to Michelangelo. London: Thames and Hudson.
ISBN 0-500-27921-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
Montrésor, Carlo (2000). The Opera del Duomo, Museum in Florence.
Suro, Roberto (July 28, 1987). "Cracks in a Great
Point to Impending Disaster". New York Times: C3. Retrieved
Tacconi, Marica S.
Cathedral and Civic Ritual in Late Medieval and
Renaissance Florence: The Service Books of Santa Maria del Fiore.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Wirtz, Rolf C. Kunst & Architektur, Florenz. Könemann, 2005.
Cupola di Santa Maria del Fiore: il cantiere di restauro 1980-1995, a
Cristina Acidini Luchinat
Cristina Acidini Luchinat e Riccardo Dalla Negra. Istituto
poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (Roma). 1995.
ISBN 88-240-3956-1. Library of Congress permalink
Devémy, Jean-François (2013). Sur les traces de Filippo
Brunelleschi, l'invention de la coupole de Santa Maria del Fiore à
Florence. Suresnes: Les Editions du Net.
ISBN 978-2-312-01329-9. (in line presentation)
Gärtner, Peter J. (1998).
Filippo Brunelleschi 1377-1446.
Köln : Könemann. ISBN 3-8290-0241-6.
PBS Nova TV documentary, February 12,
Hunt, Don, "Secrets of the Duomo", Journal, Issue 2, 2014,
International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers
Mueller, Tom, "Brunelleschi’s Dome: How did a hot-tempered goldsmith
with no formal architectural training create the most miraculous
edifice of the Renaissance?", National Geographic magazine, February
Ricci, Massimo, Il genio di Brunelleschi e la costruzione della Cupola
di Santa Maria del Fiore, Livorno : Casa Editrice Sillabe S.r.l.,
April 2014. (The genius of
Filippo Brunelleschi and the construction
of the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore). ISBN 978-88-8347-691-4.
The book is the result of forty years of research on the secret
technique with which Brunelleschi built the
Dome of Santa Maria del
Fiore in Florence. Ricci makes the case for the dome being an inverted
arch and uses a herringbone pattern (spina a pesce) for the dome's
Vereycken, Karel, "The Secrets of the Florentine Dome", Schiller
Institute, 2013. (Translation from the French, "Les secrets du dôme
de Florence", la revue Fusion, n° 96, Mai, Juin 2003)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Santa Maria del Fiore
L'Opera del Duomo, Firenze
Dome - en
"The Cathedral". The
Florence Art Guide. 2004. Retrieved July 14,
Cathedral and Giotto Belltower
Horner, Susan; Horner, Joanna (December 27, 2005). "Chapter III: The
Cathedral - Exterior". Walks in Florence. Retrieved July 14,
NGM.NationalGeographic.com 2014- 02 Il Duomo 360 Panorama View
NGM.NationalGeographic.com 2014-02 Il Duomo Cutaway Interactive
ngm.nationalgeographic.com 2014-02 ll Duomo Piazza 360 degree panorama
ngm.nationalgeographic.com 2014-02 Il Duomo Compared to other Domes
Tourism in Florence
Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore
Baroncelli and Pazzi Chapels
S Maria Novella
S Miniato al Monte
S Maria del Carmine
Bartolini Salimbeni Chapel
Battistero di San Giovanni
S Mary of the Angels
Oratorio dei Vanchetoni
Oratory of Gesù Pellegrino
Oratory of S Thomas Aquinas
San Frediano in Cestello
S Giovannino degli Scolopi
S Giovannino dei Cavalieri
S Jacopo sopr'Arno
S Salvatore al Vescovo
Santa Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi
S Maria Maggiore
S Martino del Vescovo
Ss Simone e Giuda
S Stefano al Ponte
Garden of Archimedes
Loggia del Bigallo
Loggia del Mercato Nuovo
Loggia del Pesce
Museo dell'Opera del Duomo
Museo Nazionale Alinari della Fotografia
Museo Nazionale di San Marco
Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze
National Archaeological Museum
Ospedale degli Innocenti
Palazzo dell'Arte dei Beccai
Palazzo Medici Riccardi
Museo delle Porcellane
Studiolo of Francesco I
Palazzo Spini Feroni
Loggia dei Lanzi
dei Della Bella
Biblioteca Riccardiana at Palazzo Medici Riccardi
British Institute of Florence
Gabinetto Vieusseux (Palazzo Strozzi)
National Central Library
Fountain of Neptune
Monument to Dante
Teatro Comunale Florence
Teatro della Pergola
Squares of Florence
Piazza del Duomo
Piazza della Repubblica
Piazza della Signoria
Piazza Santa Croce
Via de' Tornabuoni
Fortezza da Basso
Gardens and parks
Giardino delle rose
Orto Botanico di Firenze
Parco delle Cascine
del Poggio Imperiale
Events and traditions
Maggio Musicale Fiorentino
Scoppio del carro