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The NATIONAL FLAG OF THE PHILIPPINES (Filipino : _Pambansang Watawat ng Pilipinas_) is a horizontal flag bicolor with equal bands of royal blue and scarlet , and with a white, equilateral triangle at the hoist . In the center of the triangle is a golden-yellow sun with eight primary rays, each representing a Philippine province. At each vertex of the triangle is a five-pointed, golden-yellow star, each of which representing one of the country's three main island groups— Luzon , Visayas , and Mindanao , the central star originally referred to Panay (where Iloilo is located, the first province outside Luzon to have raised this flag) which is commonly mistaken to be the whole island group of Visayas . Panay, which recent interpretations call as _"as representative of the entire Visayas region"_. A unique feature of this flag is its ability to indicate a state of war if it is displayed with the red side on top.

CONTENTS

* 1 Design

* 1.1 Construction * 1.2 Color * 1.3 Usage as war ensign * 1.4 Symbolism

* 2 History

* 2.1 Historical flags of the Philippine Revolution * 2.2 Current flag

* 3 Chronology

* 4 Proposals

* 4.1 Sun\'s rays * 4.2 Fourth star * 4.3 Crescent moon

* 5 Usage

* 5.1 Flag protocol * 5.2 Half-mast * 5.3 Prohibited acts

* 6 Pledge * 7 Flag anthem * 8 Similar flags * 9 National Flag Day * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links

DESIGN

CONSTRUCTION

See also: List of flags of the Philippines

The flag's length is twice its width, giving it an aspect ratio of 1:2. The length of all the sides of the white triangle are equal to the width of the flag. Each star is oriented in such manner that one of its tips points towards the vertex at which it is located. Moreover, the gap-angle between two neighbours of the 8 ray-bundles is as large as the angle of one ray-bundle (so 22.5°), with each major ray having double the thickness of its two minor rays. The golden sun is not exactly in the center of the triangle but shifted slightly to the right. This flag is waved when having ceremonies Construction sheet of the Philippine flag.

COLOR

The shade of blue used in the flag has varied over time, beginning with the original color _lazuli Rosco_. The exact nature of this shade is uncertain, but a likely candidate is the blue of the Cuban flag , which a theory says influenced the flag's design. Specifications for the flag's colors with shades matching those used in the American flag were adopted by the National Historical Institute in 1955. President Ferdinand Marcos ordered the colors restored to the original light blue and red of the Cuban flag in 1985, but this was immediately rescinded after the 1986 People Power Revolution that removed him from power. For the 1998 independence centennial celebrations, the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines (RA 8491) was passed, designating royal blue as the official variant.

The flag's colors are specified by Republic Act 8491 in terms of their cable number in the system developed by the Color Association of the United States . The official colors and their approximations in other color spaces are listed below:.

SCHEME BLUE RED WHITE YELLOW

Cable No. 80173 80108 80001 80068

Pantone 286 186 N/A 116

RGB 0-56-168 206-17-38 255-255-255 252-209-22

CMYK C100-M60-Y0-K5 C0-M90-Y65-K10 N/A C0-M18-Y85-K0

HEX #0038A8 #CE1126 #FFFFFF #FCD116

USAGE AS WAR ENSIGN

The Philippines does not utilize a separate war flag ; instead, the national flag itself is used for this purpose. To indicate a state of war, the red field is flown upwards and is placed on the right (on the observer's left) if it is in a hanging position. In times of peace, however, the blue area is the superior field. The orientation of the flag was used during the Philippine–American War from 1899 to 1901, World War II by the Philippine Commonwealth from 1941 to 1945 and by the Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic when it declared war against the United Kingdom and the United States in 1944, the coup attempts during President Corazon Aquino 's administration, and EDSA III . The only time that the flag was not oriented in a state of war was during the Battle of Alapan in 1898, 15 days before the Philippine Declaration of Independence in Kawit, Cavite.

During the 2010 US-Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) summit in New York City, the Philippine flag was inadvertently flown with the red field on top. The U.S. Embassy in Manila apologized for the mistake, and the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs accepted the apology.

