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Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animation or Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
cartoon is an animated film that is created with the Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
platform or similar animation software and often distributed in the SWF file format. The term Adobe Flash animation refers to both the file format and the medium in which the animation is produced. Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animation has enjoyed mainstream popularity since the mid-2000s, with many Adobe Flash-animated television series, television commercials, and award-winning online shorts being produced since then. In the late 1990s, when bandwidth was still at 56 kbit/s for most Internet
Internet
users, many Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animation artists employed limited animation or cutout animation when creating projects intended for web distribution. This allowed artists to release shorts and interactive experiences well under 1 MB, which could stream both audio and high-end animation. Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
is able to integrate bitmaps and other raster-based art, as well as video, though most Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
films are created using only vector-based drawings, which often result in a somewhat clean graphic appearance. Some hallmarks of poorly produced Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animation are jerky natural movements (seen in walk-cycles and gestures), auto-tweened character movements, lip-sync without interpolation, and abrupt changes from front to profile view. Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animations are typically distributed by way of the World Wide Web, in which case they are often referred to as Internet cartoons, online cartoons, or webtoons. Web Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animations may be interactive and are often created in a series. An Adobe Flash animation is distinguished from a Webcomic, which is a comic strip distributed via the Web, rather than an animated cartoon.

Contents

1 History 2 Distribution 3 Professional studios 4 Creating Flash animation
Flash animation
from other software 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] Main article: Adobe Animate
Adobe Animate
§ History The first prominent use of the Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animation format was by Ren & Stimpy creator John Kricfalusi. On October 15, 1997, he launched The Goddamn George Liquor
George Liquor
Program, the first cartoon series produced specifically for the Internet.[1] The series starred George Liquor
George Liquor
(a fictional character rumored to have ended Kricfalusi's employment on Ren & Stimpy) and his dim-witted nephew Jimmy The Hapless Idiot Boy. Later, Kricfalusi produced more animated projects with Adobe Flash including several online shorts for Icebox.com, television commercials, and a music video. Soon after that, web cartoons began appearing on the Internet
Internet
with more regularity. On February 26, 1999, in a major milestone for Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animation, the popular web series WhirlGirl
WhirlGirl
became the first regularly scheduled Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animated web series when it premiered on the premium cable channel Showtime in an unprecedented telecast and simultaneous release on the Showtime website.[2][3] Created by David B. Williams and produced by Visionary Media, the studio he founded, WhirlGirl
WhirlGirl
follows the adventures of a young super-heroine fighting for freedom in a future ruled by an all-powerful "mediatech empire". The series originally launched in the spring of 1997 as a web comic with limited animation and sound.[4] After gaining online syndication partners including Lycos.com
Lycos.com
and WebTV, the series first adopted Adobe Flash animation in July 1998.[5] Following her Showtime debut, the titular heroine appeared in over 50 Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
webisodes on the Showtime website[6] and starred in a million-dollar multimedia Showtime marketing campaign.[7] About the same time, Joe Cartoon launched the interactive animation "Frog in a Blender" to become one of the very first true "viral hits" on the Internet,[citation needed] gaining more than 90 million views since its release in 1999. The Von Ghouls went live in November 1999, featuring the first music group with cartoon episodes online including original songs, in the vein of Saturday morning cartoons of the 1970s. A number of popular portal sites featured Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animation during the dot-com boom of the late 1990s, including Newgrounds, Icebox, MondoMedia, CampChaos, MediaTrip, Bogbeast and AtomFilms. Stan Lee of Marvel Comics
Marvel Comics
launched an animated comics site. The Internet
Internet
also saw the proliferation of many adult-only Adobe Flash cartoon sites. Some of the shows from that period made the transition to traditional media, including Queer Duck, Gary the Rat, Happy Tree Friends, and the politically minded JibJab
JibJab
shorts. Occasionally, the trend has been reversed: after being canceled from both ABC and Fox, Atom Films and Flinch Studio created net-only episodes of The Critic in 2000–2001. In another instance, Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
almost made the transition to the big screen. In 2001, production began on what would have been the first Adobe Flash-animated feature film, the ill-fated Lil' Pimp, which also began life as an Internet
Internet
series. As potentially controversial as its subject matter was,[citation needed] it had a relatively large budget, a number of well-known actors (including William Shatner, Bernie Mac, and Lil' Kim), a full crew, and a running time of nearly 80 minutes. Although Sony
Sony
Pictures decided not to release the film, it was eventually released on DVD by Lion's Gate. In 2000, another major milestone occurred in the world of animation when the first broadcast-quality Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
