The National Flag of the
Philippines (Filipino: Pambansang Watawat ng
Pilipinas) is a horizontal flag bicolor with equal bands of royal blue
and scarlet, and with a white, equilateral triangle at the hoist. In
the center of the triangle is a golden-yellow sun with eight primary
rays, each representing a Philippine province.[a] At each vertex of
the triangle is a five-pointed, golden-yellow star, each of which
representing one of the country's three main island groups—Luzon,
Visayas, and Mindanao, the central star originally referred to
A unique feature of this flag is its ability to indicate a state of
war if it is displayed with the red side on top.
1.3 Usage as war ensign
1.3.1 Incorrect usage
2.1 Historical flags of the Philippine Revolution
2.2 Current flag
4.1 Sun's rays
4.2 Fourth star
4.3 Crescent moon
5.1 Flag protocol
5.3 Prohibited acts
7 Flag anthem
8 National Flag Day
9 See also
12 External links
See also: List of flags of the Philippines
The flag's length is twice its width, giving it an aspect ratio of
1:2. The length of all the sides of the white triangle are equal to
the width of the flag. Each star is oriented in such manner that one
of its tips points towards the vertex at which it is located.
Moreover, the gap-angle between two neighbours of the 8 ray-bundles is
as large as the angle of one ray-bundle (so 22.5°), with each major
ray having double the thickness of its two minor rays. The golden
sun is not exactly in the center of the triangle but shifted slightly
to the right. This flag is waved when having ceremonies
Construction sheet of the Philippine flag.
The shade of blue used in the flag has varied over time, beginning
with the original color lazuli Rosco. The exact nature of this shade
is uncertain, but a likely candidate is the blue of the Cuban flag,
which a theory says influenced the flag's design.
Specifications for the flag's colors with shades matching those used
in the American flag were adopted by the National Historical Institute
in 1955. President
Ferdinand Marcos ordered the colors restored to the
original light blue and red of the Cuban flag in 1985, but this was
immediately rescinded after the 1986
People Power Revolution
People Power Revolution that
removed him from power. For the 1998 independence centennial
celebrations, the Flag and Heraldic Code of the
Philippines (RA 8491)
was passed, designating royal blue as the official variant.
The flag's colors are specified by Republic Act 8491 in terms of their
cable number in the system developed by the Color Association of the
United States. The official colors and their approximations in
other color spaces are listed below:.
Usage as war ensign
Philippines does not utilize a separate war flag; instead, the
national flag itself is used for this purpose. To indicate a state
of war, the red field is flown upwards and is placed on the right (on
the observer's left) if it is in a hanging position. In times of
peace, however, the blue area is the superior field. The
orientation of the flag was used during the Philippine–American War
from 1899 to 1901,
World War II
World War II by the Philippine Commonwealth
from 1941 to 1945 and by the Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic
when it declared war against the United Kingdom and the United States
in 1944, the coup attempts during President Corazon Aquino's
administration, and EDSA III.
The only instance that the flag was not oriented with red as superior
in a state of war was at its debut during the
Battle of Alapan
Battle of Alapan in
1898, 15 days before the
Philippine Declaration of Independence
Philippine Declaration of Independence in
During the 2010 US-
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
summit in New York City, the Philippine flag was inadvertently flown
with the red field on top. The U.S. Embassy in
Manila apologized for
the mistake, and the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs accepted
On Philippine Independence Day in 2016,
Facebook issued a greeting to
Philippine users which included a graphic of the national flag in its
wartime configuration. Netizens heavily criticized the social media
platform, which later apologized for the gaffe.
The official design of the eight-ray sun
An erroneous design of the sun
The Philippine national flag has a rectangular design that consists of
a white equilateral triangle, symbolizing liberty, equality, and
fraternity; a horizontal blue stripe for peace, truth, and justice;
and a horizontal red stripe for patriotism and valor. In the center of
the white triangle is an eight-rayed golden sun symbolizing unity,
freedom, people's democracy, and sovereignty. Each ray represents a
province with significant involvement in the 1896 Philippine
Revolution against Spain; these provinces are Manila, Bulacan, Cavite,
Pampanga, Bataan, Laguna, Batangas, and
Nueva Ecija (some sources
specify other provinces as alternatives to some of these[a]).