SYMBOLISM

The official design of the eight-ray sun (3.75°-spacing)

An erroneous design of the sun (5°-spacing)

The Philippine national flag has a rectangular design that consists of a white equilateral triangle, symbolizing liberty, equality, and fraternity ; a horizontal blue stripe for peace, truth, and justice; and a horizontal red stripe for patriotism and valor . In the center of the white triangle is an eight-rayed golden sun symbolizing unity, freedom, people's democracy, and sovereignty. Each ray represents a province with significant involvement in the 1896 Philippine Revolution against Spain; these provinces are Manila , Bulacan , Cavite , Pampanga , Bataan , Laguna , Batangas , and Nueva Ecija (some sources specify other provinces as alternatives to some of these ). Three five-pointed stars, one for each of the triangle's points, stand for the three major islands where the revolution started: Luzon , Visayas and Mindanao .

The flag's original symbolism is enumerated in the text of the independence proclamation, which makes reference to an attached drawing, though no record of the drawing has surfaced. The proclamation explains the flag as follows:

“ _And finally it was resolved unanimously that this Nation, already independent from today should use the same flag which it has used, whose shape and colors are described in the attached drawing rendering realistically the three aforementioned forces representing the white triangle as the distinctive symbol of the famed Society of the Katipunan, which through the blood compact impelled the masses to rise in revolt; the three stars representing the three principal islands of this Archipelago — Luzon, Mindanao, and Panay (Visayas) in which the revolutionary movement broke out; the sun indicating the gigantic steps taken by the children of this country on the road to progress and civilization; the eight rays symbolizing the eight provinces of the Philippines, and the colors of blue, red and white commemorating the flag of the United States of North America as a manifestation of our profound gratitude towards this Great Nation for its disinterested protection which it lends us, and continues to lend us. And, carrying this flag, I unfurl it before the gentlemen assembled here——and we all solemnly swear to acknowledge and defend it to the last drop of our blood._ ”

The symbolism given in the 1898 Proclamation of Philippine Independence differs from the current official explanation. According to the document the white triangle signifies the emblem of the Katipunan , the secret society that opposed Spanish rule. It says the flag's colors commemorate the flag of the United States as a manifestation of gratitude for American aid against the Spanish during the Philippine Revolution . It also says that one of the three stars represents the island of Panay , rather than the entire Visayan islands . The proclamation also declares that the sun represents the gigantic steps made by the sons of the country along the path of Progress and Civilization, and lists Bataan instead of Tarlac among the eight provinces symbolized by the sun's rays.

HISTORY

HISTORICAL FLAGS OF THE PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION

See also: Flags of the Philippine Revolution

It has been common since the 1960s to trace the development of the Philippine flag to the various war standards of the individual leaders of the Katipunan , a pseudo-masonic revolutionary movement that opposed Spanish rule in the Philippines and led the Philippine Revolution . However, while some symbols common to the Katipunan flags would be adopted into the iconography of the Revolution, it is inconclusive whether these war standards can be considered precursors to the present Philippine flag.

*

The first flag of the Katipunan. *

Flag of the Magdalo Katipunan faction. *

Flag of the Magdiwang Katipunan faction. *

The flag adopted by the Republic of Biak-na-Bato in 1897. *

Official Flag of the First Philippine Republic.

The first flag of the Katipunan was a red rectangular flag with a horizontal alignment of three white Ks (an acronym for the Katipunan's full name, _Kataas-taasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan_ - Supreme and Venerable Society of the Sons of the Nation). The flag's red field symbolized blood, as members of the Katipunan signed their membership papers in their own blood.

The various leaders of the Katipunan, such as Andrés Bonifacio , Mariano Llanera , and Pío del Pilar , also had individual war standards. The organization was represented in Cavite province by two factions: the _Magdiwang_ faction and the _Magdalo_ faction, with each adopting a flag. Both used a white sun. Instead of the letter K the flags bore the symbol for the syllable _ka_ in Baybayin , the pre-Hispanic writing script of the Tagalogs.

The Katipunan adopted a new flag in 1897 during an assembly at Naic, Cavite . This new flag was red and depicted a white sun with a face. The sun had eight rays, representing eight provinces of the Philippines.