animation aired on television. Dice Raw's music video "Thin Line between Raw and Jiggy" appeared on the big screen at Resfest 2000, on television via BET, and the Web on sites such as Sputnik7.com, Shockwave.com, Heavy.com and was also included with the CD. Its creation became one of media history’s first convergent entertainment productions.[8] Todd Wahnish, who would later go on to create Marvel Entertainment's "All Winners Squad", pioneered the early conversion of traditional hand-drawn techniques into vector-based animation seen in the video. The video triggered a flood of Adobe Flash-based television animation.[citation needed] Several recording companies experimented with releasing animated music videos to promote their artists' releases online, including Madonna, Beastie Boys
Beastie Boys
and Tenacious D; however, none became the hit that allowed for the expansion of Flash animated music videos. Adam Sandler and Tim Burton, among others, released original Internet-only animated works, but were not able to devise successful financial models and the trend dissipated, largely as a result of a lack of viable micro-payment systems. Several popular online series are currently produced in Adobe Flash, such as the Emmy Award-winning Off-Mikes, produced by ESPN
ESPN
and Animax Entertainment; Gotham Girls, produced by Warner Bros.; Crime Time, produced by Future Thought Productions and Homestar Runner
Homestar Runner
produced by Mike and Matt Chapman. Many of today’s animated television series are produced using Macromedia
Macromedia
Flash, inspired by both the comparatively low cost of production and the unique arrays of new animation styles that can be achieved through the medium, including Metalocalypse, Being Ian, Foster's Home For Imaginary Friends, Kappa Mikey, Hi Hi Puffy AmiYumi, Happy Tree Friends, Astroblast!, Odd Job Jack, Little Einsteins, Wow! Wow! Wubbzy!, the BBC
BBC
Three show Monkey Dust, the Channel Four
Channel Four
show Modern Toss, Yin Yang Yo!, Alejo & Valentina, Angry Birds Toons, the popular web series, Battle for Dream Island, Aaagh! It's the Mr. Hell Show, Jake and the Never Land Pirates, My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic on The Hub (however, this show uses a heavily modified version of Flash 8), Cinemax's Eli's Dirty Jokes, Queer Duck
Queer Duck
from Showtime, The Mr. Peabody and Sherman Show
The Mr. Peabody and Sherman Show
from Netflix
Netflix
and Shorties Watching Shorties on Comedy Central. Other TV shows, such as Home Movies and Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law, which are both broadcast on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim programming block, have switched to Flash from other animation technology and on Disney XD
Disney XD
with Kick Buttowski: Suburban Daredevil. Many animation film festivals have responded to the popularity of Flash animation
Flash animation
by adding separate categories in competition for "web cartoons" or " Internet
Internet
cartoons". Additionally, several exclusively web-based Flash competitions have been established. It is speculated[by whom?] that only the category "made for Internet" will survive, as competitions at animation film festivals are typically arranged in categories defined by film length and distribution channel, rather than by animation techniques or tools used to create it. Distribution[edit] While the creation of animation using Flash can be easier and less expensive than traditional animation techniques, the amount of time, money, and skill required to produce a project using the software depends on the chosen content and style. Internet
Internet
distribution is considerably easier and less expensive than television broadcasting, and websites such as Newgrounds
Newgrounds
provide free hosting. Many Flash animations are created by individual or amateur artists. Many Flash animations first distributed on the web became popular enough to be broadcast on television, particularly on such networks as MTV
MTV
and G4. Professional studios[edit] Flash animation
Flash animation
production is enjoying considerable popularity in major animation studios around the world, as animators take advantage of the software's ability to organize a large number of assets (such as characters, scenes, movements, and props) for later re-use. Because Flash files are in vector file format, they can be used to transfer animation to 35 mm film without any compromise in image quality. This feature is used by several independent animators worldwide, including Phil Nibbelink, who saw his 77-minute feature film Romeo & Juliet: Sealed with a Kiss released in theaters in 2006, and Nina Paley, who released Sita Sings the Blues
Sita Sings the Blues
in 2008. For Disneyland's 50 Magical Years film featuring Live action Steve Martin interacting with Donald Duck, the hand drawn animation of Donald Duck was cleaned up and colored in Flash. The Drawn Together
Drawn Together
Movie: The Movie!, a straight-to-DVD feature of the animated series Drawn Together, produced by Comedy Central
Comedy Central
and released in April 2010, discarded the series' traditional animation and used Flash animation instead. Creating Flash animation
Flash animation
from other software[edit] There are a number of other software packages available that can create output in the .swf format.[9] Among these are GoAnimate, Toon Boom, Xara Photo & Graphic Designer, Serif DrawPlus, Toufee, Express Animator
Animator
and Anime
Anime
Studio. These front-ends often provide additional support for creating cartoons, especially with tools more tailored to traditionally trained animators, as well as additional rigging for characters, which can speed up character animation considerably. See also[edit]

CSS Animations SVG animation List of Flash animated television series List of Flash animated films

Wikiversity has learning resources about Flash

Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Flash animation

Footnotes[edit]

^ Simpson 2007. ^ Amid 1999. ^ Dannacher 2000. ^ Brandweek - 3/15/1999 ^ Adweek - 7/13/1998 ^ Broadcasting & Cable - 9/3/2000 ^ Animation
Animation
World Network - 8/8/1999 Archived 2009-04-30 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Prix Ars Electronica - 2001".  ^ Carrera 2011, p. 17.

References[edit]

Amid, Amid (February 3, 1999). ""WhirlGirl" is a new animated series on the 'net". Animation
Animation
World Network. Retrieved April 15, 2016.  Carrera, Philip (2011). Adobe Flash
Adobe Flash
Animation: Creative Storytelling for Web and TV. Jones & Barlett Learning LLC. ISBN 978-0-7637-8415-7.  Dannacher, Lee (January 1, 2000). "Quenching The New Millennnium's Thirst For Animated Fare". Animation
Animation
World Network. Retrieved April 15, 2016.  Simpson, Aaron (April 23, 2007). "John K's Guide to Surviving the End of Television". ColdHardFlash. Retrieved 2007-04-23. 

External links[edit]

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