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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

United Kingdom

* British East India Company
East India Company

Qing China
China

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

* Lord Palmerston * Charles Elliot
Charles Elliot
* George Elliot * James Bremer * Hugh Gough * Henry Pottinger
Henry Pottinger
* William Parker * Humphrey Fleming Senhouse

* Daoguang Emperor * Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu
* Qishan * Guan Tianpei † * Chen Huacheng † * Ge Yunfei † * Yishan * Yijing * Yang Fang

STRENGTH

19,000+ troops:

* British Army
British Army
: 5,000 * Indian Army : 7,000 * Royal Marines and seamen: 7,069

37 ships:

* 14 sloops * 8 frigates * 3 ships of the line * 12 other ships1

200,000 Manchu Eight Banners and Han Green Standard

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES

69 killed in battle 451 wounded 284 executed or died in captivity in Formosa 18,000–20,000 killed and wounded2 (est.)

1 Comprising 5 troop ships , 3 brigs , 2 steamers , 1 survey vessel , and 1 hospital ship . 2 Casualties include Manchu bannermen and their families who committed mass suicide at the Battle of Chapu and Battle of Chinkiang .

* v * t * e

First Opium
Opium
War

* Kowloon
Kowloon
* 1st Chuenpi * 1st Chusan * Barrier * 2nd Chuenpi * Bogue * First Bar * Whampoa * Broadway * 1st Canton * 2nd Canton * Sanyuanli * Amoy * Nerbudda * 2nd Chusan * Chinhai * Ningpo * Tzeki * Chapu * Woosung * Chinkiang

The FIRST OPIUM WAR (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the OPIUM WAR or the ANGLO-CHINESE WAR, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
over conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China
China
.

In the 17th and 18th centuries demand for Chinese goods (particularly silk, porcelain, and tea) in Europe created a trade imbalance between Qing Imperial China
China
and Great Britain. European silver flowed into China
China
through the Canton System , which confined incoming foreign trade to the southern port city of Canton . To counter this imbalance, the British East India Company
East India Company
began to auction opium grown in India to independent foreign traders in exchange for silver, and in doing so strengthened its trading influence in Asia. The opium was transported to the Chinese coast where local middlemen made massive profits selling the drug inside China. The influx of narcotics reversed the Chinese trade surplus, drained the economy of silver, and increased the numbers of opium addicts inside the country, outcomes that worried Chinese officials.

In 1839 the Daoguang Emperor , rejecting proposals to legalise and tax opium, appointed viceroy Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu
to solve the problem by banning the opium trade. Lin confiscated around 20,000 chests of opium (approximately 1210 tons or 2.66 million pounds) without offering compensation and ordered a blockade of foreign trade in Canton. The British government, although not officially denying China's right to control imports of the drug, objected to this unexpected seizure and dispatched a military force to China. In the ensuing conflict the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
used its naval and gunnery power to inflict a series of decisive defeats on the Chinese Empire, a tactic later referred to as gunboat diplomacy .

In 1842 the Qing Dynasty was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking —the first of what the Chinese later called the unequal treaties —which granted an indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain, opened five treaty ports to foreign merchants, and ceded Hong Kong Island to the British Empire. The failure of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second Opium
Opium
War (1856–60), and the Qing defeat resulted in social unrest within China. In China, the war is considered the beginning of modern Chinese history.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 1.1 Establishment of trade * 1.2 Trade philosophy and policy

* 1.3 Opium
Opium
trade

* 1.3.1 Napier Affair

* 2 Escalation of tensions

* 2.1 Crackdown on opium * 2.2 Skirmish at Kowloon
Kowloon
* 2.3 First Battle of Chuenpi

* 2.4 Reaction in Britain

* 2.4.1 Parliamentary debates * 2.4.2 Cabinet Decision and Palmerston letters

* 3 War

* 3.1 Opening moves * 3.2 British offensive begins * 3.3 Pearl River campaign * 3.4 Central China
China
* 3.5 Yangtze river campaign

* 3.6 Technology and tactics

* 3.6.1 British * 3.6.2 Qing Dynasty

* 4 Aftermath

* 4.1 Reactions

* 5 Legacy * 6 Interactive map * 7 See also * 8 Fictional and narrative literature * 9 Notes * 10 References and further reading * 11 External links

BACKGROUND

ESTABLISHMENT OF TRADE

View of Canton with merchant ship of the Dutch East India Company , c. 1665

Direct maritime trade between Europe and China
China
began in 1557 when the Portuguese leased an outpost at Macau
Macau
. Other European nations soon followed the Portuguese lead, inserting themselves into the existing Asian maritime trade network to compete with Arab
Arab
, Chinese , Indian , and Japanese merchants in intra-regional trade. After the Spanish conquest of the Philippines
Philippines
the exchange of goods between China
China
and Europe accelerated dramatically. From 1565 on, the Manila
Manila
Galleons brought silver into the Asian trade network from mines in South America . China
China
was the primary destination for the precious metals, as the imperial government mandated that Chinese goods could only be exported in exchange for silver bullion .

British ships began to appear sporadically around the coasts of China from 1635 on. Without establishing formal relations through the Chinese tributary system, British merchants were only allowed to trade at the ports of Zhoushan
Zhoushan
and Xiamen
Xiamen
in addition to Guangzhou. Official British trade was conducted through the auspices of the British East India Company
East India Company
, which held a royal charter for trade with the Far East. The East India Company
East India Company
gradually came to dominate Sino-European trade from its position in India and due to the strength of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
. View of the European factories in Canton

Trade benefited after the newly-risen Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
relaxed maritime trade restrictions in the 1680s. Taiwan came under Qing control in 1683 and rhetoric regarding the "tributary status " of Europeans was muted. Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(known as Canton to Europeans) became the port of preference for incoming foreign trade. Ships did try to call at other ports, but these locations could not match the benefits of Guangzhou's geographic position at the mouth of the Pearl River , nor did they have Guangzhou's long experience in balancing the demands of Beijing with those of Chinese and foreign merchants. From 1700 onward Canton was the center of maritime trade with China, and this market process became known as the " Canton System ". From the systems' inception in 1757, trading in China
China
was extremely lucrative for European and Chinese merchants alike as goods such as tea, porcelain, and silk were valued highly enough in Europe to justify the expenses of traveling to Asia. The system was highly regulated by the Qing government. Foreign traders were only permitted to do business through a body of Chinese merchants known as the Cohong and were forbidden to learn Chinese. Foreigners could only live in one of the Thirteen Factories and were not allowed to enter or trade in any other part of China, a policy the Qing called the Yī kŏu tōngshāng (口通商), or the "Single port commerce system". Only low level government officials could be dealt with, and the imperial court could not be lobbied for any reason excepting official diplomatic missions. The Imperial laws that upheld the system were collectively known as the Prevention Barbarian Ordinances (防范外夷規條.) The Cohong families were particularly powerful in the Old China
China
Trade , as they were tasked with appraising the value of foreign products, purchasing or rebuffing said imports, and tasked with selling Chinese exports at an appropriate price.

Despite restrictions, silk and porcelain continued to drive trade through their popularity in the Europe, and an insatiable demand for Chinese tea existed in Britain. These market forces resulted in a chronic trade deficit for European governments, who were forced to risk silver shortages in their domestic economies to supply the needs of their merchants in Asia (who as private enterprises still turned a profit by selling valuable Chinese goods to consumers in Europe.) From the mid-17th century onward around 28 million kilograms of silver were received by China, principally from European powers, in exchange for Chinese products. Chinese opium smokers

TRADE PHILOSOPHY AND POLICY

Economic and social innovation led to a change in the parameters of the Sino-European trade. The formulation of Classical economics by Adam Smith
Adam Smith
and other economic theorists caused academic belief in mercantilism to decline in Britain. Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
Britain began to use its naval power to spread a broadly liberal economic model encompassing open markets and relatively barrier free international trade, a policy in line with the teachings of smithian economics . This stance on trade was intended to open foreign markets to the resources of Britain's colonies, as well as provide the British public with greater access to consumer goods.

Qing China
China
followed a Confucian -Modernist economic philosophy that called for strict government intervention in industry for the sake of preserving societal stability. While the Qing state was not explicitly anti-trade, a perceived lack of need for imports limited pressure on the government to open further ports to international trade. Qing China's rigid merchant hierarchy also blocked efforts to open ports to foreign ships and businesses. Chinese merchants away from the coast wanted to avoid market fluctuations caused by importing foreign goods that would compete with domestic production, while the Hong houses of Canton profited greatly by keeping their city the only entry point for foreign products. The Cohong was made up of between (depending on the politics of Canton) 6 to 10 merchant families. Most of the houses had been established by low-ranking mandarins, but several were Cantonese or Han in origin.

Continued economic expansion in 17th and 18th century Europe increased the European demand for precious metals, raising prices and reducing the supply of bullion available for trade in China. The British Great Recoinage of 1816
Great Recoinage of 1816
coupled with the adoption of the gold standard in 1821 resulted in the empire minting silver shillings, further reducing the availability of silver for trade in Asia. The decline in silver supplies sapped the ability of European merchants to purchase Chinese goods, which remained in high demand. Merchants were no longer able to sustain the China
China
trade purely through profits made by selling Chinese goods in the west and were forced to take bullion out of circulation in Europe to buy goods in China. This angered governments and fostered a great deal of animosity towards the Chinese. The Chinese economy was unaffected by fluctuations in silver prices, as China
China
was able to import silver from Japan to stabilize its money supply. European goods remained in low demand in China, ensuring a trade surplus with European nations. Despite these tensions, trade between China
China
and Europe grew by an estimated 4% annually in the years leading up to the start of the opium trade. The Thirteen Factories district of Canton grew, and was labeled the "foreign quarter." A small population of merchants began to stay in Canton year round, and a local chamber of commerce was formed.

At the turn of the 18th-century countries such as Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Russia, and the United States began to seek additional trading rights in China. Foremost among the concerns of the western nations was the end of the Canton System and the opening of China's vast consumer markets to trade. Britain in particular was keen on reducing its trade deficit, as the empire's implementation of the gold standard forced it to purchase silver from continental Europe and Mexico to satisfy domestic demand and British traders in China. The perpetual expenditure of British bullion on Chinese products limited the amount of currency in British circulation, weakening the domestic economy, preventing economic growth and causing deflation . Attempts by a British embassy (led by Macartney in 1793), a Dutch mission (under Van Braam in 1794), Russia's Golovkin in 1805 and the British again (Amherst in 1816) to negotiate increased access to the Chinese market were all vetoed by successive Qing Emperors. Upon his meeting the Jiaqing Emperor in 1816, Amherst refused to perform the traditional kowtow , an act that the Qing saw as a severe breach of etiquette . Amherst and his party were expelled from China, a diplomatic rebuke that angered the British government.

OPIUM TRADE

See also: History of opium in China
China

Opium
Opium
as a medicinal ingredient was documented in Chinese texts as early as the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, but the recreational usage of the narcotic was limited. The Ming Dynasty had banned tobacco in 1640, and opium was seen as a similarly minor issue. The first restrictions of the drug were passed by the Qing in 1729 when Madak (blended opium and tobacco) was banned, at which time pure opium could only be found in small amounts due to it being difficult to preserve. Consumption of Javanese opium rose in the 18th century, and after the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the British occupying Java
Java
, British merchants became the primary traders in opium. The British realized they could reduce their trade deficit by counter-trading in narcotic opium, and as such efforts were made to produce more opium in the Indian colonies. Limited British sales of opium began in 1781, with exports to China increasing as the East India Company
East India Company
solidified its control over India.