However, according to the Declaration of Independence and a research
by UP Professor Ambeth Ocampo, the rays of the sun symbolized the
first 8 provinces of the
Philippines which was declared under martial
law during the First Philippine Revolution. Three five-pointed
stars, one for each of the triangle's points, stand for the three
major islands where the revolution started: Luzon,
The flag's original symbolism is enumerated in the text of the
independence proclamation, which makes reference to an attached
drawing, though no record of the drawing has surfaced. The
proclamation explains the flag as follows:
And finally it was resolved unanimously that this Nation, already
independent from today should use the same flag which it has used,
whose shape and colors are described in the attached drawing rendering
realistically the three aforementioned forces representing the white
triangle as the distinctive symbol of the famed Society of the
Katipunan, which through the blood compact impelled the masses to rise
in revolt; the three stars representing the three principal islands of
this Archipelago — Luzon, Mindanao, and
Panay (Visayas) in which the
revolutionary movement broke out; the sun indicating the gigantic
steps taken by the children of this country on the road to progress
and civilization; the eight rays symbolizing the eight provinces of
the Philippines,[a] and the colors of blue, red and white
commemorating the flag of the United States of North America as a
manifestation of our profound gratitude towards this Great Nation for
its disinterested protection which it lends us, and continues to lend
us. And, carrying this flag, I unfurl it before the gentlemen
assembled here—[List of names of the delegates]—and we all
solemnly swear to acknowledge and defend it to the last drop of our
The symbolism given in the 1898 Proclamation of Philippine
Independence differs from the current official explanation. According
to the document, the white triangle signifies the emblem of the
Katipunan, the secret society that opposed Spanish rule. It says the
flag's colors commemorate the flag of the United States as a
manifestation of gratitude for American aid against the Spanish during
the Philippine Revolution. It also says that one of the three stars
represents the island of Panay, rather than the entire Visayan
islands. Panay, which recent interpretations call as "as
representative of the entire
Visayas region". The proclamation
also declares that the sun represents the gigantic steps made by the
sons of the country along the path of Progress and Civilization, and
Bataan instead of Tarlac among the eight provinces symbolized by
the sun's rays.
Historical flags of the Philippine Revolution
See also: Flags of the Philippine Revolution
It has been common since the 1960s to trace the development of the
Philippine flag to the various war standards of the individual leaders
of the Katipunan, a pseudo-masonic revolutionary movement that opposed
Spanish rule in the
Philippines and led the Philippine Revolution.
However, while some symbols common to the
Katipunan flags would be
adopted into the iconography of the Revolution, it is inconclusive
whether these war standards can be considered precursors to the
present Philippine flag.
The first flag of the Katipunan.
Flag of the Magdalo
The flag adopted by the
Republic of Biak-na-Bato
Republic of Biak-na-Bato in 1897.
Official Flag of the First Philippine Republic.
The first flag of the
Katipunan was a red rectangular flag with a
horizontal alignment of three white Ks (an acronym for the Katipunan's
full name, Kataas-taasang Kagalang-galangang
Katipunan ng mga Anak ng
Bayan - Supreme and Venerable Society of the Sons of the Nation). The
flag's red field symbolized blood, as members of the
their membership papers in their own blood.
The various leaders of the Katipunan, such as Andrés Bonifacio,
Mariano Llanera, and Pío del Pilar, also had individual war
standards. The organization was represented in
Cavite province by two
factions: the Magdiwang faction and the Magdalo faction, with each
adopting a flag. Both used a white sun. Instead of the letter K the
flags bore the symbol for the syllable ka in Baybayin, the
pre-Hispanic writing script of the Tagalogs.
Katipunan adopted a new flag in 1897 during an assembly at Naic,
Cavite. This new flag was red and depicted a white sun with a face.