CURRENT FLAG

The earlier design of the current Philippine flag was conceptualized by Emilio Aguinaldo during his exile in Hong Kong in 1897. The first flag was sewn by Marcela Marino de Agoncillo with the help of her daughter Lorenza and Delfina Herbosa de Natividad (a niece of _Propagandista_ José Rizal ). It was first displayed in the Battle of Alapan on May 28, 1898. Flag of the Philippines at the Philippine International Convention Center

The flag was formally unfurled during the proclamation of independence on June 12, 1898 in Kawit, Cavite . However, a Manila Times article by Augusto de Viana, Chief History Researcher, National Historical Institute, mentions assertions in history textbooks and commemorative rites that the flag was first raised in Alapan, Imus, Cavite , on May 28, 1898, citing Presidential Proclamation No. 374, issued by then-President Diosdado Macapagal on March 6, 1965. The article goes on to claim that historical records indicate that the first display of the Philippine flag took place in Cavite City , when General Aguinaldo displayed it during the first fight of the Philippine Revolution .

The original design of the flag adopted a mythical sun with a face influenced by Latin American republics Argentina , Peru , and Uruguay ; a triangle, representing the Katipunan which inspired by the Eye of Providence in the Great Seal of the United States and the Masonic Triangle and which enshrined Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité ; the stripes and colors derived from the American flag . The particular shade of blue of the original flag has been a source of controversy. Based on anecdotal evidence and the few surviving flags from the era, historians argue that the colors of the original flag was influenced by the flags of Cuba and Puerto Rico .

The original flag that was first hoisted on May 28, 1898 and unfurled during the Declaration of independence on June 12, 1898 is being preserved at the Gen Emilio Aguinaldo Museum in Baguio City . There were plans to restore the flag by replacing the worn-out portion but the idea was abandoned because matching threads could not be found. The flag is more elaborate than the flag which is currently in use. It bears the embroidered words, _Libertad, Justicia and Ygualidad_ (Liberty, Justice and Equality) on one side of the flag and _Fuerzas Expedicionarias del Norte de Luzon_ (Expeditionary forces of Northern Luzon) on the other

Hostilities broke out between the Philippines and the United States in 1899. The flag was first flown with the red field up on February 4, 1899 to show that a state of war existed. Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans two years later, and swore allegiance to the United States. _ The detail of Fernando Amorsolo 's The Making of the Philippine flag_ depicting Agoncillo and company's manual sewing

With the defeat of the Philippine Republic, the Philippines was placed under American colonial rule and the display of the Philippine flag was declared illegal by the Sedition Act of 1907. This law was repealed on October 24, 1919. With the legalization of display of the Philippine flag, the cloth available in most stores was the red and blue of the flag of the United States , so the flag from 1919 onwards adopted the "National Flag blue" color. On March 26, 1920, the Philippine Legislature passed Act. No 2928 on March 26, 1920, which legally adopted the Philippine flag as the official flag of the Philippine Islands. Up until the eve of World War II, Flag Day was celebrated on annually on October 30, commemorating the date the ban on the flag was lifted.

The Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated in 1935. On March 25, 1936, President Manuel L. Quezon issued Executive Order No. 23 which provided for the technical description and specifications of the flag. Among the provisions of the order was the definition of the triangle at the hoist as an equilateral triangle , the definition of the aspect ratio at 1:2, the precise angles of the stars, the geometric and aesthetic design of the sun, and the formal elimination of the mythical face on the sun. The exact shades of colors, however, were not precisely defined. These specifications have remained unchanged and in effect to the present. In 1941, Flag Day was officially moved to June 12, commemorating the date that Philippine independence was proclaimed in 1898.

The flag was once again banned with the Japanese invasion and occupation of the Philippines beginning in December 1941, to be hoisted again with the establishment of the Second Republic of the Philippines, a client state of Japan. In ceremonies held in October 1943, Emilio Aguinaldo hoisted the flag with the original Cuban blue and red colors restored. The flag was initially flown with the blue stripe up, until President José P. Laurel proclaimed the existence of a state of war with the Allied Powers in 1944. The Commonwealth government-in-exile in Washington, D.C. continued to use the flag with the American colors, and had flown it with the red stripe up since the initial invasion of the Japanese. With the combined forces of the Filipino three variants were used by subsequent governments. Sewn by Marcela Marino de Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo, and Delfina Herbosa de Natividad in Hong Kong and first flown in battle on May 28, 1898. It was formally unfurled during the Proclamation of Philippine Independence and the flag of the First Philippine Republic , on June 12, 1898 by President Aguinaldo. It contains a mythical sun (with a face) similar to the Sun of May in other former Spanish colonies; the triangle of Freemasonry ; the eight rays representing eight rebellious provinces of the Philippines first placed under martial law by the Governor-General. The flag carries the text in Spanish Fuerzas Expedicionarias del Norte de Luzon_ on its obverse and _Libertad Justicia e Ygualdad_ on its reverse.

