The Info List - Fingilish

پ ت ث
ح خ د
ر ز ژ س
ص ض
ط ظ
ع غ ف ق
ک گ
ل م ن و

Perso-Arabic script

Transliteration Diacritics Hamza Numerals Numeration

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of Persian or Latinization of Persian is the representation of the Persian language
Persian language
(Farsi, Dari and Tajik) with the Latin script. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.


1 Romanization

1.1 Transliteration 1.2 Transcription

2 Main romanization schemes

2.1 Comparison table 2.2 Pre-Islamic period

3 Other romanization schemes

3.1 Bahá'í Persian romanization 3.2 ASCII Internet romanizations 3.3 Tajik Latin alphabet 3.4 UniPers

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

paradigms[edit] Because the Perso- Arabic script
Arabic script
is an abjad writing system (with a consonant-heavy inventory of letters), many distinct words in standard Persian can have identical spellings, with widely varying pronunciations that differ in their (unwritten) vowel sounds. Thus a romanization paradigm can follow either transliteration (which mirrors spelling and orthography) or transcription (which mirrors pronunciation and phonology). The Latin script
Latin script
plays in Iran the role of a second script. For the proof of this assertion it is sufficient to take a look at the city and street signs or the Internet addresses in all countries. On the other hand, experience has shown that efforts to teach millions of Iranian young people abroad in reading and writing Persian mostly prove to be unsuccessful, due to the lack of daily contact with the Persian script. It seems that a way out of this dilemma has been found; and that is the use of the Latin script
Latin script
parallel to the Persian script. Transliteration[edit] Transliteration
(in the strict sense) attempts to be a complete representation of the original writing, so that an informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words. Transliterations of Persian are used to represent individual Persian words or short quotations, in scholarly texts in English or other languages that do not use the Arabic alphabet. A transliteration will still have separate representations for different consonants of the Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
that are pronounced identically in Persian. Therefore, transliterations of Persian are often based on transliterations of Arabic.[1] The representation of the vowels of the Perso-Arabic alphabet is also complex, and transliterations are based on the written form. Transliterations commonly used in the English-speaking world include BGN/PCGN romanization
BGN/PCGN romanization
and ALA-LC Romanization. Non-academic English-language quotation of Persian words usually uses a simplification of one of the strict transliteration schemes (typically omitting diacritical marks) and/or unsystematic choices of spellings meant to guide English speakers using English spelling rules towards an approximation of the Persian sounds. Transcription[edit] Transcriptions of Persian attempt to straightforwardly represent Persian phonology
Persian phonology
in the Latin script, without requiring a close or reversible correspondence with the Perso-Arabic script, and also without requiring a close correspondence to English phonetic values of Roman letters. Main romanization schemes[edit]

DMG (1969), a strict scientific system by the German Oriental Society (Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft). It corresponds to Deutsches Institut für Normung standard DIN 31635.[2] ALA-LC (1997), the ALA-LC romanization.[3] BGN/PCGN (1958), the BGN/PCGN romanization.[4] EI (1960), the system used in early editions of Encyclopædia Iranica.[2] EI (2012), its contemporary modification.[5] UN (1967), the Iranian national system (1966), that was approved by the UNGEGN
in 1967.[6][7] UN (2012), its contemporary modification.[6][8]

Comparison table[edit]


Unicode Persian letter IPA DMG (1969) ALA-LC (1997) BGN/PCGN (1958) EI (1960) EI (2012) UN (1967) UN (2012)