The sun had eight rays, representing eight provinces of the
The earlier design of the current Philippine flag was conceptualized
Emilio Aguinaldo during his exile in
Hong Kong in 1897. The first
flag was sewn by Marcela Marino de Agoncillo with the help of her
daughter Lorenza and
Delfina Herbosa de Natividad (a niece of
Propagandista José Rizal). It was first displayed in the Battle of
Alapan on May 28, 1898.
Flag of the
Philippines at the Philippine International Convention
The flag was formally unfurled during the proclamation of independence
on June 12, 1898 in Kawit, Cavite. However, a
Manila Times article
by Augusto de Viana, Chief History Researcher, National Historical
Institute, mentions assertions in history textbooks and commemorative
rites that the flag was first raised in Alapan, Imus, Cavite, on May
28, 1898, citing Presidential Proclamation No. 374, issued by
Diosdado Macapagal on March 6, 1965. The article
goes on to claim that historical records indicate that the first
display of the Philippine flag took place in
Cavite City, when General
Aguinaldo displayed it during the first fight of the Philippine
The original design of the flag adopted a mythical sun with a face
influenced by Latin American republics Argentina, Peru, and Uruguay; a
triangle, representing the
Katipunan which inspired by the Eye of
Providence in the
Great Seal of the United States
Great Seal of the United States and the Masonic
Triangle and which enshrined Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité; the
stripes and colors derived from the American flag. The particular
shade of blue of the original flag has been a source of controversy.
Based on anecdotal evidence and the few surviving flags from the era,
historians argue that the colors of the original flag was influenced
by the flags of Cuba and Puerto Rico.
The original flag that was first hoisted on May 28, 1898 and unfurled
during the Declaration of independence on June 12, 1898 is being
preserved at the Gen
Emilio Aguinaldo Museum in Baguio City. There
were plans to restore the flag by replacing the worn-out portion but
the idea was abandoned because matching threads could not be found.
The flag is more elaborate than the flag which is currently in use. It
bears the embroidered words, Libertad, Justicia and Ygualidad
(Liberty, Justice and Equality) on one side of the flag and Fuerzas
Expedicionarias del Norte de
Luzon (Expeditionary forces of Northern
Luzon) on the other
Hostilities broke out between the
Philippines and the United States in
1899. The flag was first flown with the red field up on February 4,
1899 to show that a state of war existed. Aguinaldo was captured by
the Americans two years later, and swore allegiance to the United
The detail of Fernando Amorsolo's The Making of the Philippine flag
depicting Agoncillo and company's manual sewing
With the defeat of the Philippine Republic, the
Philippines was placed
under American colonial rule and the display of the Philippine flag
was declared illegal by the Sedition Act of 1907. This law was
repealed on October 24, 1919. With the legalization of display of
the Philippine flag, the cloth available in most stores was the red
and blue of the flag of the United States, so the flag from 1919
onwards adopted the "National Flag blue" color. On March 26, 1920, the
Philippine Legislature passed Act. No 2928 on March 26, 1920, which
legally adopted the Philippine flag as the official flag of the
Philippine Islands. Up until the eve of World War II,
Flag Day was
celebrated on annually on October 30, commemorating the date the ban
on the flag was lifted.
Commonwealth of the Philippines
Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated in 1935. On March
25, 1936, President
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon issued Executive Order No. 23
which provided for the technical description and specifications of the
flag. Among the provisions of the order was the definition of the
triangle at the hoist as an equilateral triangle, the definition of
the aspect ratio at 1:2, the precise angles of the stars, the
geometric and aesthetic design of the sun, and the formal elimination
of the mythical face on the sun. The exact shades of colors, however,
were not precisely defined. These specifications have remained
unchanged and in effect to the present. In 1941,
Flag Day was
officially moved to June 12, commemorating the date that Philippine
independence was proclaimed in 1898.