AMERICAN AND COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1898–1946)

1898–1908 Used while under direct administration from the United States of America. The Philippine Commission, passed Act No. 1697 or the Flag Law of 1907, which outlawed the display of the Philippine flag and replaced the country's flag to the stars and stripes of the United States of America. The same law prohibited the playing of the national anthem. Thirteen horizontal stripes of alternating red and white representing the original Thirteen Colonies ; in the canton, white stars on a blue field, the number of stars increased as the United States expanded its territory.

1908–1912 Variant after Oklahoma became a state

1912–1919 Variant after Arizona and New Mexico achieved statehood

1919–1936 From October 30, 1919, two flags were flown in the Philippines, the American flag and the flag conceived by Emilio Aguinaldo which was made the national flag of the Philippines with the repealing of Act No. 1697. The American flag remained unchanged since 1919. For the Philippine flag, the design conceived by Emilio Aguinaldo remained but the shades of blue and red were adopted from the American flag. The sun's face was removed, but its stylised rays were retained. It should be noted that there existed many versions of the flag as no official design had been codified.

_ 1936–1946 Specifications codified; Defined under Executive Order No. 23, s. 1936 which was signed on March 25, 1936. The shade of blue used was navy blue , following suit from the American Flag. The triangle was made equilateral and the sun's rays were also further simplified, achieving its present form. Also used by the Commonwealth government-in-exile from 1942–1945.

JAPANESE PERIOD (1942–1945)

1942–1943 Used during the Japanese Occupation . The Japanese flag as it appeared until 1999: a red sun-disc, shifted 1% left of centre, on a white field.

October 14, 1943 Used during the inauguration of the Second Republic . Emilio Aguinaldo's flag was hoisted upon proclamation of the Second Republic. However, the design as used by the Commonwealth remained.

SOVEREIGNTY (1946–PRESENT_)

_ 1946–1985 Following independence, the 1936 design specifications codified by Manuel Quezon remains but the shades of blue and red varied through the years. In 1998, the flag gained its present definitive shades. Defined under Executive Order No. 23, s. 1936 dated March 25, 1936. The shade of blue used here is Navy Blue, following suit from the American Flag.

1985–1986 Altered by Executive Order No. 1010, s. 1985 signed in February 25, 1985. The shade of blue was changed from Navy Blue to Light Blue , amidst debate on the shade used in the original flag. A pale Sky Blue was the actual colour used since it was more available at that time and not due to any specific historical precedent.

1986–1998 1936 version of the flag restored after the 1986 People Power Revolution . President Corazon C. Aquino restored the pre-martial law specifications of the National flag through Executive Order No. 292, s. 1987 which was signed in July 25, 1986.

1998–present The Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines specifies the colours for the blue field Cable No. 80173; the white field, Cable No. 80001; the red field, Cable No. 80108; and the golden-yellow Stars and Sun , Cable No. 80068. Colours introduced for the Centennial celebrations.

PROPOSALS

* Proposals for changes to the Philippine flag

*

Philippine flag with the proposed ninth ray. *

Osorio's proposal *

Proposal by former President Fidel V. Ramos *

Another proposal by former President Fidel V. Ramos

SUN\'S RAYS

Prior to the 1998 independence centennial celebrations, the provincial government of Zambales lobbied that the sunburst design accommodate a ninth ray, reasoning that their province was also in a state of rebellion in 1896. The Centennial Commission however refuted this change, based on research by the National Historical Institute. In August 2003, then Foreign Affairs Secretary Blas Ople also lobbied for a ninth ray, saying that Quezon province should be added. He reasons that the first uprising against the Spaniards happened at the foot of Mount Banahaw which was led by Hermano Pule in 1841. In 2009, Senate Bill No. 3307 was introduced to add an additional ray to represent the Moro people in Mindanao who also fought the Spanish and was never occupied by the Spanish colonial government. As of September 24, 2009. On October 14, 2009, the Senate approved the Conference Committee Report on the bill. As of 2014 , the Ninth Ray movement is among the prominent groups pushing for the addition of a ninth ray to the flag's sun. Proponents of the movement believe that a ninth ray should be added to represent the Muslim and indigenous people of the country who kept colonizers away from their lands.