U+0627 ا ʔ, ∅[a] ʾ, —[b] ’, —[b] ʾ

U+0628 ب b b

U+067E پ p p

U+062A ت t t

U+062B ث s s̱ s̱ s̄ t͟h ṯ s̄ s

U+062C ج dʒ ǧ j j d͟j j j

U+0686 چ tʃ č ch ch č č ch č

U+062D ح h ḥ ḥ ḩ/ḥ[c] ḥ ḥ ḩ h

U+062E خ x ḫ kh kh k͟h ḵ kh x

U+062F د d d

U+0630 ذ z ẕ ẕ z̄ d͟h ḏ z̄ z

U+0631 ر r r

U+0632 ز z z

U+0698 ژ ʒ ž zh zh z͟h ž zh ž

U+0633 س s s

U+0634 ش ʃ š sh sh s͟h š sh š

U+0635 ص s ṣ ṣ ş/ṣ[c] ṣ ṣ ş s

U+0636 ض z ż z̤ ẕ ḍ ż ẕ z

U+0637 ط t ṭ ṭ ţ/ṭ[c] ṭ ṭ ţ t

U+0638 ظ z ẓ ẓ z̧/ẓ[c] ẓ ẓ z̧ z

U+0639 ع ∅ ʿ ‘ ’[b] ‘ ‘ ʿ ʿ

U+063A غ ɢ~ɣ ġ gh gh g͟h ḡ gh q

U+0641 ف f f

U+0642 ق ɢ~ɣ q ḳ ḳ q

U+06A9 ک k k

U+06AF گ ɡ g

U+0644 ل l l

U+0645 م m m

U+0646 ن n n

U+0648 و v~w[a][d] v v, w[e] v

U+0647 ه h[a] h h h[f] h h h[f] h[f]

U+0629 ة ∅, t — h[g] — t[h] h[g] — —

U+06CC ی j[a] y

U+0621 ء ʔ, ∅ ʾ ’ ʾ

U+0624 ؤ ʔ, ∅ ʾ ’ ʾ

U+0626 ئ ʔ, ∅ ʾ ’ ʾ


Unicode Final Medial Initial Isolated IPA DMG (1969) ALA-LC (1997) BGN/PCGN (1958) EI (2012) UN (1967) UN (2012)

U+064E ◌َ‎ ◌َ‎ اَ‎ ◌َ‎ æ a a a a a a

U+064F ◌ُ‎ ◌ُ‎ اُ‎ ◌ُ‎ o o o o u o o

U+0648 U+064F ◌ﻮَ‎ ◌ﻮَ‎ — ◌وَ‎ o[j] o o o u o o

U+0650 ◌ِ‎ ◌ِ‎ اِ‎ ◌ِ‎ e e i e e e e

U+064E U+0627 ◌َا‎ ◌َا‎ أ‎ ◌َا‎ ɑː~ɒː ā ā ā ā ā ā

U+0622 ◌ﺂ‎ ◌ﺂ‎ آ‎ ◌آ‎ ɑː~ɒː ā, ʾā[k] ā, ’ā[k] ā ā ā ā

U+064E U+06CC ◌َﯽ‎ — — ◌َی‎ ɑː~ɒː ā á á ā á ā

U+06CC U+0670 ◌ﯽٰ‎ — — ◌یٰ‎ ɑː~ɒː ā á á ā ā ā

U+064F U+0648 ◌ُﻮ‎ ◌ُﻮ‎ اُو‎ ◌ُو‎ uː, oː[e] ū ū ū u, ō[e] ū u

U+0650 U+06CC ◌ِﯽ‎ ◌ِﯿ‎ اِﯾ‎ ◌ِی‎ iː, eː[e] ī ī ī i, ē[e] ī i

U+064E U+0648 ◌َﻮ‎ ◌َﻮ‎ اَو‎ ◌َو‎ ow~aw[e] au aw ow ow, aw[e] ow ow

U+064E U+06CC ◌َﯽ‎ ◌َﯿ‎ اَﯾ‎ ◌َی‎ ej~aj[e] ai ay ey ey, ay[e] ey ey

U+064E U+06CC ◌ﯽ‎ — — ◌ی‎ –e, –je –e, –ye –i, –yi –e, –ye –e, –ye –e, –ye –e, –ye