The flag was once again banned with the Japanese invasion and
occupation of the
Philippines beginning in December 1941, to be
hoisted again with the establishment of the Second Republic of the
Philippines, a client state of Japan. In ceremonies held in October
Emilio Aguinaldo hoisted the flag with the original Cuban blue
and red colors restored. The flag was initially flown with the blue
stripe up, until President
José P. Laurel
José P. Laurel proclaimed the existence of
a state of war with the Allied Powers in 1944. The Commonwealth
government-in-exile in Washington, D.C. continued to use the flag with
the American colors, and had flown it with the red stripe up since the
initial invasion of the Japanese. With the combined forces of the
Filipino & American soldiers and the liberation of the Philippines
in 1944 to 1945, the flag with the American colors was restored, and
it was this flag that was hoisted upon the granting of Philippine
independence from the United States on July 4, 1946.
See also: List of flags of the Philippines
Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies (1565–1898)
Flag used when the Philippine Islands were a part of New Spain.
The Cross of Burgundy: a red saltire resembling two crossed,
roughly-pruned branches, on a white field.
Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies period.
Flag of Spain under the reign of King Philip V
Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies period.
Flag of Spain under the reign of King Felipe V's grandson, King Carlos
Flag during the brief British occupation of Manila, as used in
Manila and Cavite.
The flag of the British
East India Company
East India Company before 1810: A flag with
red and white stripes with the Kingdom of Great Britain's Union Flag
as a canton. The Union flag bears red cross on a white field, commonly
called St George's Cross, superimposed on a white saltire on a blue
field, known as St Andrew's Cross. Also known as the "King's Colours".
Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies period.
Three horizontal stripes of red, weld-yellow and red, the centre
stripe being twice as wide as each red stripe with arms in the first
third of the weld-yellow stripe. The arms are crowned and vertically
divided, the left red field with a tower representing Castille, the
right white field with a lion representing León.
Used by the
Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies under the First Spanish Republic.
Three horizontal stripes: red, weld-yellow and red, the yellow strip
being twice as wide as each red stripe with arms in the first third of
the yellow stripe. Royal crown removed from arms.
Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies after the restoration of the Spanish
The flag of the Kingdom of Spain used prior to the First Spanish
Republic was reinstated.
Philippine Revolution – First Philippine Republic
First official flag of the Philippine republic and used during the
The flag was created in Naic,
Cavite and first displayed in 1897. It
features an eight-rayed white sun with a mythical face on a field of
The flag design was conceived by President Emilio Aguinaldo. The exact
shade of blue is debated; three variants were used by subsequent
Sewn by Marcela Marino de Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo, and Delfina
Herbosa de Natividad in
Hong Kong and first flown in battle on May 28,
1898. It was formally unfurled during the Proclamation of Philippine
Independence and the flag of the First Philippine Republic, on June
12, 1898 by President Aguinaldo. It contains a mythical sun (with a
face) similar to the
Sun of May
Sun of May in other former Spanish colonies; the
triangle of Freemasonry; the eight rays representing eight rebellious
provinces of the
Philippines first placed under martial law by the
Governor-General.[a] The flag carries the text in Spanish Fuerzas
Expedicionarias del Norte de
Luzon on its obverse and Libertad
Justicia e Ygualdad on its reverse.
American and Commonwealth Period (1898–1946)
Used while under direct administration from the United States of
The Philippine Commission, passed Act No. 1697 or the Flag Law of
1907, which outlawed the display of the Philippine flag and replaced
the country's flag to the stars and stripes of the United States of
America. The same law prohibited the playing of the national anthem.