The British opium was produced in the traditionally cotton-growing regions of India in Bengal
Bengal
and the Ganges River Plain . The East India Company itself neither produced nor shipped opium, but did set the horticultural laws allowing for opium cultivation and actively facilitating the transport of the drug. From Calcutta
Calcutta
, the company's " Opium
Opium
Board" concerned itself with quality control by managing the way opium was packaged and shipped. The board issued licencees to the independent princely states of Malwa
Malwa
, where significant quantities of opium was grown by free or tenant-caste farmers. Both company and Malwan farmlands (traditionally dependent on cotton growing) had been hard hit by the introduction of factory-produced cotton cloth, which used cotton grown in Egypt
Egypt
or the American South . Opium
Opium
was considered a lucrative replacement good, and was auctioned in large amounts at Calcutta. Private merchants who possessed a company charter (to comply with the British royal charter for Asiatic trade) bid on and acquired goods at the Calcutta
Calcutta
auction before sailing to Southern China. British ships brought their cargoes to islands off the coast, especially Lintin Island , where Chinese traders with fast and well-armed small boats took the goods inland for distribution, paying for them with silver. The Qing administration initially tolerated opium importation because it created an indirect tax on Chinese subjects, for increasing the silver supply available to foreign merchants through the sale of opium encouraged Europeans to spend more money on Chinese goods. This policy allowed the British to double tea exports from China
China
to England, thereby profiting the Qing monopoly on tea exports held by the imperial treasury and its agents in Canton. However, opium usage continued to grow in China, adversely affecting societal stability. These factors led to the Qing government issuing an edict against the drug in 1780, followed by an outright ban in 1796, and an order from the governor of Canton to stop the trade in 1799. To circumnavigate the increasingly stringent regulations in Canton, foreign merchants bought older ships and converted them into floating warehouses. These ships were anchored off of the Chinese coast at the mouth of the Pearl River in case the Chinese authorities moved against the opium trade, as the ships of the Chinese navy had difficulty operating in open water. Inbound opium ships would unload a portion of their cargo at these floating warehouse, where the narcotic was eventually purchased by Chinese opium dealers. By implementing this system of smuggling, foreign merchants could avoid inspection by Chinese officials and prevent retaliation against the trade of their fellow merchants. However, the majority of the opium being traded in Canton prior to 1822 was transported directly upriver to Canton. Opium
Opium
ships at Lintin , China, 1824 East India Company warehouse stocked with opium. Graph showing the increase in Chinese opium imports by year.

In the early 19th century American merchants joined the trade and began to introduce opium from Turkey into the Chinese market — this was of lesser quality but cheaper to produce, and the resulting competition among British and American merchants drove down the price of opium, leading to an increase in the availability of the drug for Chinese consumers. The demand for opium rose rapidly and was so profitable in China
China
that Chinese opium dealers (who, unlike European merchants, could legally sell goods in the Chinese interior) began to seek out more suppliers for the drug. The resulting shortage in supply drew more European merchants into the increasingly lucrative opium trade to meet the Chinese demand. In the words of one trading house agent, " it is like gold. I can sell it anytime." From 1804 to 1820, a period when the Qing treasury needed to finance the suppression of rebellions , the flow of money gradually reversed, and Chinese merchants were soon exporting silver to pay for opium rather than Europeans paying for Chinese goods with the precious metal. European and American ships were able to arrive in Canton with their holds filled with opium, sell their cargo, use the proceeds to buy Chinese goods, and turn a profit in the form of silver bullion. This silver would then be used to acquire further goods in China
China
or shipped back to Europe. While opium remained the most profitable good to trade with China, foreign merchants began to export other cargoes, such as machine-spun cotton cloth, rattan , ginseng , fur, clocks, and steel tools. However, these goods never reached the same level of importance as narcotics, nor were they as lucrative.

The Qing imperial court debated whether or how to end the opium trade, but their efforts to curtail opium abuse were complicated by local officials (including the Governor-general of Canton) and the Cohong, who profited greatly from the bribes and taxes involved in the narcotics trade. Efforts by Qing officials to curb opium imports through regulations on consumption resulted in an increase in drug smuggling by European and Chinese traders. In 1810 the Daoguang Emperor issued an edict concerning the matter, declaring,

Opium
Opium
has a harm. Opium
Opium
is a poison, undermining our good customs and morality. Its use is prohibited by law. Now the commoner, Yang, dares to bring it into the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
. Indeed, he flouts the law! However, recently the purchasers, eaters, and consumers of opium have become numerous. Deceitful merchants buy and sell it to gain profit. The customs house at the Ch'ung-wen Gate was originally set up to supervise the collection of imports (it had no responsibility with regard to opium smuggling). If we confine our search for opium to the seaports, we fear the search will not be sufficiently thorough. We should also order the general commandant of the police and police- censors at the five gates to prohibit opium and to search for it at all gates. If they capture any violators, they should immediately punish them and should destroy the opium at once. As to Kwangtung and Fukien , the provinces from which opium comes, we order their viceroys, governors, and superintendents of the maritime customs to conduct a thorough search for opium, and cut off its supply. They should in no ways consider this order a dead letter and allow opium to be smuggled out!

A significant development came in 1834 when reformers in England who advocated for free trade succeeded in ending the monopoly of the British East India Company
East India Company
under the Charter Act of the previous year. This shift in trade policy opened the British China
China
trade to private entrepreneurs, many of whom joined the highly profitable opium trade.

On the eve of the government crackdown on opium, a Chinese official described the changes in society caused by the drug;

At the beginning, opium smoking was confined to the fops of wealthy families who took up the habit as a form of conspicuous consumption, even they knew that they should not indulge in it to the greatest extreme. Later, people of all social strata—from government officials and members of the gentry to craftsmen, merchants, entertainers, and servants, and even women, Buddhist monks and nuns, and Taoist priests—took up the habit and openly bought and equipped themselves with smoking instruments. Even in the center of our dynasty—the nation’s capital and its surrounding areas—some of the inhabitants have also been contaminated by this dreadful poison.

Napier Affair

In late 1834, to accommodate the revocation of the East India Company's monopoly, the British sent Lord William John Napier to Macau along with John Francis Davis and Sir George Best Robinson, 2nd Baronet as British superintendents of trade in China. Napier was instructed to obey Chinese regulations, communicate directly with Chinese authorities, superintend trade pertaining to the contraband trade of opium, and to survey China's coastline. Upon his arrival in China, Napier tried to circumvent the restrictive system that forbade direct contact with Chinese officials by sending a letter directly to the Viceroy of Canton. The Viceroy refused to accept it, and on 2 September of that year an edict was issued that temporarily closed British trade. In response, Napier ordered two Royal Navy
Royal Navy
vessels to bombard Chinese forts on the Pearl River in a show of nautical force. This command was followed through, but war was avoided due to Napier falling ill with typhus and ordering a retreat. The brief gunnery duel drew condemnation by the Chinese government, as well as criticism from the British government and foreign merchants. Other nationalities, such as the Americans, prospered through their continued peaceful trade with China, but the British were told to leave Canton for either Whampoa or Macau. Lord Napier was forced to return to Macau, where he died of typhus a few days later. After Lord Napier's death, Captain Charles Elliot
Charles Elliot
received the King's Commission as Superintendent of Trade in 1836 to continue Napier's work of conciliating the Chinese.

ESCALATION OF TENSIONS

CRACKDOWN ON OPIUM

Main article: Destruction of opium at Humen Commissioner Lin Zexu, dubbed "Lin of Clear Skies" for his moral integrity. Lin Zexu 's "memorial" (摺奏) written directly to Queen Victoria

By 1838, the British were selling roughly 1,400 tons of opium per year to China. Legalization of the opium trade was the subject of ongoing debate within the Chinese administration, but it was repeatedly rejected, and in 1838 the government began to actively sentence native drug traffickers to death. It has been estimated that by the start of the Qing crackdown on opium, 27% of the male Chinese population was actively consuming opium.

In 1839 the Daoguang Emperor appointed scholar-official Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu
to the post of Special
Special
Imperial Commissioner with the task of eradicating the opium trade. Lin wrote an open letter to Queen Victoria questioning the moral reasoning of the British government. Citing what he understood to be a strict prohibition of the trade within Great Britain, Lin questioned how Britain could declare itself moral while its merchants profited from the legal sale in China
China
of a drug that was banned in Britain. He wrote: "Your Majesty has not before been thus officially notified, and you may plead ignorance of the severity of our laws, but I now give my assurance that we mean to cut this harmful drug forever." The letter never reached the Queen, with one source suggesting that it was lost in transit. Lin pledged that nothing would divert him from his mission, "If the traffic in opium were not stopped a few decades from now we shall not only be without soldiers to resist the enemy, but also in want of silver to provide an army." Lin banned the sale of opium and demanded that all supplies of the drug be surrendered to the Chinese authorities. He also closed the Pearl River Channel , trapping British traders in Canton. As well as seizing opium stockpiles in warehouses and the thirteen factories, Chinese troops boarded British ships in the Pearl River and South China
China
Sea before destroying the opium on board.

The British Superintendent of Trade in China, Charles Elliot
Charles Elliot
, protested the decision to forcibly seize the opium stockpiles. He ordered all ships carrying opium to flee and prepare for battle. Lin responded by quarantining the foreign dealers in their warehouses, and kept them from communicating with their ships in port. To defuse the situation, Elliot convinced the British traders to cooperate with Chinese authorities and hand over their opium stockpiles with the promise of eventual compensation for their losses by the British government. While this amounted to a tacit acknowledgment that the British government did not disapprove of the trade, it also placed a huge liability on the exchequer. This promise, and the inability of the British government to pay it without causing a political storm, was an important casus belli for the subsequent British offensive. During April and May 1839, British and American dealers surrendered 20,283 chests and 200 sacks of opium. The stockpile was publicly destroyed on the beach outside of Guangzhou. Contemporary Chinese depiction of the destruction of opium under Commissioner Lin.

After the opium was surrendered, trade was restarted on the strict condition that no more opium be shipped into China. Looking for a way to effectively police foreign trade and purge corruption, Lin and his advisers decided to reform the existing bond system. Under this system, an incoming foreign captain and the Cohong merchant whom had purchased the goods off of his ship swore that the vessel carried no illegal goods. Upon examining the records of the port, Lin was infuriated to find that in the 20 years since opium had been declared illegal, not a single infraction had been reported. As a consequence, Lin demanded that all foreign merchants and Qing officials sign a new bond promising not to deal in opium under penalty of death. The British government opposed their signing of the bond, feeling that it violated the principle of free trade, but some merchants who did not trade in opium (such as Olyphant "> 1841 painting of the Chinese fort at Kowloon.

Angered by the violation of China's sovereignty, Lin recalled Chinese laborers from Macau
Macau
and issued an edict preventing the sale of food to the British. War Junks were deployed to the mouth of the Pearl River, while signs were placed and rumors spread by the Qing that they had poisoned the freshwater springs traditional used to restock foreign merchant ships. On 23 August a ship belonging to a prominent opium merchant was attacked by lascar pirates while traveling downriver from Canton to Macau. Rumors spread among the British that it had been Chinese soldiers who had attacked the ship, and Elliot ordered all British ships to leave the coast of China
China
by 24 August. That same day the Portuguese colony barred British ships from its harbor at the request of Lin. The commissioner traveled in person to the city, where he was welcomed by some of the inhabitants as a hero who had restored law and order. The flight from Macau
Macau
ensured that by the end of August over 60 British ships and over 2000 people were idling off of the Chinese coast, fast running out of provisions. On 30 August HMS Volage arrived to defend the fleet from a potential Chinese attack, and Elliot warned Qing authorities in Kowloon
Kowloon
that the embargo on food and water must be ended soon.

Early on 4 September Elliot dispatched an armed schooner and a cutter to Kowloon
Kowloon
to buy provisions from Chinese peasants. The two ships approached three Chinese war junks in the harbor and requested permission to land men in order to procure supplies. The British were allowed through and basic necessities were provided to the British by Chinese sailors, but the Chinese commander inside Kowloon
Kowloon
fort refused to allow the locals to trade with the British and confined the townspeople inside the settlement. The situation grew more intense as the day went on, and in the afternoon Elliot issued an ultimatum that, if the Chinese refused to allow the British to purchase supplies, they would be fired upon. A 3:00 pm deadline set by Elliot past and the British ships opened fire on the Chinese vessels. The junks returned fire, and Chinese gunners on land began to fire at the British ships. Nightfall ended the battle, and the Chinese junks withdrew, ending what would be known as the Battle of Kowloon . Many British officers wanted to launch a land attack on Kowloon
Kowloon
fort the next day, but Elliot decided against it, stating that such an action would cause "great injury and irritation" to the town's inhabitants. After the skirmish, Elliot circulated a paper in Kowloon, reading;

The men of the English nation desire nothing but peace; but they cannot submit to be poisoned and starved. The Imperial cruizers they have no wish to molest or impede; but they must not prevent the people from selling. To deprive men of food is the act only of the unfriendly and hostile.

Having driven off the Chinese ships, the British fleet began to purchase provisions from the local villagers, often with the aid of bribed Chinese officials in Kowloon. Lai Enjue , the local commander at Kowloon, declared that a victory had been won against the British. He claimed that a two masted British warship had been sunk, and that 40-50 British had been killed. He also reported that the British had been unable to acquire supplies, and his reports severely understated the strength of the Royal Navy.