U+06C0 ◌ﮥ‎ — — ◌ﮤ‎ –je –ye –’i –ye –ye –ye –ye


^ a b c d Used as a vowel as well. ^ a b c Hamza
and ayn are not transliterated at the beginning of words. ^ a b c d The dot below may be used instead of cedilla. ^ At the beginning of words the combination ⟨خو⟩ was pronounced /xw/ or /xʷ/ in Classical Persian. In modern varieties the glide /ʷ/ has been lost, though the spelling has not been changed. It may be still heard in Dari as a relict pronunciation. The combination /xʷa/ was changed to /xo/ (see below). ^ a b c d e f g h i In Dari. ^ a b c Not transliterated at the end of words. ^ a b In the combination ⟨یة⟩ at the end of words. ^ When used instead of ⟨ت⟩ at the end of words. ^ Diacritical signs (harakat) are rarely written. ^ After ⟨خ⟩ from the earlier /xʷa/. Often transliterated as xwa or xva. For example, خو ر /xor/ "sun" was /xʷar/ in Classical Persian. ^ a b After vowels.

Pre-Islamic period[edit] In the pre-Islamic period Old and Middle Persian employed various scripts including Old Persian cuneiform, Pahlavi and Avestan scripts. For each period there are established transcriptions and transliterations by prominent linguists.[5][9][10][11][12]

IPA Old Persian[i][ii] Middle Persian (Pahlavi)[i] Avestan[i]


p p

f f

b b

β~ʋ~w — β β/w

t t t, t̰

θ θ/ϑ

d d

ð — (δ) δ

θr ç/ϑʳ θʳ/ϑʳ

s s

z z

ʃ š š, š́, ṣ̌

ʒ ž

c~tʃ c/č

ɟ~dʒ j/ǰ

k k

x x x, x́

xʷ xʷ/xᵛ

g g g, ġ

ɣ ɣ/γ

h h

m m m, m̨

ŋ — ŋ, ŋʷ

ŋʲ — ŋ́

n n n, ń, ṇ

r r

l l

w~ʋ~v v w v

j y y, ẏ



a a

ã — ą, ą̇

ə — ə

e — (e) e

i i

o — (o) o

u u


aː ā

ɑː~ɒː — å/ā̊

ə — ə̄

əː — ē

iː ī

oː — ō

uː ū


^ a b c Slash signifies equal variants. ^ There exist some differences in transcription of Old Persian preferred by different scholars:

ā = â ī, ū = i, u x = kh, ḵ, ḥ, ḫ c/č = ǩ j/ǰ = ǧ θ = ϑ, þ, th, ṯ, ṭ ç = tr, θʳ, ϑʳ, ṙ, s͜s, s̀ f = p̱ y, v = j, w.

Other romanization schemes[edit] Bahá'í Persian romanization[edit] Main article: Bahá'í orthography Bahá'ís use a system standardized by Shoghi Effendi, which he initiated in a general letter on March 12, 1923.[13] The Bahá'í transliteration scheme was based on a standard adopted by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists which took place in Geneva
in September 1894. Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi
changed some details of the Congress's system, most notably in the use of digraphs in certain cases (e.g. sh instead of š), and in incorporating the solar letters when writing the definite article al- (Arabic: ال) according to pronunciation (e.g. ar-Rahim, as-Saddiq, instead of al-Rahim, al-Saddiq). A detailed introduction to the Bahá'í Persian romanization can usually be found at the back of a Bahá'í scripture. ASCII Internet romanizations[edit] It is common to write Persian language
Persian language
with only the Latin alphabet (as opposed to the Persian alphabet) especially in online chat, social networks, emails and SMS. It has developed and spread due to a former lack of software supporting the Persian alphabet, and/or due to a lack of knowledge about the software that was available. Although Persian writing is supported in recent operating systems, there are still many cases where the Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
is unavailable and there is a need for an alternative way to write Persian with the basic Latin alphabet. This way of writing is sometimes called Fingilish or Pingilish (a portmanteau of Farsi or Persian and English). In most cases this is an ad hoc simplification of the scientific systems listed above (such as ALA-LC or BGN/PCGN), but ignoring any special letters or diacritical signs.