Thirteen horizontal stripes of alternating red and white representing
the original Thirteen Colonies; in the canton, white stars on a blue
field, the number of stars increased as the United States expanded its
Oklahoma became a state
New Mexico achieved statehood
From October 30, 1919, two flags were flown in the Philippines,
the American flag and the flag conceived by
Emilio Aguinaldo which was
made the national flag of the
Philippines with the repealing of Act
The American flag remained unchanged since 1919. For the Philippine
flag, the design conceived by
Emilio Aguinaldo remained but the shades
of blue and red were adopted from the American flag. The sun's face
was removed, but its stylized rays were retained. It should be noted
that there existed many versions of the flag as no official design had
Specifications codified; Defined under Executive Order No. 23, s. 1936
which was signed on March 25, 1936. The shade of blue used was navy
blue, following suit from the American Flag. The triangle was made
equilateral and the sun's rays were also further simplified, achieving
its present form. Also used by the Commonwealth government-in-exile
Japanese Period (1942–1945)
Used during the Japanese Occupation.
Japanese flag as it appeared until 1999: a red sun-disc, shifted
1% left of centre, on a white field.
Used during the inauguration of the Second Republic.
Emilio Aguinaldo's flag was hoisted upon proclamation of the Second
Republic. However, the design as used by the Commonwealth remained.
Following independence, the 1936 design specifications codified by
Manuel Quezon remains but the shades of blue and red varied through
the years. In 1998, the flag gained its present definitive shades.
Defined under Executive Order No. 23, s. 1936 dated March 25, 1936.
The shade of blue used here is Navy Blue, following suit from the
Altered by Executive Order No. 1010, s. 1985 signed on February 25,
1985. The shade of blue was changed from Navy Blue to Light Blue,
amidst debate on the shade used in the original flag. A pale Sky Blue
was the actual colour used since it was more available at that time
and not due to any specific historical precedent.
1936 version of the flag restored after the 1986 People Power
Revolution. President Corazon C. Aquino restored the pre-martial law
specifications of the
National flag through Executive Order No. 292,
s. 1987 which was signed on July 25, 1986.
The Flag and Heraldic Code of the
Philippines specifies the colours
for the blue field Cable No. 80173; the white field, Cable No. 80001;
the red field, Cable No. 80108; and the golden-yellow Stars and Sun,
Cable No. 80068. Colours introduced for the Centennial
Proposals for changes to the Philippine flag
Philippine flag with the proposed ninth ray.
Proposal by former President Fidel V. Ramos
Another proposal by former President Fidel V. Ramos
Sun in the Philippine flag with the proposed 9th ray.
Prior to the 1998 independence centennial celebrations, the provincial
Zambales lobbied that the sunburst design accommodates a
ninth ray, reasoning that their province was also in a state of
rebellion in 1896. The Centennial Commission however refuted this
change, based on research by the National Historical Institute. In
August 2003, then Foreign Affairs Secretary
Blas Ople also lobbied for
a ninth ray, saying that
Quezon province should be added. He reasons
that the first uprising against the Spaniards happened at the foot of
Mount Banahaw which was led by
Hermano Pule in 1841. In 2009,
Senate Bill No. 3307 was introduced to add an additional ray to
Moro people in
Mindanao who also fought the Spanish and
was never occupied by the Spanish colonial government. As of September
24, 2009. On October 14, 2009, the Senate approved the Conference
Committee Report on the bill. As of 2014[update], the Ninth Ray
movement is among the prominent groups pushing for the addition of a
ninth ray to the flag's sun. Proponents of the movement believe that a
ninth ray should be added to represent the Muslim and indigenous
people of the country who kept colonizers away from their lands.
North Borneo dispute
Emmanuel L. Osorio, one of the founders of the Ninth Ray movement,
came up with a proposal adding not only a ninth ray to the flag's sun
but also adding a fourth star to the flag representing North Borneo
(present-day Sabah), a territory claimed by the
currently under Malaysian sovereignty. The flag's triangle is changed
into a rectangle to accommodate a fourth star. According to Osorio,
the star representing
Sabah in his proposed flag was added "in
principle" and said the flag proposal seeks to express the Ninth Ray
movement's view that "if we get Sabah, then it could be represented by
There have been numerous proposals as to how the crescent moon should
be incorporated into the flag, including one such proposal from former
President Fidel V. Ramos.
Philippine flags on bamboo poles
The flag should be displayed in all government buildings, official
residences, public plazas, and schools every day throughout the year.