FIRST BATTLE OF CHUENPI

In late October 1839 the merchant ship Thomas Coutts arrived in China and sailed to Canton. Thomas Coutts's Quaker owners refused on religious grounds to deal in opium, a fact which the Chinese authorities were aware of. The ship's captain, Warner, believed Elliot had exceeded his legal authority by banning the signing of the "no opium trade" bond, and negotiated with the governor of Canton. Warner hoped that all British ships not carrying opium could negotiate to legally unload their goods at Chuenpi, an island near Humen .

To prevent other British ships from following Thomas Coutts's precedent, Elliot ordered a blockade of British shipping in the Pearl River . Fighting began on 3 November 1839, when a second British ship, Royal Saxon , attempted to sail to Canton. The British Royal Navy ships HMS Volage and HMS Hyacinth fired warning shots at Royal Saxon. In response to this commotion, a fleet of Chinese war junks under the command of Guan Tianpei sailed out to protect Royal Saxon. The ensuing First Battle of Chuenpi resulted in the destruction of 4 Chinese war junks and the withdrawal of both fleets. The Qing navy's official report on the Battle of Chuenpi claimed that the navy had protected the British merchant vessel and reported a great victory for the day. In reality, the Chinese had been out-classed by the British vessels and several Chinese ships were disabled. Elliot reported that his squadron was protecting the 29 British ships in Chuenpi, and began to prepare for the Qing reprisal. Fearing that the Chinese would reject any contacts with the British and eventually attack with fire rafts, he ordered all ships to leave Chuenpi and head for Tung Lo Wan , 20 miles (30 km) from Macau, hoping that offshore anchorages would be out of range of Lin. Elliot asked Adrião Acácio da Silveira Pinto , the Portuguese governor of Macau, to let British ships load and unload their goods there in exchange for paying rents and any duties. The governor refused for fear that the Chinese would discontinue supplying food and other necessities to Macau, and on 14 January 1840 the Daoguang Emperor asked all foreigners to halt material assistance to the British. Southern China
China
began to prepare for a minor war to push the remaining British out of the region.

REACTION IN BRITAIN

Parliamentary Debates

Following the Chinese crackdown on the opium trade, discussion arose as to how Britain would respond, as the public in the United States and Britain had previously expressed outrage that Britain was supporting the opium trade. Many British citizens sympathized with the Chinese and wanted to halt the sale of opium, while others want to contain or regulate the international narcotics trade. However, a great deal of anger was expressed over the treatment of British diplomats and towards the protectionist trading policies of Qing China. The Whig controlled government in particular advocated for war with China, and the pro-Whig press printed stories about Chinese "despotism and cruelty."

Since August 1839, reports had been published in London newspapers about troubles at Canton and the impending war with China. The Queen's Annual Address to the House of Lords on 16 January 1840 expressed the concern that "Events have happened in China
China
which have occasioned an interruption of the commercial intercourse of my subjects with that country. I have given, and shall continue to give, the most serious attention to a mater so deeply affecting the interests of my subjects and the dignity of my Crown.". The Whig Melbourne Government was then in a weak political situation. On a motion of non-confidence moved in the House of Commons by the Tory Opposition John Buller, the Government survived the vote on 31 January 1840 by a majority of 21 (308 votes against vs 287 votes for). The Tories saw the China Question as a good opportunity to beat the Government, and James Graham moved a motion on 7 April 1840 in the House of Commons, censuring the Government not on the impending war with China
China
nor the opium trade, but on the Government's "want of foresight and precaution" and "their neglect to furnish the superintendent at Canton with powers and instructions" to deal with the opium trade. This was a deliberate move of the Tories to avoid the sensitive issues of war and opium trade and to obtain maximum support for the motion within the party.

Calls for military action were met with mixed responses when the matter went before Parliament. Foreign Secretary Palmerston , a politician known for his aggressive foreign policy and advocacy for free trade, led the pro war camp. Palmerston strongly believed that the destroyed opium should be considered property, not contraband, and as such reparations had to be made for its destruction. He justified military action by saying that no one could "say that he honestly believed the motive of the Chinese Government to have been the promotion of moral habits" and that the war was being fought to stem China's balance of payments deficit. After consulting with William Jardine, the foreign secretary drafted a letter to Prime Minister William Melbourne calling for a military response. Other merchants called for an opening of free trade with China, and it was commonly cited that the Chinese consumers were the driving factor of the opium trade. The periodic expulsion of British merchants from Canton and the refusal of the Qing government to treat Britain as a diplomatic equal were seen as a slight to national pride. Few Tory or liberal politicians supported the war. Sir James Graham , Lord Phillip Stanhope , and future Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone
headed the anti-war faction in Britain, and denounced the ethics of the opium trade. After three days of debate, the vote was taken on Graham's motion on 9 April 1840, which was defeated by a majority of only 9 votes (262 votes for vs 271 votes against ). The Tories in the House of Commons thus failed to deter the Government from proceeding with the war and stop the British warships already on their way to China. A similar motion moved by Earl Stanhope in the House of Lords on 12 May 1840 also failed to pass. The House of Commons finally agreed on 27 July 1840 to a resolution of granting £173,442 for the expenses of the expedition to China, long after the war with China
China
had broken out.

Cabinet Decision And Palmerston Letters

Under strong pressure and lobbying from various trade and manufacturer associations, the Whig cabinet under Prime Minister Melbourne decided on 1 October 1839 to send an expedition to China. War preparations then began.

In early November 1839, the Foreign Secretary Palmerston instructed Auckland, Governor General of India, to prepare forces for China. On 20 February 1840 Palmerston (who remained unaware of the First Battle of Chuenpi in November 1839) drafted two letters detailing the British response to the situation in China. One letter was addressed to the Elliots, the other to the Daoguang Emperor and the Qing government. The letter to the Emperor informed China
China
that Great Britain had sent a military expeditionary force to the Chinese coast. In the letter, Palmerston stated that,

These measures of hostility on the part of Great Britain against China
China
are not only justified, but even rendered absolutely necessary, by the outrages which have been committed by the Chinese Authorities against British officers and Subjects, and these hostilities will not cease, until a satisfactory arrangement shall have been made by the Chinese Government.

In his letter to the Elliots, Palmerston instructed the commanders to set up a blockade of the Pearl River and forward to a Chinese official the letter from Palmerston addressing the Chinese Emperor. They were to then capture the Chusan Islands, blockade the mouth of the Yangtze River, start negotiations with Qing officials, and finally sail the fleet into the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
, where they would send another copy of the aforementioned letter to Beijing. Palmerston also issued a list of objectives that the British government wanted accomplished, with said objectives being:

* Demand to be treated with the respect due to a royal envoy by the Qing authorities. * Secure the right of the British superintendent to administer justice to British subjects in China. * Seek recompense for destroyed British property. * Gain most favored trading status with the Chinese government. * Request the right for foreigners to safely inhabit and own private property in China. * Ensure that, while contraband can be seized in accordance with Chinese law, no harm comes to the person(s) of British subjects carrying illicit goods in China. * End the system by which British merchants are restricted to trading solely in Canton. * Ask that the cities of Canton, Amoy, Shanghai, Ningpo, and the province of northern Formosa be freely opened to trade from all foreign powers. * Secure island(s) along the Chinese coast that can be easily defended and provisioned, or exchange captured islands for favorable trading terms.

Lord Palmerston left it to Superintendent Elliot's discretion as to how these objectives would be fulfilled, but noted that while negotiation would be a preferable outcome, he did not trust that diplomacy would succeed, writing;

To sum up in a few words the result of this Instruction, you will see, from what I have stated, that the British Government demands from that of China
China
satisfaction for the past and security for the future; and does not choose to trust to negotiation for obtaining either of these things; but has sent out a Naval and Military Force with orders to begin at once to take the Measures necessary for attaining the object in view.

WAR

OPENING MOVES

Engagement between British and Chinese ships in the First Battle of Chuenpi, 1839.

The Chinese Naval forces in Canton were under the command of Admiral Guan Tianpei , who had fought the British at Chuenpi. The Qing southern army and garrisons were under the command of General Yang Fang . Overall command was invested in the Daoguang Emperor and his court. The Chinese government initially believed that, as in the 1834 Nappier Affair, the British had been successfully expelled. Few preparations were made for a British reprisal, and the events leading to the eventual outbreak of the Sino-Sikh War
Sino-Sikh War
in 1841 were seen as a greater cause for concern.

Left without a major base of operations in China, the British withdrew their merchant shipping from the region while maintaining the Royal Navy's China
China
squadron in the islands around the mouth of the Pearl River. From London, Palmerston continued to dictate operations in China, ordering the East India Company
East India Company
to divert troops from India in preparation for a limited war against the Chinese. It was decided that the war would not be fought as a full-scale conflict, but rather as a punitive expedition . Superintendent Elliot remained in charge of Britains interests in China, while Commodore James Bremer led the Royal Marines and the China
China
Squadron. Major General Hugh Gough was selected to command the British land forces, and was promoted to overall commander of British forces in China. The cost of the war would be paid by the British Government. Per Lord Palmerston's letter, plans were drawn up by the British to launch a series of attacks on Chinese ports and rivers.

Plans to form an expeditionary were started immediately after the January 1840 vote. Several infantry regiments were raised in the British isles, and the completion of ships already under construction was expedited. To conduct the upcoming war, Britain also began to draw on forces from its overseas Empire. British India had been preparing for a war since word had arrived that the opium had been destroyed, and several regiments of Bengali volunteers had been recruited to supplement the regular British Indian Army and East India Company forces. In terms of naval forces, the ships earmarked for the expedition were either posted in remote colonies or under repair, and Oriental Crisis of 1840
Oriental Crisis of 1840
(and the resulting risk of war between Britain, France, and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
over Syria) drew the attention of the Royal Navy's European fleets away from China. Orders where dispatched to British South Africa and Australia to send ships to Singapore, the assigned rendezvous point for the expedition. A number of steamers were purchased by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and attached to the expedition as transports. The unseasonable summer weather of India and the Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca
slowed the British deployment, and a number of accidents decreased the combat readiness of the expedition. Most notably, both of the 74-gun ships of the line that the Royal Navy intended to use against Chinese fortifications were temporarily put out of action by hull damage. Despite delays, by mid-June 1840 British forces had begun to assemble in Singapore. While they waited for more ships to arrive, the Royal Marines practiced amphibious invasions on the beach, first by landing ashore in boats, then forming lines and advancing on mock fortifications.

BRITISH OFFENSIVE BEGINS

Capture of Chusan , July 1840

In late June 1840 the first part of the expeditionary force arrived in China
China
aboard 15 barracks ships, four steam-powered gunboats and 25 smaller boats reached the mouth of the Pearl River. The flotilla was under the command of Commodore Bremer. The British issued an ultimatum demanding the Qing Government pay compensation for losses suffered from interrupted trade and the destruction of opium, but were rebuffed by the Qing authorities in Canton.

In his letters, Palmerston had instructed the joint plenipotentiaries Elliot and his cousin Admiral George Elliot to acquire the cession of at least one island for trade on the Chinese coast. With the British expeditionary force now in place, a combined naval and ground assault was launched on the Chusan Archipelago. Zhoushan
Zhoushan
Island , the largest and best defended of the islands was the primary target for the attack, as was its vital port of Dinghai . When the British fleet arrived off of Zhoushan, Elliot demanded the city surrender. The commander of the Chinese garrison refused the command, stating that he could not surrender and questioning what reason the British had for harassing Dinghai, as they had been driven out of Canton. Fighting began, a fleet of 12 small junks were destroyed by the Royal navy, and British marines captured the hills to the south of the Dinghai. The British captured the city itself after an intense naval bombardment on 5 July forced the surviving Chinese defenders to withdraw. The British occupied Dinghai harbor and prepared to use it as a staging point for operations in China. In the fall of 1840 disease broke out in the Dinghai garrison, forcing the British to evacuate soldiers to Manila
Manila
and Calcutta
Calcutta
. By the beginning of 1841 only 1900 of the 3300 men whom had original occupied Dinghai were left, with many of those remaining having been rendered incapable of fighting. An estimated 500 British soldiers died from disease, with the Cameron and Bengali volunteers suffering the most deaths as opposed to the Royal Marines, who were relatively unscathed.