Tajik Latin alphabet[edit] Main article: Tajik alphabet The Tajik language
Tajik language
or Tajik Persian is a variety of the Persian language. It was written in Tajik SSR
Tajik SSR
in a standardized Latin script from 1926 until the late 1930s, when the script was officially changed to Cyrillic. However, Tajik phonology differs slightly from that of Persian in Iran. As the result of these two factors romanization schemes of the Tajik Cyrillic script follow rather different principles.[14]

The Tajik alphabet
Tajik alphabet
in Latin (1928-1940)[15]

A a B ʙ C c Ç ç D d E e F f G g Ƣ
ƣ H h I i Ī ī

/a/ /b/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /d/ /e/ /f/ /ɡ/ /ʁ/ /h/ /i/ /ˈi/

J j K k L l M m N n O o P p Q q R r S s Ş ş T t

/j/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /o/ /p/ /q/ /ɾ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t/

U u Ū ū V v X x Z z Ƶ
ƶ '

/u/ /ɵ/ /v/ /χ/ /z/ /ʒ/ /ʔ/

UniPers[edit] UniPers (Persian: پارسى جهانى‎, Pârsiye Jahâni) is a devised Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
for Persian. It focuses on making Persian easier to read, as opposed to the Perso-Arabic script. There are a lot of spelling rules and exceptions one must memorize in the Perso-Arabic script, and the UniPers Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
contains a simpler and a more consistent orthography. UniPers intends to make Persian language
Persian language
and culture readily available to all individuals regardless of education level, background, race, etc.[16]

Sample script

Tamâme afrâde bašar âzâd be donyâ miâyand va az lehâze heysiyato hoquq bâ ham barâbarand. Hame dârâye aqlo vejdân mibâšand va bâyad nesbat be yekdigar bâ ruhe barâdari raftâr konand.

See also[edit]

Iran portal Languages portal

Persian alphabet Persian language
Persian language
tutorial books for beginners Persian phonology Romanization
of Arabic Syriac Latin alphabet


^ Joachim, Martin D. (1993). Languages of the world: cataloging issues and problems. New York: Haworth Press. p. 137. ISBN 1560245204.  ^ a b Pedersen, Thomas T. "Persian (Farsi)" (PDF). Transliteration
of Non-Roman Scripts.  ^ "Persian" (PDF). The Library of Congress.  ^ " Romanization
system for Persian (Dari and Farsi). BGN/PCGN 1958 System" (PDF).  ^ a b "Transliteration". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ a b "Persian" (PDF). UNGEGN.  ^ Toponymic Guidelines for map and other editors – Revised edition 1998. Working Paper No. 41. Submitted by the Islamic Republic of Iran. UNGEGN, 20th session. New York, 17–28 January 2000. ^ New Persian Romanization
System. E/CONF.101/118/Rev.1*. Tenth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names. New York, 31 July – 9 August 2012. ^ Bartholomae, Christian (1904). Altiranisches Wörterbuch. Strassburg. p. XXIII.  ^ Kent, Roland G. (1950). Old Persian. New Heaven, Connecticut. pp. 12–13.  ^ MacKenzie, D. N. (1971). "Transcription". A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. London.  ^ Hoffmann, Karl; Forssman, Bernhard (1996). Avestische Laut- und Flexionslehre. Innsbruck. pp. 41–44. ISBN 3-85124-652-7.  ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1974). Bahá'í Administration. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 43. ISBN 0-87743-166-3.  ^ Pedersen, Thomas T. "Tajik" (PDF). Transliteration
of Non-Roman Scripts.  ^ Perry, John R. (2005). A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar. Brill. pp. 34–35.  ^ "UniPers". UniPers: A 21st Century Alphabet for the Persian Language. 

External links[edit]

Comparison of DMG, UN, ALA-LC, BGN/PCGN, EI, ISO 233-3 transliterations Transliteration
of Non-Roman Scripts Iranian Committee on the Standardization of Geographical Names (ICSGN)

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