The days of the 28th of May (National Flag Day) and the 12th of June
(Independence Day) are designated as flag days, during which all
offices, agencies and instrumentalities of government, business
establishments, institutions of learning and private homes are
enjoined to display the flag. But in recent years, the flag days
are now from May 28 to June 30 yearly to promote patriotism and to
celebrate the nation's independence.
By law, the Philippine flag must be permanently hoisted and
illuminated at night at the following locations:
Malacañang Palace, the official residence of the President of the
Congress of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines buildings:
Senate of the Philippines
Senate of the Philippines building
House of Representatives of the Philippines
House of Representatives of the Philippines building (Batasang
Supreme Court of the Philippines
Supreme Court of the Philippines building
Rizal Monument in Luneta, Manila
Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite
Barasoain Shrine in Malolos, Bulacan
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
Libingan ng mga Bayani
Mausoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución
All international ports of entry
All other places as may be designated by the National Historical
Institute as such.
The Philippine flag at Rizal Park, flown at half-mast on January 30,
2015, during the National Day of Mourning in the aftermath of the
The flag may be flown at half-mast as a sign of mourning. Upon the
official announcement of the death of the President or a former
President, the flag should be flown at half-mast for ten days. The
flag should be flown at half-mast for seven days following the death
of the Vice President, the Chief Justice, the President of the Senate
or the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
The flag may also be required to fly at half-mast upon the death of
other persons to be determined by the National Historical Institute,
for a period less than seven days. The flag shall be flown at
half-mast on all the buildings and places where the decedent was
holding office, on the day of death until the day of interment of an
incumbent member of the Supreme Court, the Cabinet, the Senate or the
House of Representatives, and such other persons as may be determined
by the National Historical Institute.
When flown at half-mast, the flag should be first hoisted to the peak
for a moment then lowered to the half-mast position. It should be
raised to the peak again before it is lowered for the day.
The flag may also be used to cover the caskets of the dead of the
military, veterans of previous wars, national artists, and outstanding
civilians as determined by the local government. In such cases, the
flag must be placed such that the white triangle is at the head and
the blue portion covers the right side of the casket. The flag should
not be lowered to the grave or allowed to touch the ground, but should
be solemnly folded and handed to the heirs of the deceased.
Section 10 of RA 8491 states that when the flag is displayed on a wall
during peacetime, the blue field is to the observers' left, as shown
According to Republic Act 8491 itself, it shall be prohibited:
a) To mutilate, deface, defile, trample on or cast contempt or commit
any act or omission casting dishonor or ridicule upon the flag or over
b) To dip the flag to any person or object by way of compliment or
c) To use the flag:
1) As a drapery, festoon, tablecloth;
2) As covering for ceilings, walls, statues or other objects;
3) As a pennant in the hood, side, back and top of motor vehicles;
4) As a staff or whip;
5) For unveiling monuments or statues; and
6) As trademarks, or for industrial, commercial or agricultural labels
d) To display the flag:
1) Under any painting or picture;
2) Horizontally face-up. It shall always be hoisted aloft and be
allowed to fall freely;
3) Below any platform; or
4) In discothèques, cockpits, night and day clubs, casinos, gambling
joints and places of vice or where frivolity prevails.
e) To wear the flag in whole or in part as a costume or uniform;
f) To add any word, figure, mark, picture, design, drawings,
advertisement, or imprint of any nature on the flag;
g) To print, paint or attach representation of the flag on
handkerchiefs, napkins, cushions, and other articles of merchandise;
h) To display in public any foreign flag, except in embassies and
other diplomatic establishments, and in offices of international
i) To use, display or be part of any advertisement or infomercial; and
j) To display the flag in front of buildings or offices occupied by
The Act mandates that violators shall, upon conviction, be punished by
fine or imprisonment.