Having captured Dinghai, the British expedition divided it's forces, sending on fleet south to the Pearl River while sending a second fleet north to the Yellow Sea. The northern fleet sailed to Peiho , where Elliot presented Palmerston's letter to the Emperor in person. Qishan (ᡴᡳᡧᠠᠨ), replaced Lin as the Viceroy of Liangguang
Viceroy of Liangguang
after Lin was discharged for his failure to resolve the opium situation. Negotiations began between the two sides, with Qishan serving as the primary negotiator for the Qing. After a week of negotiations, Qishan and Elliot agreed to relocate to the Pearl River. In return for the courtesy of the British to withdraw from the Yellow Sea, Qishan promised to requisition imperial funds as restitution for British Merchants whom had suffered damages. The war, however, was not concluded and both sides continued to engage each-other. In the late spring of 1841 reinforcements arrived from India in preparation for an offensive against Canton. A flotilla of transports brought 600 men of the professionally-trained 37th Madras
Madras
Native Infantry to Dinghai, where their arrival boosted British morale. Accompanying the fleet as far as Macau
Macau
was the newly constructed iron steamer HMS Nemesis, a weapon against which the Chinese navy had no effective defense. On 19 August three British warships and 380 marines drove the Chinese from the land bridge (known as "The Barrier") separating Macau
Macau
from the Chinese mainland. The defeat of the Qing soldiers coupled with the arrival of the Nemesis in Macau's harbor resulted in a wave of pro-British support in the city, and several Qing officials were driven out or killed. Portugal remained neutral in the conflict, but after the battle was willing to allow British ships to dock in Macau, a decision that granted the British a functioning port in Southern China. With the strategic harbors of Dinghai and Macau
Macau
secured, the British began to focus on the war in southern China. Five months after the British victory at Chusan, the northern elements of the expedition sailed south to Humen , known to the British as The Bogue. Bremer judged that gaining control of the Pearl River and Canton would put the British in a strong negotiating position with the Qing authorities, as well as allow for the renewal of trade when the war ended.

PEARL RIVER CAMPAIGN

While the British campaigned in the north, Qing Admiral Guan Taipei greatly reinforced the Qing positions in Humen, suspecting (sources state that Guan had been preparing for an eventual attack on the position since Napier's attack in 1835) that the British would attempt to force their way up the Pearl River to Canton. The Humen forts blocked transit of the river, and were garrisoned with 3000 men and 306 cannon. By the time the British fleet was ready for action, 10000 Qing soldiers were in position to defend Canton and the surrounding area. The British fleet arrived in early January, and began to bombard the Qing defenses at Chuenpi after a group of Chinese fire-rafts were sent drifting towards the Royal navy ships. On 7 January 1841 the British won a decisive victory in the Second Battle of Chuenpi , destroying 11 Junks of the Chinese southern fleet and capturing the Humen forts. The victory allowed the British to set up a blockade of The Bogue, a blow that forced the Qing navy to retreat upriver.

Knowing the strategic value of Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
to China
China
and aware that British naval superiority made a reconquest of the region unlikely, Qishan attempted to prevent the war for widening further by negotiating a peace treaty with Britain. On 21 January Qishan and Elliot drafted the Convention of Chuenpi
Convention of Chuenpi
, a document which both parties hoped would end the war. The convention would establish equal diplomatic rights between Britain and China, exchange Hong Kong Island for Chusan, and reopen trade in Canton by 1 February 1841. China
China
would also pay six millions of silver dollars as recompense for the opium destroyed at Humen in 1838. The status of the opium trade was left open to be discussed at a future date. Despite the success of the negotiations between Qishan and Elliot, both of their respective governments refused to sign the convention. The Daoguang Emperor was infuriated that Qing territory would be given up in a treaty that had been signed without his permission, and ordered Qishan arrested (who was later sentenced to death, then commuted to military service.) Lord Palmerston recalled Elliot from his post and refused to sign the convention, wanting more concessions to be forced from the Chinese per his original instructions. British ships approaching Canton in May 1841

The brief interlude in the fighting ended in the beginning of February after the Chinese refused to reopen Canton to British trade. On 19 February a longboat from HMS Nemesis came under fire from a fort on North Wangtong Island , prompting a British response. The British commanders ordered another blockade of the Pearl River and resumed combat operations against the Chinese. The British captured the remaining Bogue forts on 26 February during the Battle of the Bogue and the Battle of First Bar on the following day, allowing the fleet to move further upriver towards Canton. Admiral Taipei was killed in action during the fighting on 26 February. On 2 March the British destroyed a Qing fort near Pazhou
Pazhou
and captured Whamoa , an action that directly threatened Canton's east flank. The attack on Whamoa was directed in person by Major General Gough, who had recently arrived from Madras
Madras
aboard HMS Cruizer . Superintendent Elliot (who was unaware that he had been dismissed) and the Governor-General of Canton declared a 3-day truce on 3 March. Between the 3rd and the 6th the British forces that had evacuated Chusan per the Convention of Chuenpi arrived in the Pearl River. The Chinese military was likewise reinforced, and by 16 March General Yang Fang commanded 30,000 men in the area surrounding Canton.

While the main British fleet prepared to sail up the Pearl River to Canton, a group of three warships departed for the Xi River
Xi River
estuary, intending to navigate the waterway between Macau
Macau
and Canton. The fleet, led by Captain James Scott and Superintendent Elliot, was composed of the frigate HMS Samarang and the steamships HMS Nemesis and HMS Atalanta . Though the waterway was in places only 6 feet deep, the shallow drafts of the steamships allowed the British to approach Canton from a direction the Qing believed to be impossible. In a series of engagements along the river from March 13-15th, the British captured or destroyed Chinese ships, guns, and military equipment. 9 junks, 6 fortresses, and 105 guns were destroyed or captured in what was known as the Broadway expedition . British map of the Pearl River.

With the Pearl River cleared of Chinese defenses, the British debated advancing on Canton. Though the truce had ended on 6 March, Superintendent Elliot believed that the British should negotiate with the Qing authorities from their current position of strength rather than risk a battle in Canton. The Qing army made no aggressive moves against the British and instead began to fortify the city. Chinese military engineers began to establish a number of mud earthworks on the riverbank, sank junks to create riverblocks , and started constructing fire rafts and gunboats. Chinese merchants were ordered to remove all of the silk and tea from Canton to impede trade, and the local populace was barred from selling food to the British ships on the river. On 16 March a British ship approaching a Chinese fort under a flag of truce was fired upon, leading to the British setting the fort on fire with rockets. These actions convinced Elliot that the Chinese were preparing to fight, and following the return of the ships of the Broadway expedition to the fleet, the British attacked Canton on 18 March, taking the Thirteen Factories with very few casualties and raising the Union Jack
Union Jack
above the British factory. The city was partially occupied by the British and trade was reopened after negotiation with the Cohong merchants. After several days of further military successes, British forces commanded the high ground around Canton. Another truce was declared on 20 March. Against the advice of some of his captains, Elliot withdrew most of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
warships downriver to the Bocca Tigris. Sketch of British soldiers occupying the high ground above Canton in 1841.

In mid April Yishan (Qishan's replacement and the Daoguang Emperor's cousin) arrived in Canton. He declared that trade should continue to remain open, sent emissaries to Elliot, and began to gather military assets outside Canton. The Qing army camped outside of the city soon numbered 50,000, and the money earned from the reopened trade was spent repairing and expanding Canton's defenses. Concealed artillery batteries were built along the Pear River, Chinese soldiers were deployed in Whampoa and the Bocca Tigris, and hundreds of small river craft were armed for war. A bulletin sent from the Daoguang Emperor commanded the Qing forces to "Exterminate the rebels at all points," and orders were given to drive the British from the Pearl River before reclaiming Hong Kong and driving the invaders out of China
China
altogether. This order was leaked and became widely circulated in Canton among foreign merchants, who were already suspicious of Chinese intentions after learning of the Qing military buildup. In May many Cohong merchants and their families left the city, raising further concerns about a renewal of hostilities. Rumors spread that Chinese divers were being trained to drill holes in the hulls of British ships, and that fleets of fire rafts were being prepared for deployment against the Royal Navy. During the buildup the Qing army was weakened by infighting between units and lack of confidence in Yishan, who openly distrusted Cantonese civilians and soldiers, instead choosing to rely on forces drawn from other Chinese provinces. On 20 May Yishan issued a statement, asking the "people of Canton, and all foreign merchants who are respectfully obedient, not to tremble with alarm and be frightened out of their wits at the military hosts that are gathering around, there being no probability of hostilities." The next day Elliot requested that all British merchants evacuate the city by sundown, and several warships were recalled to their positions in front of Canton.

On the night of 21 May the Qing launched a coordinated night attack on the British army and navy. Artillery batteries hidden in Canton and on the Pearl River (many of which the British believed they had disabled earlier) opened fire, and Qing soldiers retook the British Factory. A large formation of 200 fire rafts connected by a chain was sent drifting towards the British ships at Canton, and fishing boats armed with matchlock guns began to engage the Royal Navy. The British warships were able to evade the attack, and stray rafts set Canton's waterfront on fire, illuminating the river and foiling the night attack. Downriver at Whamoa the Chinese attacked the British vessels at anchor there and attempted to prevent ships from reaching Canton. Having suspected an attack, (and as a consequence delaying his own offensive) Major General Gough consolidated the British forces at Hong Kong and ordered a rapid advance upriver to Canton. These reinforcements arrived on 25 May, and the British counter-attacked, taking the last four Qing forts above Canton and bombarding the city. The Qing army fled in panic when the city heights were taken, and the British pursued them into the countryside. On 29 May a crowd of around 20,000 Cantonese villagers and townspeople attacked and defeated a company of 60 Indian sepoys in what became known as the Sanyuanli Incident , and Gough ordered a retreat back to the river. The fighting subsided on 30 May 1841 and Canton came fully under British occupation. Following the capture of Canton the British command and the governor-general of Canton agreed to a cease-fire in the region. Under the terms of the limited peace, the British were paid to withdraw beyond the Bogue forts, an action they completed by 31 May. The peace treaty was signed by Elliot without consulting the British army or Navy, an act which displeased General Gough.

The defense of Canton was declared a diplomatic success by Yishan. In a letter to the Emperor, he wrote that the barbarians had begged "the chief general that he would implore the great Emperor in their behalf, that he would have mercy upon them, and cause their debts to be repaid them, and graciously permit them to carry on their commerce, when they would immediately withdraw their ships from the Bocca Tigris, and never dare again to raise any disturbance." However, General Yang Fang was reprimanded by the Emperor for his agreeing to a truce rather than forcefully resisting the British. The Emperor was not informed the British expedition had not been defeated and was very much intact. The imperial court continued to debate China's next course of action for the war, as the Daoguang Emperor wanted Hong Kong retaken.

CENTRAL CHINA

HMS Wellesley and the British squadron sailing from Hong Kong for the attack on Amoy in 1841.

Following their withdraw from Canton, the British relocated the expeditionary force to Hong Kong. Just as with the Chinese commanders, the British leaders debated how the war should be continued. Elliot wanted to cease military operations and reopen trade, while Major General Gough wanted to capture the city of Amoy and blockade the Yangtze River. In July a typhoon struck Hong Kong, damaging British ships in the harbor and destroying some of the facilities the expedition was building on the island. The situation changed when on 29 July Elliot was informed that he had been replaced as Superintendent by Henry Pottinger
Henry Pottinger
, who arrived in Hong Kong on 10 August to begin his administration. Pottinger wanted to negotiate terms with the Qing for the entire country of China, rather than just the Pearl River, and so he turned away Chinese envoys from Canton and gave permission for the expeditionary force to proceed with their war plans. Admiral Sir William Parker also arrived in Hong Kong to replace Humphrey Fleming Senhouse (who had died of a fever on 29 June) as the commander of the British naval forces in China. Admiral Parker was a proponent of combined operations between the navy and army, and believed that these tactics could be implemented against the Chinese. It was agreed by the British commanders that combat operations should be moved north to put pressure on Beijing, and on 21 August the fleet sailed for Amoy. British troops at the Battle of Amoy , 1841

On 25 August the British fleet entered the Jiulong River estuary and arrived at Amoy. The city was prepared for a naval assault, as Qing military engineers had built several artillery batteries into the granite cliffs overlooking the river. A purely naval assault was considered too risky by Parker, prompting Gough to order a combined naval and ground attack on the defenses. On 26 August British marines and regular infantry (under the covering fire of the Royal Navy) flanked and destroyed the Chinese defenses guarding the river. Several large British ships failed to destroy the largest of the Chinese batteries (which withstood over 12,000 cannonballs fired at it), so the position was scaled and captured by the British infantry . The city of Amoy was abandoned on 27 August, and British soldiers entered the inner town where they blew up the citadel\'s powder magazine. 26 Chinese junks and 128 cannons were captured, with the captured guns being thrown into the river by the British. As Lord Palmerston wanted Amoy to become an international trade port at the end of the war, Gough ordered that no looting be tolerated and had officers enforce the death penalty for anyone found to be plundering. However, many Chinese merchants refused to ask for British protection out of fear of being branded as traitors to the Qing dynasty. The British withdrew to an island on the river, where they established a small garrison and blockaded the Jiulong River. With the city empty of any army, peasants, criminals, and deserters looted the town. The Qing army retook the city and restored order several days later, after which the city governor declared that a victory had been won and 5 British ships sunk.