FOURTH STAR

See also: North Borneo dispute

Emmanuel L. Osorio, one of the founders of the Ninth Ray movement, came up with a proposal adding not only a ninth ray to the flag's sun but also adding a fourth star to the flag representing North Borneo (present-day Sabah ), a territory claimed by the Philippines but currently under Malaysian sovereignty. The flag's triangle is changed into a rectangle to accommodate a fourth star. According to Osorio, the star representing Sabah in his proposed flag was added "in principle" and said the flag proposal seeks to express the Ninth Ray movement's view that "if we get Sabah, then it could be represented by the star".

CRESCENT MOON

There have been numerous proposals as to how the crescent moon should be incorporated into the flag, including one such proposal from former President Fidel V. Ramos .

USAGE

Philippine flags on bamboo poles

FLAG PROTOCOL

The flag should be displayed in all government buildings, official residences , public plazas , and schools every day throughout the year. The days of the 28th of May (National Flag Day) and the 12th of June (Independence Day) are designated as flag days, during which all offices, agencies and instrumentalities of government, business establishments, institutions of learning and private homes are enjoined to display the flag. But in recent years, the flag days are now from May 28 to June 30 yearly to promote patriotism and to celebrate the nation's independence.

By law, the Philippine flag must be permanently hoisted and illuminated at night at the following locations:

* Malacañang Palace , the official residence of the President of the Philippines

* Congress of the Philippines buildings:

* Senate of the Philippines building * House of Representatives of the Philippines building (Batasang Pambansa Complex )

* Supreme Court of the Philippines building * Rizal Monument in Luneta, Manila * Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite * Barasoain Shrine in Malolos, Bulacan * Tomb of the Unknown Soldier * _ Libingan ng mga Bayani _ * _Mausoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución_ * All international ports of entry * All other places as may be designated by the National Historical Institute as such.

HALF-MAST

The Philippine flag at half-mast.

The flag may be flown at half-mast as a sign of mourning. Upon the official announcement of the death of the President or a former President, the flag should be flown at half-mast for ten days. The flag should be flown at half-mast for seven days following the death of the Vice President , the Chief Justice , the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the House of Representatives .

The flag may also be required to fly at half-mast upon the death of other persons to be determined by the National Historical Institute, for a period less than seven days. The flag shall be flown at half-mast on all the buildings and places where the decedent was holding office, on the day of death until the day of interment of an incumbent member of the Supreme Court, the Cabinet, the Senate or the House of Representatives, and such other persons as may be determined by the National Historical Institute.

When flown at half-mast, the flag should be first hoisted to the peak for a moment then lowered to the half-mast position. It should be raised to the peak again before it is lowered for the day.

The flag may also be used to cover the caskets of the dead of the military, veterans of previous wars, national artists, and outstanding civilians as determined by the local government. In such cases, the flag must be placed such that the white triangle is at the head and the blue portion covers the right side of the casket. The flag should not be lowered to the grave or allowed to touch the ground, but should be solemnly folded and handed to the heirs of the deceased.

PROHIBITED ACTS

Section 10 of RA 8491 states that when the flag is displayed on a wall during peacetime, the blue field is to the observers' left, as shown here.

According to REPUBLIC ACT 8491 itself, it shall be prohibited: a) To mutilate, deface, defile, trample on or cast contempt or commit any act or omission casting dishonor or ridicule upon the flag or over its surface; b) To dip the flag to any person or object by way of compliment or salute; c) To use the flag: 1) As a drapery, festoon, tablecloth; 2) As covering for ceilings, walls, statues or other objects; 3) As a pennant in the hood, side, back and top of motor vehicles; 4) As a staff or whip; 5) For unveiling monuments or statues; and 6) As trademarks, or for industrial, commercial or agricultural labels or designs. d) To display the flag: 1) Under any painting or picture; 2) Horizontally face-up. It shall always be hoisted aloft and be allowed to fall freely; 3) Below any platform; or 4) In discothèques, cockpits, night and day clubs, casinos, gambling joints and places of vice or where frivolity prevails. e) To wear the flag in whole or in part as a costume or uniform; f) To add any word, figure, mark, picture, design, drawings, advertisement, or imprint of any nature on the flag; g) To print, paint or attach representation of the flag on handkerchiefs, napkins, cushions, and other articles of merchandise; h) To display in public any foreign flag, except in embassies and other diplomatic establishments, and in offices of international organizations; i) To use, display or be part of any advertisement or infomercial; and j) To display the flag in front of buildings or offices occupied by aliens.