Main article: Panunumpa ng Katapatan sa Watawat
The Pledge of Allegiance to the Philippine flag (distinct from the
Patriotic Oath of Allegiance) should be recited while standing with
the right hand with palm open raised shoulder high. Individuals whose
faith or religious beliefs prohibit them from making such pledge are
permitted to excuse themselves, but are required by law to show full
respect when the pledge is being rendered by standing at
The law makes no statement regarding the language in which the pledge
must be recited, but the pledge is written (and therefore recited) in
the Filipino language.
Main article: Lupang Hinirang
Spanish, Tagalog and English versions of the national anthem have been
given official status throughout Philippine history. However, only the
most recent and current "Filipino" version is officially recognized by
law. The Flag and Heraldic Code, approved on 12 February 1998
specifies, Lupang Hinirang, "The National Anthem shall always be sung
in the national language within or without the country"; violation
of the law is punishable by a fine and imprisonment.
National Flag Day
Flag Day in the
Philippines is celebrated every 28 May,
the very day of the 1898 Battle of Alapan. The official National Flag
flying period starts from May 28 and ends on Independence Day, June
12, every year, although the flying period for the flag in homes,
businesses and public establishments may start on a specified day of
May (to be given by the National Historical Commission of the
Philippines) and may last till June 30.
List of flags of the Philippines
Flags of the Philippine provinces
Flags of the Philippine Revolution
Naval Jack of the Philippines
^ a b c d e f The eight provinces symbolized by the rays are provinces
which had significant early involvement in the Philippine Revolution.
Details about the description of the significance of their involvement
and the namings of the eight provinces symbolized vary between
sources. Sources containing assertions regarding this include the
Lists of provinces
Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Manila-Morong, Nueva Ecija,
Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Manila, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga,
Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal,
Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Manila, Nuevo Ecija,
Significance of involvement
Eight provinces which revolted first against the Spanish government
during the revolution of 1896.
Placed under martial law on August 30, 1896.
^ a b Lone, Stewart (2007). Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Asia:
From the Taiping Rebellion to the Vietnam War. Greenwood Publishing
Group. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-313-33684-3.
^ Al, Antonio, Et. Side by Side 5' 2002 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc.
p. 26;. ISBN 978-971-23-3300-2.
^ a b Ocampo, Ambeth R. (1993). Aguinaldo's breakfast & more
Looking back essays. Anvil Publishing. p. 65.
^ Benjamin R. Beede (1994). The War of 1898, and U.S. Interventions,
1898–1934: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 418.
^ a b Al, Carpio, Et. My Country and My People 5. Rex Bookstore, Inc.
p. 139. ISBN 978-971-23-2254-9.
^ President Emilio Aguinaldo, Acta de la Proclamacion de la
Independencia del Pueblo Filipino, Kawit, Cavite: 12 June 1898,
"...triángulo blanco como distintivo de la célebre Sociedad
"Katipunan" que por medio de pacto de sangre empujó a las masas a
insurreccionarse; representando las tres estrellas las tres
principales Islas de este Archipiélago, Luzon,
que estalló este movimento insurreccional; indicando el sol los
agigantados pasos que han dado los hijos de este país en el camino
del progreso y civilización, simbolizando los ocho rayos de aquél
las ocho provincias: Manila, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija,
Tarlac, Laguna y Batangas, declarando en estado de guerra apenas se
inició la primera insurrección; conmemorando los colores azul, rojo
y blanco los de la bandera de los Estados Unidos de la América del
Norte, como manifestación de nuestro profundo agradecimiento hacia
esta Gran Nación por la desinteresada protección que nos presta y
seguirá prestando.", quoted from Design of the Philippine Flag in
Symbolisms/Meanings in the Philippine Flag, May 18, 2015, National
Commission for Culture and the Arts of the Philippines.
^ "FULL TEXT: Pres. Benigno Aquino III's Independence Day speech".
Sun.Star. June 12, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
^ a b Philippine Declaration of Independence
^ a b "Origins of the Symbols of the National Flag".
^ a b A. P. Samest Blaustein; Jay Adrian Sigler; Benjamin R. Beede
(1977). Independence documents of the world. 2. Brill Archive.
p. 570. ISBN 0-379-00795-9.
^ Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). The Philippines: A Unique Nation.
All-Nations Pub. p. 259. ISBN 978-971-642-071-5.
^ Zaide, Sonia M. (1994). The Philippines: A Unique Nation.
All-Nations Publishing Co. p. 259. ISBN 971-642-071-4.
Panay is where Iloilo is located, the first province outside
Luzon to have raised this flag.
^ a b RP flag blooper in New York not intentional—US embassy -
INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos Archived 2010-09-30 at the
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Republic Act No. 8491". The Corpus Juris.
February 12, 1998. .
^ "Executive Order No. 23, s. 1936". www.gov.ph.
^ a b "The Philippine National Flag" (PDF). Monuments and Heraldry
division, National Historical institute. National Commission for
Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original (PDF) on
^ Quezon III, Manuel L. (2002-04-12). "Philippines: the shade of
blue". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on 2011-08-18.
^ "Dictionary of Vexillology:C". Flags of the World. Retrieved
^ "Philippines". Vexilla Mundi. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
^ "Executive Order No. 321, s. 1950". Section 1, Paragraph 4. The
Flag, if flown from a flagpole, should have its blue field on top in
time of peace and the red field on top in time of war; if in a hanging
position, the blue field should be to the right (left of the observer)
in time of peace. However, the red should be on the left (of observer)
in time of war.
^ "Republic Act No. 8491". Chapter 1, Section 10. The flag, if flown
from a flagpole, shall have its blue field on top in time of peace and
the red field on top in time of war; if in a hanging position, the
blue field shall be to the right (left of the observer) in time of
peace, and the red field to the right (left of the observer) in time
^ E.A. Baja, Our Country's Flag and Heritage, 1930, Manila, p. 52
^ Manuel Quezon III, 10 November 2002
^ "'PH at war?' Filipinos react to Facebook's Independence Day error".
Rappler. 12 June 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
^ a b c d e f Quezon, Manuel L. III (2002-04-02). "History of the
Philippines Flag". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on
2008-02-05. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
^ "[English] Speech of President Aquino at the celebration of
Independence Day". Official Gazette. Government of the Philippines.
June 12, 2015.
^ Renato Perdon (2010). Footnotes to Philippine History.
Universal-Publishers. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-59942-842-0.
^ Augusto de Viana (May 28, 2008). "Where was the Filipino Flag first
Manila Times. Archived from the original on
2008-06-24. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
^ "Want to see PH flag first flown in 1898? Go to Baguio!".
^ a b "The Declining Reverence for the Philippine Flag". National
Historical Commission of the Philippines. Archived from the original
on April 26, 2013. Retrieved February 25, 2013. .
^ "Today in History". Presidential Museum and Library. 30 October
2013. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 12 June
^ "Act No. 1696, s. 1907". Official Gazette of the Republic of the
Philippines. Supreme Court Library. 23 August 1907. Retrieved 12 June
^ "Adjusting the rays of the flag?". Flags of the World. 1998-03-09.
Archived from the original on 2008-06-27. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
^ Mallari, Delfin (2003-08-20). "Ople urges putting of Quezon in rays
of Philippine flag". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved
^ Michael Lim Ubac, RP flag to have 9th ray to the sun Archived
2009-09-27 at the Wayback Machine., Philippine Daily Inquirer,
September 24, 2009.
^ a b Cabreza, Vincent (13 March 2013). "Place for
Sabah in flag
sought". Retrieved 22 October 2014.
^ Fel V. Maragay (June 11, 1995). "Crescent moon in flag soon?".
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Flags of the Philippines.
"The Controversial Philippine National Flag". National Historical
Institute of the Philippines. May 14, 2008. Archived from the original
on 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines
Philippine at Flags of the World
Flag and Heraldic Code of the
Philippines at Flags of the World
How to properly display the Philippine flag.
History of the Philippine Flag:
Philippines - historical flags of 20th Century, flagspot.net
Filipino Flag - Learn Now FilipinoFlag.net (archived from the original
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