Changes in the British parliament resulted in Lord Palmerston being removed from his post as Foreign Minister on 30 August. William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne replaced him, and sought a more measured approach to the situation in China. He remained a supporter of the war.

In September 1841, the British transport ship Nerbudda was shipwrecked on a reef off the northern coast of Taiwan after a brief gunnery duel with a Chinese fort. This sinking was followed by the loss of the brig Ann on another reef in March 1842. The survivors of both ships were marched to southern Taiwan, where they were imprisoned. 197 were executed on 10 August 1842. An additional 87 died from ill-treatment in captivity. This became known as the Nerbudda incident .

October 1841 saw the British solidify their control over the central Chinese coast. Chusan had been exchanged for Hong Kong on the authority of Qishan in January 1841, after which the city had been re-garrisoned by the Qing. Fearing that the Chinese would improve the island's defenses, the British captured Chusan for a second time on 1 October and reestablished their control over Dinghai's important harbor.

On 10 October a British naval force bombarded and captured a fort on the outskirts of Ningbo
Ningbo
in central China. A battle broke out between the British army and a Chinese force of 1500 men on the road between Chinhai and Ningbo, during which the Chinese were routed. Following the defeat, Chinese authorities evacuated Ningbo
Ningbo
and the empty city was taken by the British on 13 October. An imperial cannon manufactory in the city was captured by the British, reducing the ability of the Qing to replace their lost equipment, and the fall of the city threatened the nearby Qiantang River . The capture of Ningbo
Ningbo
forced the British command to examine their policy towards occupied Chinese territory and prizes of war . Admiral Parker and Superintendent Pottinger wanted a percentage of all captured Chinese property to be turned over to the British as legal prizes of war, while General Gough argued that this would only turn the Chinese population against the British, and that if property had to be seized, it should be public property rather than private . British policy eventual settled that 10% of all property captured by the British expeditionary forces would be seized as war loot in retaliation for injustices done to British merchants. Gough later stated that this edict would compel his men to "punish one set of robbers for the benefit of another."

Fighting ceased for the winter of 1841 while the British resupplied. False reports sent by Yishan to the Emperor in Beijing
Beijing
resulted in the continued British threat being downplayed. In late 1841 the Daoguang Emperor discovered that his officials in Canton and Amoy had been sending him embellished reports. He ordered the governor of Guangxi
Guangxi
, Liang Chang-chü , to send him clear accounts of the events in Canton, noting that since Guangxi
Guangxi
was a neighboring province, Liang must be receiving independent accounts. He warned Liang that he would be able to verify his information by obtaining secret inquiries from other places. Yishan was recalled to the capital and faced trial by the Imperial War Court, which removed him from command. Now aware of the severity of the British threat, Chinese towns and cities began to fortify against naval incursions.

In the spring of 1842 the Daoguang Emperor ordered his cousin Yijing to retake the city of Ningpo. In the ensuing Battle of Ningpo
Battle of Ningpo
on 10 March the British garrison repelled the assault with rifle fire and naval artillery. At Ningpo the British lured the Qing army into the city streets before opening fire, resulting in heavy Chinese casualties. The British pursued the retreating Chinese army, capturing the nearby city of Cixi on 15 March.

The important harbor of Zhapu
Zhapu
was captured on 18 May in the Battle of Chapu . A British fleet bombarded the town, forcing its surrender. A holdout of 300 soldiers of the Eight Banners stalled the advance of British army for several hours, an act of heroism that was commended by Gough.

YANGTZE RIVER CAMPAIGN

With many Chinese ports now blockaded or under British occupation, Major General Gough sought to cripple the finances of the Qing Empire by striking up the Yangtze River. 25 Warships and 10000 men were assembled at Ningpo and Zhapu
Zhapu
in May for a planned advance into the Chinese interior. The expedition's advance ships sailed up the Yangtze and captured the emperor's tax barges, a devastating blow that slashed the revenue of the imperial court in Beijing
Beijing
to just a fraction of what it had been. British troops capture Chinkiang in the last major battle of the war, 21 July 1842

On 14 June the mouth of the Huangpu River
Huangpu River
was captured by the British fleet. On 16 June the Battle of Woosung occurred, after which the British captured the towns of Wusong and Baoshan . The undefended outskirts of Shanghai
Shanghai
were occupied by the British on 19 June. Following the battle, Shanghai
Shanghai
was looted by retreating Qing banner-men, British soldiers, and local civilians. Qing Admiral Chen Huacheng was killed while defending a fort in Woosong.

The fall of Shanghai
Shanghai
left the vital city of Nanjing
Nanjing
(Known as Jiangning under the Qing) vulnerable. The Qing amassed an army of 56,000 Manchu Banner-men and Han Green Standards to defend Liangjiang Province, and strengthened their river defenses on the Yangtze. However, British naval activity in Northern China
China
led to resources and manpower being withdrawn to defend Beijing
Beijing
. The Qing commander in Liangjiang Province released 16 British prisoners with the hope that a ceasefire could be reached, but poor communications led both the Qing government and the British to reject any overtures at peace. In secret, the Daoguang Emperor considered signing a peace treaty with the British, but only in regards to the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and not the war as a whole. Had it been signed, the British forces would have been paid to not enter the Yangtze River.

On 14 July the British fleet on the Yangtze began to sail up the river. Reconnaissance alerted Gough to the logistical importance of the city of Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
, and plans were made to capture it. Most of the city's guns had been relocated to Wusong and had been captured by the British when said city had been taken. The Qing commanders inside the city were disorganized, with Chinese sources stating that over 100 traitors were executed in Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
prior the battle. The British fleet arrived off of the city on the morning of 21 July, and the Chinese forts defending the city were blasted apart. The Chinese defenders initially retreated into the surrounding hills, causing a premature British landing. Fighting erupted when thousands of Chinese soldiers emerged from the city, beginning the Battle of Chinkiang . British engineers blew open the western gate and stormed into the city, where fierce street to street fighting ensued. Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
was devastated by the battle, with many Chinese soldiers and their families committing suicide rather than be taken prisoner. The British suffered their highest combat losses of the war (36 killed) taking the city. Oil painting depicting the signing of the Treaty of Nanking.

After capturing Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
the British fleet cut the vital Grand Canal , paralyzing the Caoyun system and severely disrupting the Chinese ability to distribute grain throughout the Empire. The British departed Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
on 3 August, intending to sail to Nanking. They arrived outside the Jiangning District on 9 August, and were in position to assault the city by the 11th. On the 14th a Chinese delegation met with the British, and on the 21st the Daoguang Emperor authorized his diplomats to sign a peace treaty with the British. The First Opium
Opium
war officially ended on 29 August 1842 with the signing of the Treaty of Nanking
Treaty of Nanking
. The document was signed by officials of the British and Qing empires aboard the HMS Cornwallis .

TECHNOLOGY AND TACTICS

British

The British military superiority during the conflict drew heavily on the success of the Royal Navy. A Royal Navy
Royal Navy
steamship destroying a Chinese junk with a Congreve rocket. Lightly armored Chinese warships were decimated by heavy guns and explosive weaponry.

British warships carried more guns than their Chinese opponents and were maneuverable enough to evade Chinese boarding actions. Steam ships such as HMS Nemesis were able to move against winds and tides in Chinese rivers, and were armed with heavy guns and congreve rockets . Several of the larger British warships in China
China
(notably the third-rates HMS Cornwallis, HMS Wellesley , and HMS Melville ) carried more guns than entire fleets of Chinese junks. British naval superiority allowed the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
to attack Chinese forts with very little danger to themselves, as British naval cannons out-ranged the vast majority of the Qing artillery. British line infantry advancing on a Chinese position.

British soldiers in China
China
were equipped with Brunswick rifles and rifle-modified Brown Bess muskets , both of which possessed an effective firing range of 200–300 metres. British marines were equipped with percussion caps that greatly reduced weapon misfires and allowed firearms to be used in damp environments. In terms of gunpowder, the British formula was better manufactured and contained more sulfur than the Chinese mixture. This granted British weapons an advantage in terms of range, accuracy and projectile velocity. British artillery was lighter (owing to improved forging methods) and more maneuverable than the cannons used by the Chinese. As with the naval artillery, British guns out-ranged the Chinese cannon.

In terms of tactics, the British forces in China
China
followed doctrines established during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
that had been adapted during the various colonial wars of the 1820s and 1830s. Many of the British soldiers deployed to China
China
were veterans of colonial wars in India and had experience fighting larger but technologically inferior armies. In battle, the British line infantry would advance towards the enemy in columns, forming ranks once they had closed to firing range. Companies would commence firing volleys into the enemy ranks until they retreated. If a position needed to be taken, an advance or charge with bayonets would be ordered. Light infantry companies screened the line infantry formations, protecting their flanks and utilizing skirmishing tactics to disrupt the enemy. British artillery was used to destroy the Qing artillery and break up enemy formations. During the conflict, the British superiority in range, rate of fire, and accuracy allowed the infantry to deal significant damage to their enemy before the Chinese could return fire. The use of naval artillery to support infantry operations allowed the British to take cities and forts with minimal casualties.

The overall strategy of the British during the war was to inhibit the finances of the Qing Empire, with the ultimate goal of acquiring a colonial possession on the Chinese coast. This was accomplished through the capture of Chinese cities and by blockading major river systems. Once a fort or city had been captured, the British would destroy the local arsenal and disable all of the captured guns. They would then move on to the next target, leaving a small garrison behind. This strategy was planned and implemented by Major General Gough, who was able to operate with minimal input from the British government after Superintendent Elliot was recalled in 1841. The large number of private British merchants and East India Company
East India Company
ships deployed in Singapore
Singapore
and the India colonies ensured that the British forces in China
China
were adequately supplied.

Qing Dynasty

Chinese soldiers armed with gingals during the First Opium
Opium
War.

From the onset of the war the Chinese navy was severely disadvantaged. Chinese war junks were intended for use against pirates or equivalent types of vessels, and were most effective in close range river engagements. Due to their ships' slow speeds, Qing captains consistently found themselves sailing towards much more maneuverable British ships, and as a consequence the Chinese could only use their bow guns. The size of the British ships made traditional boarding tactics useless, and the junks carried smaller numbers of inferior weaponry. In addition, the Chinese ships were poorly armored; in several battles, British shells and rockets penetrated Chinese magazines and detonated gunpowder stores. Highly maneuverable steamships such the HMS Nemesis could decimate small fleets of junks, as the junks had little chance of catching up to and engaging the faster British steamers. The only western-style warship in the Qing Navy, the converted East Indiaman
East Indiaman
Cambridge , was destroyed in the Battle of First Bar.

The defensive nature of the conflict resulted in the Chinese relying heavily an extensive network of fortifications. The Kangxi Emperor (1654–1722) began the construction of river defenses to combat pirates, and encouraged the use of western style cannons. By the time of the First Opium
Opium
War, multiple forts defended most major Chinese cities and waterways. Although the forts were well armed and strategically positioned, the Qing defeat exposed major flaws in their design. The cannons used in the Qing defensive fortifications were a collection of Chinese, Portuguese, Spanish, and British pieces. The domestically produced Chinese cannon were crafted using sub-par forging methods, limiting their effectiveness in combat and causing excessive gun barrel wear. The Chinese blend of gunpowder contained more charcoal than the British mixture did. While this made the explosive more stable and thus easier to store, it also limited its potential as a propellant, decreasing projectile range and accuracy. Overall, Chinese cannon technology was considered to be 200 years behind that of the British. Chinese forts were unable to withstand attacks by European weaponry, as they were designed without angled glacis and many did not have protected magazines. The limited range of the Qing cannon allowed the British to bombard the Qing defenses from a safe distance, then land soldiers to storm them with minimal risk. Many of the larger Chinese guns were built as fixed emplacements and were unable to be maneuvered to fire at British ships. The failure of the Qing fortifications coupled with the Chinese underestimation of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
allowed the British to force their way up major rivers and impede Qing logistics. Most notably, the powerful series of forts at Humen were well positioned to stop an invader from proceeding upriver to Canton, but it was not considered that an enemy would attack and destroy the forts themselves, as the British did during the war.