The Act mandates that violators shall, upon conviction, be punished by fine or imprisonment.

PLEDGE

Main article: Panunumpa ng Katapatan sa Watawat

The Pledge of Allegiance to the Philippine flag (distinct from the Patriotic Oath of Allegiance ) should be recited while standing with the right hand with palm open raised shoulder high. Individuals whose faith or religious beliefs prohibit them from making such pledge are permitted to excuse themselves, but are required by law to show full respect when the pledge is being rendered by standing at attention.

The law makes no statement regarding the language in which the pledge must be recited, but the pledge is written (and therefore recited) in the Filipino language .

FLAG ANTHEM

Main article: Lupang Hinirang

Spanish, Tagalog and English versions of the national anthem have been given official status throughout Philippine history. However, only the most recent and current "Filipino" version is officially recognised by law. The Flag and Heraldic Code, approved on 12 February 1998 specifies, _Lupang Hinirang_, "The National Anthem shall always be sung in the national language within or without the country"; violation of the law is punishable by a fine and imprisonment .

SIMILAR FLAGS

_ This section POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH . Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations . Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (June 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

Flag of Acadiana

Flag of Sint Maarten

Flag of Cuba

Flag of Puerto Rico

Flag of Saba

Flag of the Czech Republic

Flag of Liechtenstein

Flag of Haiti

NATIONAL FLAG DAY

The National Flag Day in the Philippines is celebrated every 28 May, the very day of the 1898 Battle of Alapan . The official National Flag flying period starts from May 28 and ends on Independence Day, June 12, every year, although the flying period for the flag in homes, businesses and public establishments may start on a specified day of May (to be given by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines) and may last till June 30.

SEE ALSO

* List of flags of the Philippines * Flags of the Philippine provinces * Flags of the Philippine Revolution * Naval Jack of the Philippines

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ The eight provinces symbolized by the rays are provinces which had significant early involvement in the Philippine Revolution . Details about the description of the significance of their involvement and the namings of the eight provinces symbolized vary between sources. Sources containing assertions regarding this include the following: Lists of provinces

* Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Manila-Morong, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac. * Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Manila, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac. * Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Tarlac. * Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Manila, Nuevo Ecija, Pampanga.

Significance of involvement

* Eight provinces which revolted first against the Spanish government during the revolution of 1896. * Placed under martial law on August 30, 1896.