At the start of the war the Qing army consisted of over 200,000 soldiers, with around 800,000 men being able to be called for war. These forces consisted of Manchu Bannermen , the Green Standard Army , provincial militias, and imperial garrisons. The Qing armies were armed with matchlocks and shotguns, which had an effective range of 100 metres. Chinese historians estimate 30–40% of the Qing forces were armed with firearms. Chinese soldiers were also equipped with halberds , spears, swords, and crossbows . The Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
also employed large batteries of artillery in battle. Painting of a battle between Qing matchlock infantry and British line infantry at the Battle of Chinkiang. The retreat of the Qing infantry into the city and the ensuing close-quarters combat led to heavy casualties on both sides.

The tactics of the Qing remained consistent with what they had been in previous centuries. Soldiers with firearms would form ranks and fire volleys into the enemy while men armed with spears and pikes would drive (described by the Chinese as Tuī (推) push) the enemy off of the battlefield. Cavalry was used to break infantry formations and pursue routed enemies, while Qing artillery was used to scatter enemy formations and destroy fortifications. During the First Opium War, these tactics were unable to successfully deal with British firepower. Chinese melee formations were decimated by artillery, and Chinese soldiers armed with matchlocks could not effectively exchange fire with British ranks, who greatly out ranged them. Most battles of the war were fought in cities or on cliffs and riverbanks, limiting the Qing usage of cavalry. Many Qing cannon were destroyed by British counter-battery fire , and British light infantry companies were consistently able to outflank and capture Chinese artillery batteries. A British officer said of the opposing Qing forces, "The Chinese are robust muscular fellows, and no cowards; the Tartars desperate; but neither are well commanded nor acquainted with European warfare. Having had, however, experience of three of them, I am inclined to supposed that a Tartar bullet is not a whit softer than a French one."

The strategy of the Qing Dynasty during the war was to prevent the British from seizing Chinese territory. This defensive strategy was hampered by the Qing severely underestimating the capacity of the British military. Qing defenses on the Pearl and Yangtze rivers were ineffective in stopping the British push inland, and superior naval artillery prevented the Chinese from retaking cities. The Qing imperial bureaucracy was unable to react quickly to the prodding British attacks, while officials and commanders often reported false, faulty, or incomplete information to their superiors. The Qing military system made it difficult to deploy troops to counter the mobile British forces. In addition, the ongoing conflict with Sikhs on the Qing border with India drew away some of the most experienced Qing units from the war with Britain.

AFTERMATH

The war ended in the signing of China's first Unequal Treaty , the Treaty of Nanking
Treaty of Nanking
. In the supplementary Treaty of the Bogue
Treaty of the Bogue
, the Qing empire also recognized Britain as an equal to China
China
and gave British subjects extraterritorial privileges in treaty ports. In 1844, the United States and France concluded similar treaties with China, the Treaty of Wanghia
Treaty of Wanghia
and Treaty of Whampoa , respectively.

REACTIONS

Some historians claim that Lord Palmerston, the British Foreign Secretary, initiated the Opium
Opium
War to maintain the principle of free trade. Professor Glenn Melancon, for example, argues that the issue in going to war was not opium but Britain's need to uphold its reputation, its honour, and its commitment to global free trade. China was pressing Britain just when the British faced serious pressures in the Near East, on the Indian frontier, and in Latin America. In the end, says Melancon, the government's need to maintain its honour in Britain and prestige abroad forced the decision to go to war. Former American president John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
commented that opium was "a mere incident to the dispute ... the cause of the war is the kowtow —the arrogant and insupportable pretensions of China
China
that she will hold commercial intercourse with the rest of mankind not upon terms of equal reciprocity, but upon the insulting and degrading forms of the relations between lord and vassal."

Critics, however, focused on the immorality of opium. William Ewart Gladstone denounced the war as "unjust and iniquitous" and criticised Lord Palmerston's willingness "to protect an infamous contraband traffic."

LEGACY

Entrance of the Opium
Opium
War Museum in Humen Town , Guangdong
Guangdong
, China.

The war marked the start of what 20th century Chinese nationalists called the "Century of Humiliation ". The ease with which the British forces defeated the numerically superior Chinese armies damaged the Qing dynasty's prestige. The Treaty of Nanking
Treaty of Nanking
was a step to opening the lucrative Chinese market to global commerce and the opium trade. The interpretation of the war, which was long the standard in the People's Republic of China, was summarized in 1976: The Opium
Opium
War, "in which the Chinese people fought against British aggression, marked the beginning of modern Chinese history and the start of the Chinese people's bourgeois-democratic revolution against imperialism and feudalism."

The Treaty of Nanking, the Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue, and two French and American agreements were all "unequal treaties" signed between 1842 and 1844. The terms of these treaties undermined China's traditional mechanisms of foreign relations and methods of controlled trade. Five ports were opened for trade, gunboats, and foreign residence: Guangzhou, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, and Shanghai. Hong Kong was seized by the British to become a free and open port. Tariffs were abolished thus preventing the Chinese from raising future duties to protect domestic industries and extraterritorial practices exempted Westerners from Chinese law. This made them subject to their own civil and criminal laws of their home country. Most importantly, the opium problem was never addressed and after the treaty was signed opium addiction doubled. China
China
was forced to pay 21 million silver taels as an indemnity, which was used to pay compensation for the traders' opium destroyed by Commissioner Lin. A couple of years after the treaties were signed internal rebellion began to threaten foreign trade. Due to the Qing government's inability to control collection of taxes on imported goods, the British government convinced the Manchu court to allow Westerners to partake in government official affairs. By the 1850s the Chinese Maritime Customs Service , one of the most important bureaucracies in the Manchu Government, was partially staffed and managed by Western Foreigners. In 1858 opium was legalised, and would remain a problem

Commissioner Lin, often referred to as "Lin the Clear Sky" for his moral probity, was made a scapegoat. He was blamed for ultimately failing to stem the tide of opium imports and usage as well as for provoking an unwinnable war through his rigidity and lack of understanding of the changing world. Nevertheless, as the Chinese nation formed in the 20th century, Lin became viewed as a hero, and has been immortalized at various locations around China.

The First Opium
Opium
War both reflected and contributed to a further weakening of the Chinese state's power and legitimacy. Anti-Qing sentiment grew in the form of rebellions, such as the Taiping Rebellion , a war lasting from 1850–64 in which at least 20 million Chinese died. The decline of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was beginning to be felt by much of the Chinese population.

The opium trade faced intense enmity from the later British Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone
. As a member of Parliament, Gladstone called it "most infamous and atrocious" referring to the opium trade between China
China
and British India in particular. Gladstone was fiercely against both of the Opium Wars
Opium Wars
Britain waged in China
China
in the First Opium
Opium
War initiated in 1840 and the Second Opium
Opium
War initiated in 1857, denounced British violence against Chinese, and was ardently opposed to the British trade in opium to China. Gladstone lambasted it as "Palmerston's Opium
Opium
War" and said that he felt "in dread of the judgments of God upon England for our national iniquity towards China" in May 1840. A famous speech was made by Gladstone in Parliament against the First Opium
Opium
War. Gladstone criticised it as "a war more unjust in its origin, a war more calculated in its progress to cover this country with permanent disgrace". His hostility to opium stemmed from the effects opium brought upon his sister Helen. Due to the First Opium
Opium
war brought on by Palmerston, there was initial reluctance to join the government of Peel on part of Gladstone before 1841.

INTERACTIVE MAP

CLICK ON A BATTLE TO GO DIRECTLY TO THE RELEVANT ARTICLE.

SEE ALSO

* Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms * The Opium War (film)

INDIVIDUALS:

* William Jardine (surgeon) * William John Napier, 9th Lord Napier

CONTEMPORANEOUS QING DYNASTY WARS:

* Sino-Sikh war
Sino-Sikh war
(1841–1842)

FICTIONAL AND NARRATIVE LITERATURE

* Leasor, James . Mandarin-Gold. London: Heinemann, 1973, e-published James Leasor Ltd, 2011 * Amitav Ghosh
Amitav Ghosh
, River of Smoke (Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011). * Timothy Mo , An Insular Possession (Chatto and Windus, 1986; Paddleless Press, 2002)

NOTES

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China
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China
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Atlantic Monthly Press
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China
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China
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Opium
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Wayback Machine
.. John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York. Retrieved 2 December 2010 Quoting British Parliamentary Papers, 1840, XXXVI (223), p. 374 * ^ Cleary, Vern. "The First Opium
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War (1838-1842)". webs.bcp.org. Retrieved 2017-08-10. * ^ Lydia He. LIU; Lydia He Liu (30 June 2009). The Clash of Empires: the invention of China
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: from the opium wars to the Olympics (4. ed.). Armonk, N.Y.: Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-2391-1 . * ^ "Why the Chinese military is still haunted by this 19th-century \'humiliation\'". 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2017-07-07. * ^ Report from the select committee on the trade with China: together with the minutes of evidence ... Ordered ... to be printed 5 June 1840. 1840. * ^ "Foreign Mud: The opium imbroglio at Canton in the 1830s and the Anglo-Chinese War," by Maurice Collis, W. W. Norton, New York, 1946 * ^ Fey (2000) pp.192,193 * ^ Coleman, Anthony (1999). Millennium. Transworld Publishers. pp. 243–244. ISBN 0-593-04478-9 . * ^ "Doing Business with China: Early American Trading Houses". www.library.hbs.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-24. * ^ Hanes & Sanello 2002, p. 61 * ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 91 * ^ Correspondence Relating to China
China
1840, p. 432 * ^ Hanes & Sanello 2002, p. 62 * ^ A B C Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 92 * ^ Correspondence Relating to China
China
1840, p. 433 * ^ Fey (2000) pp. 203 * ^ A B Fey (2000) pp. 205 * ^ Hoe & Roebuck 1999, p. 93 * ^ Correspondence Relating to China
China
1840, p. 447 * ^ Correspondence Relating to China
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1840, p. 449 * ^ A B Waley 1958, p. 70 * ^ "The Battle of Kowloon – Fighting – Gallery Empires". empires-tv-series.net. Retrieved 2017-07-05. * ^ Elleman 2001, p. 15 * ^ Hanes & Sanello 2004 , p. 68. * ^ Hans, Sellano (2004) p. 68. * ^ Parker (1888) pp. 10–11 * ^ A B C D 1959–, Elleman, Bruce A., (2001). Modern Chinese warfare, 1795–1989. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21474-2 . OCLC
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* ^ A B C D Glenn Melancon, "Honor in Opium? The British Declaration of War on China, 1839–1840," International History Review (1999) 21#4 pp. 854–874. * ^ A B Glenn Melancon (2003). Britain\'s China
China
Policy and the Opium
Opium
Crisis: Balancing Drugs, Violence and National Honour, 1833–1840. Ashgate. p. 126. * ^ A B Chen, Li (2016-01-12). Chinese Law in Imperial Eyes: Sovereignty, Justice, and Transcultural Politics. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231540216 . p. 228 * ^ Hansard, 16 January 1840 * ^ There is often the misunderstanding, even among historians, that the House of Commons approved the Opium
Opium
War when the motion was voted on 9 April 1840. It is therefore useful to quote directly from the Hansard the exact wording of the motion: "The right hon. Baronet concluded with moving that— It appears to this House, on consideration of the papers relating to China, presented to this House, by command of her Majesty, that the interruption in our commercial and friendly intercourse with that country, and the hostilities which have since taken place, are mainly to be attributed to the want of foresight and precaution on the part of her Majesty's present advisers, in respect to our relations with China, and especially to their neglect to furnish the superintendent at Canton with powers and instructions calculated to provide against the growing evils connected with the contraband traffic in opium, and adapted to the novel and difficult situation in which the superintendent was placed." * ^ The Opium
Opium
War, 1840–1842 , Peter Ward Fay, The University of North Carolina Press, 1975, p.202 * ^ A B Justifiers of the British Opium
Opium
Trade: Arguments by Parliament, Traders, and the Times Leading Up to the Opium
Opium
War https://web.stanford.edu/group/journal/cgi-bin/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Su_SocSci_2008.pdf * ^ The exact wording of the motion quoted from the Hansard is: “That an humble address be presented to her Majesty, to express to her Majesty the deep concern of this House in learning that an interruption has occurred in the friendly relations and commercial intercourse which had so long subsisted with the Chinese empire; and to represent to her Majesty that these calamities have, in the opinion of this House, been occasioned by British subjects having persevered in taking opium to China, in direct and known violation of the laws of that empire; and to request that her Majesty will be graciously pleased to take immediate measures for the prevention of such proceedings, which are so dishonourable to the character, and so detrimental to the interests of her subjects; and to assure her Majesty, that if any additional powers should be found requisite for the purpose, this House will readily concur in granting them to her Majesty.” * ^ Deterrence through Strength: British Naval Power and Foreign Policy under Pax Britannica , Rebecca Berens Matzke, University of Nebraska Press 2011, pp.108,112 * ^ A B "Palmerston to Emperor – Feb, 1840 china\'s external relations – a history". www.chinaforeignrelations.net. Retrieved 2017-07-20. * ^ A B "Palmerston to Elliots – Feb, 1840 china\'s external relations - a history". www.chinaforeignrelations.net. Retrieved 2017-07-20. * ^ A B C Glenn Melancon (2003). Britain\'s China
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11 (1): 51. * ^ A B The Sino-Indian Border Disputes, by Alfred P. Rubin, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 1. (Jan., 1960), pp. 96–125. * ^ A B C D "The life and campaigns of Hugh, first Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal". archive.org. Retrieved 3 June 2016. * ^ "No. 19989". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
. 18 June 1841. p. 1583. * ^ John K. Derden, "The British Foreign Office and Policy Formation: The 1840's," Proceedings & Papers of the Georgia Association of Historians (1981) pp. 64–79. * ^ Luscombe, Stephen. "The British Empire, Imperialism, Colonialism, Colonies". www.britishempire.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-26.