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Lone, Stewart (2007). _Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Asia: From the Taiping Rebellion to the Vietnam War_. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-313-33684-3 . * ^ Al, Antonio, Et. _Side by Side 5\' 2002 Ed._ Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 26;. ISBN 978-971-23-3300-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (1993). _Aguinaldo\'s breakfast & more Looking back essays_. Anvil Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-971-27-0281-5 . * ^ Benjamin R. Beede (1994). _The War of 1898, and U.S. Interventions, 1898–1934: An Encyclopedia_. Taylor & Francis. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-8240-5624-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Al, Carpio, Et. _My Country and My People 5_. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 139. ISBN 978-971-23-2254-9 . * ^ President Emilio Aguinaldo, _Acta de la Proclamacion de la Independencia del Pueblo Filipino_, Kawit, Cavite: 12 June 1898, "...triángulo blanco como distintivo de la célebre Sociedad "Katipunan" que por medio de pacto de sangre empujó a las masas a insurreccionarse; representando las tres estrellas las tres principales Islas de este Archipiélago, Luzon, Mindanao y Panay en que estalló este movimento insurreccional; indicando el sol los agigantados pasos que han dado los hijos de este país en el camino del progreso y civilización, simbolizando los ocho rayos de aquél las ocho provincias: Manila, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Laguna y Batangas, declarando en estado de guerra apenas se inició la primera insurrección; conmemorando los colores azul, rojo y blanco los de la bandera de los Estados Unidos de la América del Norte, como manifestación de nuestro profundo agradecimiento hacia esta Gran Nación por la desinteresada protección que nos presta y seguirá prestando.", quoted from _Design of the Philippine Flag_ in Symbolisms/Meanings in the Philippine Flag, May 18, 2015, National Commission for Culture and the Arts of the Philippines . * ^ "FULL TEXT: Pres. Benigno Aquino III\'s Independence Day speech". _ Sun.Star _. June 12, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Philippine Declaration of Independence * ^ _A_ _B_ "Origins of the Symbols of the National Flag". * ^ _A_ _B_ A. P. Samest Blaustein; Jay Adrian Sigler; Benjamin R. Beede (1977). _Independence documents of the world. 2_. Brill Archive. p. 570. ISBN 0-379-00795-9 . * ^ Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). _The Philippines: A Unique Nation_. All-Nations Pub. p. 259. ISBN 978-971-642-071-5 . * ^ Zaide, Sonia M. (1994). _The Philippines: A Unique Nation_. All-Nations Publishing Co. p. 259. ISBN 971-642-071-4 . * ^ " Speech of President Aquino at the celebration of Independence Day". _Official Gazette_. Government of the Philippines. June 12, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ RP flag blooper in New York not intentional—US embassy - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ "Republic Act No. 8491". The Corpus Juris. February 12, 1998. . * ^ "Executive Order No. 23, s. 1936". _www.gov.ph_. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Philippine National Flag" (PDF). _Monuments and Heraldry division, National Historical institute_. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. * ^ Quezon III, Manuel L. (2002-04-12). "Philippines: the shade of blue". _Flags of the World_. Archived from the original on 2011-08-18. Retrieved 2007-12-22. * ^ "Dictionary of Vexillology:C". Flags of the World. Retrieved 2007-06-06. * ^ "Philippines". Vexilla Mundi. Retrieved 2007-06-06. * ^ "Executive Order No. 321, s. 1950". Section 1, Paragraph 4. The Flag, if flown from a flagpole, should have its blue field on top in time of peace and the red field on top in time of war; if in a hanging position, the blue field should be to the right (left of the observer) in time of peace. However, the red should be on the left (of observer) in time of war. * ^ "Republic Act No. 8491". Chapter 1, Section 10. The flag, if flown from a flagpole, shall have its blue field on top in time of peace and the red field on top in time of war; if in a hanging position, the blue field shall be to the right (left of the observer) in rime of peace, and the red field to the right (left of the observer) in time of war. * ^ E.A. Baja, _Our Country's Flag and Heritage_, 1930, Manila, p. 52 * ^ _Manuel Quezon III_, 10 November 2002 * ^ File:EDSAIII.png * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Quezon, Manuel L. III (2002-04-02). "History of the Philippines Flag". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on 2008-02-05. Retrieved 2007-06-06. * ^ Renato Perdon (2010). _Footnotes to Philippine History_. Universal-Publishers. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-59942-842-0 . * ^ Augusto de Viana (May 28, 2008). "Where was the Filipino Flag first unfurled?". the Manila Times. Archived from the original on 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2008-05-28. * ^ "Want to see PH flag first flown in 1898? Go to Baguio!". _Rappler_. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Declining Reverence for the Philippine Flag". National Historical Commission of the Philippines . Retrieved February 25, 2013. . * ^ "Today in History". Presidential Museum and Library. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2016. * ^ "Act No. 1696, s. 1907". _Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines_. Supreme Court Library. 23 August 1907. Retrieved 12 June 2016. * ^ "Adjusting the rays of the flag?". _Flags of the World_. 1998-03-09. Retrieved 2008-06-15. * ^ Mallari, Delfin (2003-08-20). "Ople urges putting of Quezon in rays of Philippine flag". _Philippine Daily Inquirer_. Retrieved 2014-07-23. * ^ Michael Lim Ubac, RP flag to have 9th ray to the sun, Philippine Daily Inquirer, September 24, 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cabreza, Vincent (13 March 2013). "Place for Sabah in flag sought". Retrieved 22 October 2014. * ^ Fel V. Maragay (June 11, 1995). "Crescent moon in flag soon?". _ Manila Standard_.

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* "The Controversial Philippine National Flag". National