* ^ Rait (1903) pp. 161 * ^ A B C Fey (2000) pp. 240-243 * ^ Spence 1999 , p. 153–155. * ^ A B "No. 19930". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
. 15 December 1840. pp. 2990–2991. * ^ Morse. p. 628 * ^ Fey (2000) pp. 252 * ^ A B Fey (2000) pp. 288, 289 * ^ A B Hummel, Arthur William (1943). Eminent Chinese of the Ch\'ing Period (1644–1912) . Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. * ^ A B C "The Nemesis – Great Britain\'s Secret Weapon in the Opium
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War: Treaty Ports and Compradors". www.library.hbs.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-26. * ^ A B MSW (2017-01-03). "Qing and Opium Wars
Opium Wars
I". Weapons and Warfare. Retrieved 2017-05-30. * ^ A B C D E opiumwarexhibition (2014-11-22). "Warfare technology in the Opium
Opium
War". The Opium
Opium
War, 1839–1842. Retrieved 2017-05-30. * ^ Jackson, Major Donovan (1940). India's Army. London: Low, Marston. pp. 1–8. ISBN 8187226374 * ^ Kim Joosam "An Analysis of the Process of Modernization in East Asia and the Corresponding changes in China
China
and Japan after the Opium Wars", Asian Study 11.3 (2009). The Korean Association of Philippine Studies. Web. * ^ "Welcome to Zhenhai coast defence history museum". www.zhkhfsg.com. Retrieved 2017-05-30. * ^ A B Hederic, p. 234 * ^ A B C Cone, Daniel. An Indefensible Defense:The Incompetence of Qing Dynasty Officials in the Opium
Opium
Wars, and the Consequences of Defeat. * ^ Hoiberg. pp. 28–30 * ^ Bulletins of State Intelligence 1841, p. 348 * ^ Bingham 1843, p. 399 * ^ Bingham (1843), p. 72. * ^ McPherson, Carruthers (2013) pp. 53 * ^ Haijian, Mao (2016-10-18). The Qing Empire and the Opium
Opium
War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107069879 . pp. 32 * ^ Haijian, Mao (2016-10-18). The Qing Empire and the Opium
Opium
War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107069879 . pp. 27. * ^ A B Rait (1903) pp. 189, 231 * ^ PBS.org, "The Story of China; Age of Revolution". Aired 7/11/2017. https://www.pbs.org/video/3001741892/ * ^ Haijian, Mao (2016-10-18). The Qing Empire and the Opium
Opium
War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107069879 . pp. 201 * ^ A B Andrade, Tonio (2016-01-12). The Gunpowder Age: China, Military Innovation, and the Rise of the West in World History. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-7444-6 . * ^ Elliott 2001 , pp. 283–284. * ^ Elliott 2001 , pp. 283–284, 300–303. * ^ CrossleySiuSutton (2006) , p. 50 * ^ Rait (1903) pp. 228 * ^ Waley 1958, pp. 71–73 * ^ Haijian, Mao (2016-10-18). The Qing Empire and the Opium
Opium
War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107069879 . pg. 204. * ^ Treaty of peace, amity, and commerce, between the United States of America ..., Library of Congress * ^ Jasper Ridley, Lord Palmerston, (1970) p. 248 * ^ H.G. Gelber, Harvard University Centre for European Studies Working Paper 136, ' China
China
as Victim: The Opium
Opium
War that wasn't' * ^ Miron, Jeffrey A. and Feige, Chris. The Opium
Opium
Wars: Opium Legalization and Opium
Opium
Consumption in China. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005. * ^ "Lin Zexu". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 3 June 2016. * ^ Lee Khoon Choy (2007). "Pioneers of Modern China: Understanding the Inscrutable Chinese: Chapter 1: Fujian Rén & Lin Ze Xu: The Fuzhou Hero Who Destroyed Opium". East Asian Studies. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2016. * ^ "Monument to the People\'s Heroes". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 3 June 2016. * ^ " Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu
Memorial". chinaculture.org. Archived from the original on 13 June 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2016. * ^ " Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu
Memorial Museum Ola Macau
Macau
Travel Guide". olamacauguide.com. Archived from the original on 22 October 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2016. * ^ Schell, Orville; John Delury (12 July 2013). "A Rising China Needs a New National Story". Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal
. Retrieved 14 July 2013. * ^ Kathleen L. Lodwick (5 February 2015). Crusaders Against Opium: Protestant Missionaries in China, 1874–1917. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-0-8131-4968-4 . * ^ Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy (2009). Opium: Uncovering the Politics of the Poppy. Harvard University Press. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-674-05134-8 . * ^ Dr Roland Quinault; Dr Ruth Clayton Windscheffel; Mr Roger Swift (28 July 2013). William Gladstone: New Studies and Perspectives. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 238–. ISBN 978-1-4094-8327-4 . * ^ Ms Louise Foxcroft (28 June 2013). The Making of Addiction: The \'Use and Abuse\' of Opium
Opium
in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 66–. ISBN 978-1-4094-7984-0 . * ^ William Travis Hanes; Frank Sanello (2004). Opium
Opium
Wars: The Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of Another. Sourcebooks, Inc. pp. 78–. ISBN 978-1-4022-0149-3 . * ^ W. Travis Hanes III; Frank Sanello (1 February 2004). The Opium Wars: The Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of Another. Sourcebooks. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-1-4022-5205-1 . * ^ Peter Ward Fay (9 November 2000). The Opium
Opium
War, 1840–1842: Barbarians in the Celestial Empire in the Early Part of the Nineteenth Century and the War by which They Forced Her Gates Ajar. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 290–. ISBN 978-0-8078-6136-3 . * ^ Anne Isba (24 August 2006). Gladstone and Women. A&C Black. pp. 224–. ISBN 978-1-85285-471-3 . * ^ David William Bebbington (1993). William Ewart Gladstone: Faith and Politics in Victorian Britain. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-0-8028-0152-4 .

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

* McPherson, Duncan, Carruthers, Bob, "The First Opium
Opium
War, The Chinese Expedition 1840–1842, the illustrated edition", Coda Books Ltd (2013). ISBN 978-1781583609 . * Beeching, Jack , The Chinese Opium
Opium
Wars, Hutchinson, 1975, Harcourt, 1976. * Fairbank, John King , Trade and Diplomacy on the China
China
Coast; the Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842–1854 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953). * Fay, Peter Ward, The Opium
Opium
War, 1840–1842: Barbarians in the Celestial Empire in the early part of the nineteenth century and the way by which they forced the gates ajar (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press , 1975). * Gao, Shujuan (高淑娟); Feng, Bin (冯斌) (2003). Comparative Outline of Chinese and Japanese Foreign Policy: Central Trade Policy in the Final Years of the Imperial Era (中日对外经济政策比较史纲: 以封建末期贸易政策为中心). Qinghua University Chinese Economic Historiography Series (清华大学中国经济史学丛书) (in Chinese). Qinghua University Publishing (清华大学出版社). ISBN 978-7302075172 , ISBN 978-7302075172 . * Gray, Jack (2002). Rebellions and Revolutions: China
China
from the 1800s to 2000. Short Oxford History of the Modern World. New York: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 978-0-19-870069-2 . * Greenberg, Michael. British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800–42. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Studies in Economic History, 1951). Various reprints. Uses Jardine Matheson papers to detail the British side of the trade. * Greenwood, Adrian (2015). Victoria\'s Scottish Lion: The Life of Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde. UK: History Press. p. 496. ISBN 0-7509-5685-2 . * Hanes, W. Travis; Sanello, Frank (2004). Opium
Opium
Wars: The Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of Another. Sourcebooks. ISBN 978-1-4022-2969-5 . * Hoe, Susanna; Roebuck, Derek (1999). The Taking of Hong Kong: Charles and Clara Elliot in China
China
Waters. Curzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-1145-7 . * Hsin-Pao Chang. Commissioner Lin and the Opium
Opium
War. (Cambridge,: Harvard University Press, Harvard East Asian Series, 1964). * Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Aberdeen, George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of,". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8 . * Johnson, Kendall , The New Middle Kingdom: China
China
and the Early American Romance of Free Trade (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2017 ISBN 978-1-4214-2251-0 ). * Lovell, Julia , The Opium
Opium
War: Drug, Dreams and the Making of China
China
(London, Picador, 2011 ISBN 0-330-45747-0 ). Well referenced narrative using both Chinese and western sources and scholarship. * Manhong Lin. China
China
Upside Down: Currency, Society, and Ideologies, 1808–1856. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center, Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2006). ISBN 0-674-02268-8 . Detailed study of the economics of the trade. * MacPherson, D. (1842). Two Years in China: Narrative of the Chinese Expedition, from Its Formation in April, 1840, Till April, 1842 : with an Appendix, Containing the Most Important of the General Orders & Despatches Published During the Above Period. London: Saunders and Otley. * Makeham, John (2008). China: The World\'s Oldest Living Civilization Revealed. Thames & Hudson. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-500-25142-3 . * Miron, Jeffrey A. and Feige, Chris. The Opium
Opium
Wars: Opium Legalization and Opium
Opium
Consumption in China. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005. * Polachek, James M., The Inner Opium
Opium
War (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1992.) Based on court records and diaries, presents the debates among Chinese officials whether to legalise or suppress the use and trade in opium. * Perdue, Peter C., "The First Opium
Opium
War: The Anglo-Chinese War of 1839–1842: Hostilities" (Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2011. MIT Visualizing Cultures). * Haijian, Mao (2016-10-18). The Qing Empire and the Opium
Opium
War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107069879 . * Rait, Robert S. (1903). The Life and Campaigns of Hugh, First Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal . Volume 1. Westminster: Archibald Constable. * Frontier and Overseas Expeditions From India, vol. 6, p. 382 * Wakeman, Frederic E. (1997). Strangers at the Gate: Social Disorder in South China, 1839–1861. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-21239-8 . * Hummel, Arthur William (1943). Eminent Chinese of the Ch\'ing Period (1644–1912) . Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. * Spence, Jonathan D. (1999). The Search for Modern China
China
(second ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Company
W.W. Norton & Company
. ISBN 0-393-97351-4 . * Waley, Arthur , The Opium
Opium
War Through Chinese Eyes (London: Allen reprinted Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1968). Translations and narrative based on Lin's writings. * Correspondence Relating to China
China
(1840). London: Printed by T. R. Harrison. * The Chinese Repository (1840). Volume 8. * Waley, Arthur (2013) . The Opium
Opium
War Through Chinese Eyes. Taylor Wang, Yeh-Chien (2002), "Economic developments, 1644–1800", in Peterson Willard J. (ed.), Part One: The Ch'ing Empire to 1800, The Cambridge History of China, 9, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 563–647, ISBN 978-0-521-24334-6 . * Crossley, Pamela Kyle; Siu, Helen F.; Sutton, Donald S. (2006), Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-23015-9 . * Elliot, Mark C. (2001), The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, Stanford: Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-4684-2 . * Bingham, John Elliot (1843). Narrative of the Expedition to China from the Commencement of the War to Its Termination in 1842 (2nd ed.). Volume 2. London: Henry Colburn. * Hoe, Susanna; Roebuck, Derek (1999). The Taking of Hong Kong: Charles and Clara Elliot in China
China
Waters. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-1145-7 . * Charles C. Mann (2011), 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created, Random House Digital, pp. 123–163, ISBN 9780307596727 * Bernard, William Dallas; Hall, William Hutcheon (1847). The Nemesis in China
China
(3rd ed.). London: Henry Colburn. * Dillon, Michael (2010). China: A Modern History. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-582-2 . * Compilation Group for the "History of Modern China" Series. (2000). The Opium
Opium
War. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific; reprint from 1976 edition. ISBN 0-89875-150-0 . * Downs, Jacques M. (1997). The Golden Ghetto: The American Commercial Community at Canton and the Shaping of American China Policy, 1784–1844. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press; reprinted, Hong Kong University Press, 2014. ISBN 0-934223-35-1 . * Parker, Edward Harper (1888). Chinese Account of the Opium
Opium
War. Shanghai * John K. Derden, "The British Foreign Office and Policy Formation: The 1840's," Proceedings ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Colonial conflicts involving the English / British Empire
British Empire

17th century

* Virginia (1609–46) * Swally (1612) * Ormuz (1622) * Saint Kitts (1626) * Quebec (1628) * Pequot War (1634–38) * Acadia (1654–67) * Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
* Jamaica (1655–1739) * King Philip\'s War (1675–78) * King William\'s War (1688–97) * Ghana (1694–1700)

18th century

* Queen Anne\'s War (1702–13) * Tuscarora War (1711–15) * Yamasee War
Yamasee War
(1715–17) * Father Rale\'s War/Dummer\'s War (1722–25) * War of Jenkins\' Ear (1740–42) * King George\'s War (1744–48) * Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
(1746–63) * Nova Scotia (1749–55) * French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–63) * Seven Years\' War (1756–63) * Anglo–Cherokee War (1758–61) * Jamaica (1762) * Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63) * Pontiac\'s War (1763–66) * Lord Dunmore\'s War (1774) * American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
(1775–83) * First Anglo–Maratha War (1775–82) * Second Anglo–Mysore War (1779–84) * Gold Coast (1781–82) * Sumatra (1782–84) * Australian Frontier Wars (1788–1934) * Nootka Sound (1789) * Third Anglo–Mysore War (1789–92) * Cotiote (Wayanad) War (1793–1806) * Cape Colony (1795) * Jamaica (1795–96) * Ceylon (1795) * Kandyan Wars
Kandyan Wars
(1796–1818) * Malta (1798–1800) * Fourth Anglo–Mysore War (1798–99) * Dwyer\'s Guerrilla Campaign (1799–1803)

19th century

* Newfoundland (1800) * Castle Hill convict rebellion
Castle Hill convict rebellion
* Second Anglo–Maratha War (1803–05) * Suriname (1804) * Guiana (1804) * Cape Colony (1806) * Río de la Plata (1806–07) * Egypt
Egypt
(1807) * Malta (1807) * Reunion (1809) * Seychelles (1809) * Mauritius (1810) * Java
Java
(1810–11) * Xhosa Wars
Xhosa Wars
(1811–79) * Martinique (1809) * Guadeloupe (1810) * USA (1812–15) * Nepal (1814–16) * Guadeloupe (1815) * Cape Colony (1815) * Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–18) * Guiana (1823) * Anglo-Ashanti wars
Anglo-Ashanti wars
(1824–1901) * First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) * Black War (Van Diemen\'s Land, 1828–32) * Jamaica (1831–32) * Malacca (1831–33) * Lower Canada (1837–38) * Upper Canada (1837–38) * Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–41) * First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–42) * First Opium
Opium
War (1839–42) * New Zealand Wars
New Zealand Wars
(1845–72) * First Anglo–Sikh War (1845–46) * Río de la Plata (1845–50) * Ceylon (1848) * Second Anglo–Sikh War (1848–49) * Second Anglo–Burmese War (1852) * Eureka Rebellion (1852) * Anglo–Persian War (1856–57) * Second Opium
Opium
War (1856–60) * Indian Rebellion (1857–59) * Ambela Campaign (1863–64) * Bhutan War
Bhutan War
(1864–65) * Fenian Rebellion in Canada (1866–71) * Abyssinia (1868) * Manitoba (1870) * Perak (1875–76) * Anglo–Zulu War (1879) * Second Anglo-Afghan War (1879–80) * Basutoland (1880–81) * First Boer War (1880–81) * Mahdist War
Mahdist War
(1881–99) * Anglo-Egyptian War (1882) * Saskatchewan (1885) * Central Africa (1886–89) * Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885) * Mashonaland (1890) * Hunza-Nagar Campaign (1891) * Anglo-Manipur War (1891) * Matabeleland (1893–94) * North Borneo (1894–1905) * Chitral Expedition (1895) * Jameson Raid South Africa (1896) * Anglo–Zanzibar War (1896) * Matabeleland (1896–97) * Benin Expedition (1897) * Siege of Malakand (1897) * First Mohmand Campaign (1897–98) * Tirah Campaign (1897–98) * Six-Day War (1899)
Six-Day War (1899)
* Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
(1898–1901) * Second Boer War (1899–1902)

20th century

* Somaliland (1900–20) * West Africa (1901–02) * Tibet expedition (1903–04) * Bambatha Rebellion (1906) * Nyasaland (1915) * Nigeria (1915) * Nigeria (1918) * Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919) * Waziristan campaign (1919–1920) * Iraq (1920) * Malabar Rebellion (1921) * Kurdistan (1922–24) * Transjordan (1923) * Pink\'s War (1925) * Ikhwan Revolt
Ikhwan Revolt
(1927–30) * Barzani revolt (1931–32) * Second Mohmand Campaign (1935) * Palestine (1936–39) * Waziristan campaign (1936–1939) * Ethiopia (1943) * Indochina (1945–46) * Indonesia (1945) * Sarawak (1946–50) * Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
(1948–60) * Mau Mau Uprising Kenya (1952–60) * Oman (1954–59) * Cyprus Emergency (1955–59) * Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956) * Oman (1962–76) * Brunei (1962) * Sarawak (1962–90) * Malaysia (1962–66) * Aden (1963–67) * Falklands (1982)

* v * t * e

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
topics

HISTORY

* Seven Grievances * First Manchu invasion of Korea
First Manchu invasion of Korea
* Second Manchu invasion of Korea
Second Manchu invasion of Korea

* Qing conquest of the Ming
Qing conquest of the Ming

* Battle of Shanhai Pass
Battle of Shanhai Pass

* Great Clearance * Revolt of the Three Feudatories * Sino-Russian border conflicts
Sino-Russian border conflicts
* Dzungar–Qing War
Dzungar–Qing War
* Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720)
Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720)
* Chinese Rites controversy * Ten Great Campaigns
Ten Great Campaigns
* Miao Rebellion (1735–36) * Lhasa riot of 1750 * Sino-Burmese War (1765–69) * Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa * Sino-Nepalese War
Sino-Nepalese War
* Miao Rebellion (1795–1806) * White Lotus Rebellion * First Opium
Opium
War * Sino-Sikh War
Sino-Sikh War
* Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
* Nian Rebellion * Red Turban Rebellion (1854–1856) * Miao Rebellion (1854–73) * Nepalese–Tibetan War * Panthay Rebellion
Panthay Rebellion
* Second Opium
Opium
War * Amur Acquisition * Self-Strengthening Movement
Self-Strengthening Movement
* Dungan Revolt (1862–77)
Dungan Revolt (1862–77)
* Mudan Incident (1871)
Mudan Incident (1871)
* Tianjin Massacre
Tianjin Massacre
* Margary Affair * Northern Chinese Famine * Qing reconquest of Xinjiang * Sino-French War
Sino-French War
* Sikkim Expedition * Jindandao Incident * First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
* Gongche Shangshu movement * Dungan Revolt (1895–96) * Hundred Days\' Reform

* Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion

* Red Lanterns

* Eight-Nation Alliance
Eight-Nation Alliance
* New Policies * British expedition to Tibet
British expedition to Tibet
* 1905 Tibetan Rebellion
1905 Tibetan Rebellion
* 1909 Provincial Assembly elections * Chinese expedition to Tibet (1910) * Railway Protection Movement

* Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution

* Wuchang Uprising * Xinhai Lhasa turmoil * Mongolian Revolution of 1911
Mongolian Revolution of 1911
* Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
in Xinjiang

* Manchu Restoration
Manchu Restoration

GOVERNMENT

* Emperor

* List * Family tree

* Amban
Amban
* Cup of Solid Gold
Cup of Solid Gold
* Deliberative Council * Flag of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
* Grand Council * Great Qing Legal Code * Imperial Clan Court * Imperial Commissioner * Imperial Household Department * Lifan Yuan * Ministry of Posts and Communications
Ministry of Posts and Communications
* Nine Gates Infantry Commander * Provincial governor * Provincial military commander * Qinding Xianfa Dagang * Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty

* Viceroys

* Zhili * Shaan-Gan * Liangjiang * Huguang * Sichuan * Min-Zhe * Liangguang * Yun-Gui * Three Northeast Provinces

* Zongli Yamen

MILITARY

* Military of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
* Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
* Chu Army * Eight Banners * Ever Victorious Army * Green Standard Army * Huai Army * Hushenying * Imperial Guards Brigade
Imperial Guards Brigade
* New Army
New Army
* Peking Field Force * Shuishiying * Wuwei Corps
Wuwei Corps
* Xiang Army
Xiang Army

* Manchuria under Qing rule * Mongolia under Qing rule

* Administrative divisions

* Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in Inner Asia

* Taiwan under Qing rule
Taiwan under Qing rule

* Provincial Administration Hall

* Tibet under Qing rule

* Golden Urn
Golden Urn
* List of imperial residents

* Xinjiang under Qing rule
Xinjiang under Qing rule

* General of Ili

Palaces border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Chengde Mountain Resort * Forbidden City
Forbidden City
* Mukden Palace
Mukden Palace
* Old Summer Palace
Old Summer Palace
* Summer Palace
Summer Palace
* Eastern Qing tombs
Eastern Qing tombs
* Fuling Mausoleum * Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties * Western Qing tombs

Society border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Booi Aha * Changzhou School of Thought * Dibao * Four Wangs * Gujin Tushu Jicheng * History of Ming * Islam during the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
* Kangxi Dictionary
Kangxi Dictionary
* Kaozheng * Literary Inquisition
Literary Inquisition
* Manchu Han Imperial Feast * Peiwen Yunfu * Pentaglot Dictionary
Pentaglot Dictionary
* Qing official headwear * Qing poetry * Quan Tangshi
Quan Tangshi
* Queue * Researches on Manchu Origins * Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
* Shamanism in the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty

* Siku Quanshu
Siku Quanshu

* Zongmu Tiyao

Treaties

* Treaty of Kyakhta (1727) * Treaty of Nerchinsk

* Unequal treaty
Unequal treaty

* Boxer Protocol * Burlingame Treaty * Chefoo Convention * Convention Between Great Britain and China
China
Respecting Tibet * Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory * Convention of Peking
Convention of Peking
* Convention of Tientsin * Li–Lobanov Treaty * Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking
Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking
* Treaty of Aigun * Treaty of the Bogue
Treaty of the Bogue
* Treaty of Canton * Treaty of Kulja * Treaty of Nanking
Treaty of Nanking
* Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881) * Treaty of Shimonoseki * Treaty of Tarbagatai * Treaty of Tientsin
Treaty of Tientsin
* Treaty of Wanghia
Treaty of Wanghia
* Treaty of Whampoa

OTHER TOPICS

* Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
* Anti-Qing sentiment
Anti-Qing sentiment
* Canton System * Chuang Guandong * Draft History of Qing * Imperial hunt of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
* Manchu people * Names of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
* New Qing History * Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
coinage * Qing conquest theory * Timeline of late anti-Qing rebellions * Treaty ports * Willow Palisade
Willow Palisade

‹The template Chinese history topics is being considered for deletion .› Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → N. & S. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* GND : 4172641-8 * NDL : 00560070

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