Film noir (; ) is a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas
, particularly those that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. The 1940s and 1950s are generally regarded as the "classic period" of American ''film noir''. Film noir of this era is associated with a low-key
visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography
. Many of the prototypical stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled
school of crime fiction
that emerged in the United States during the Great Depression
The term ''film noir'', French for 'black film' (literal) or 'dark film' (closer meaning), was first applied to Hollywood films by French critic Nino Frank
in 1946, but was unrecognized by most American film industry professionals of that era. Cinema historians and critics defined the category retrospectively. Before the notion was widely adopted in the 1970s, many of the classic films noir were referred to as "melodrama
s". Whether film noir qualifies as a distinct genre
is a matter of ongoing debate among scholars.
Film noir encompasses a range of plots: the central figure may be a private investigator (''The Big Sleep
''), a plainclothes policeman
(''The Big Heat
''), an aging boxer (''The Set-Up
''), a hapless grifter
(''Night and the City
''), a law-abiding citizen lured into a life of crime (''Gun Crazy
''), or simply a victim of circumstance (''D.O.A.
''). Although film noir was originally associated with American productions, the term has been used to describe films from around the world. Many films released from the 1960s onward share attributes with film noirs of the classical period, and often treat its conventions self-referentially
. Some refer to such latter-day works as neo-noir
. The clichés of film noir have inspired parody since the mid-1940s.
Problems of definition
The questions of what defines film noir, and what sort of category it is, provoke continuing debate. "We'd be oversimplifying things in calling film noir oneiric
, strange, erotic, ambivalent, and cruel ..."—this set of attributes constitutes the first of many attempts to define film noir made by French critics Raymond Borde
and Étienne Chaumeton in their 1955 book ''Panorama du film noir américain 1941–1953'' (''A Panorama of American Film Noir''), the original and seminal extended treatment of the subject. They emphasize that not every film noir embodies all five attributes in equal measure—one might be more dreamlike; another, particularly brutal. The authors' caveats and repeated efforts at alternative definition have been echoed in subsequent scholarship: in the more than five decades since, there have been innumerable further attempts at definition, yet in the words of cinema historian Mark Bould, film noir remains an "elusive phenomenon ... always just out of reach".
Though film noir is often identified with a visual style, unconventional within a Hollywood context, that emphasizes low-key lighting
and unbalanced compositions
, films commonly identified as noir evidence a variety of visual approaches, including ones that fit comfortably within the Hollywood mainstream. Film noir similarly embraces a variety of genres, from the gangster film
to the police procedural
to the gothic romance
to the social problem picture
—any example of which from the 1940s and 1950s, now seen as noir's classical era, was likely to be described as a melodrama at the time.
While many critics refer to film noir as a genre itself, others argue that it can be no such thing. Foster Hirsch defines a genre as determined by "conventions of narrative structure, characterization, theme, and visual design". Hirsch, as one who has taken the position that film noir is a genre, argues that these elements are present "in abundance". Hirsch notes that there are unifying features of tone, visual style and narrative sufficient to classify noir as a distinct genre.
Others argue that film noir is not a genre. Film noir is often associated with an urban setting, but many classic noirs take place in small towns, suburbia, rural areas, or on the open road; setting, therefore, cannot be its genre determinant, as with the Western
. Similarly, while the private eye
and the femme fatale
are stock character
types conventionally identified with noir, the majority of film noirs feature neither; so there is no character basis for genre designation as with the gangster film. Nor does film noir rely on anything as evident as the monstrous or supernatural elements of the horror film
, the speculative leaps of the science fiction film
, or the song-and-dance routines of the musical
An analogous case is that of the screwball comedy
, widely accepted by film historians as constituting a "genre": the screwball is defined not by a fundamental attribute, but by a general disposition and a group of elements, some—but rarely and perhaps never all—of which are found in each of the genre's films. Because of the diversity of noir (much greater than that of the screwball comedy), certain scholars in the field, such as film historian Thomas Schatz, treat it as not a genre but a "style". Alain Silver
, the most widely published American critic specializing in film noir studies, refers to film noir as a "cycle" and a "phenomenon", even as he argues that it has—like certain genres—a consistent set of visual and thematic codes. Screenwriter Eric R. Williams
labels both film noir and screwball comedy as a "pathway" in his screenwriters taxonomy; explaining that a pathway has two parts: 1) the way the audience connects with the protagonist and 2) the trajectory the audience expects the story to follow. Other critics treat film noir as a "mood", characterize it as a "series", or simply address a chosen set of films they regard as belonging to the noir "canon". There is no consensus on the matter.
The aesthetics of film noir are influenced by German Expressionism
, an artistic movement of the 1910s and 1920s that involved theater, photography, painting, sculpture and architecture, as well as cinema. The opportunities offered by the booming Hollywood film industry and then the threat of Nazi
sm, led to the emigration of many film artists working in Germany who had been involved in the Expressionist movement or studied with its practitioners. ''M
'' (1931), shot only a few years before director Fritz Lang
's departure from Germany, is among the first crime films of the sound era
to join a characteristically noirish visual style with a noir-type plot, in which the protagonist is a criminal (as are his most successful pursuers). Directors such as Lang, Jacques Tourneur
, Robert Siodmak
and Michael Curtiz
brought a dramatically shadowed lighting style and a psychologically expressive approach to visual composition (''mise-en-scène
''), with them to Hollywood, where they made some of the most famous classic noirs.
By 1931, Curtiz had already been in Hollywood for half a decade, making as many as six films a year. Movies of his such as ''20,000 Years in Sing Sing
'' (1932) and ''Private Detective 62
'' (1933) are among the early Hollywood sound films arguably classifiable as noir—scholar Marc Vernet offers the latter as evidence that dating the initiation of film noir to 1940 or any other year is "arbitrary". Expressionism-orientated filmmakers had free stylistic rein in Universal
horror pictures such as ''Dracula
'' (1931), ''The Mummy
'' (1932)—the former photographed
and the latter directed by the Berlin-trained Karl Freund
—and ''The Black Cat
'' (1934), directed by Austrian émigré Edgar G. Ulmer
. The Universal horror film that comes closest to noir, in story and sensibility, is ''The Invisible Man
'' (1933), directed by Englishman James Whale
and photographed by American Arthur Edeson
. Edeson later photographed ''The Maltese Falcon
'' (1941), widely regarded as the first major film noir of the classic era.
Josef von Sternberg
was directing in Hollywood during the same period. Films of his such as ''Shanghai Express
'' (1932) and ''The Devil Is a Woman
'' (1935), with their hothouse eroticism and baroque visual style, anticipated central elements of classic noir. The commercial and critical success of Sternberg's silent ''Underworld
'' (1927) was largely responsible for spurring a trend of Hollywood gangster films. Successful films in that genre such as ''Little Caesar
'' (1931), ''The Public Enemy
'' (1931) and ''Scarface
'' (1932) demonstrated that there was an audience for crime dramas with morally reprehensible protagonists. An important, possibly influential, cinematic antecedent to classic noir was 1930s French poetic realism
, with its romantic, fatalistic
attitude and celebration of doomed heroes. The movement's sensibility is mirrored in the Warner Bros.
drama ''I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang
'' (1932), a forerunner of noir. Among films not considered film noirs, perhaps none had a greater effect on the development of the genre than ''Citizen Kane
'' (1941), directed by Orson Welles
. Its visual intricacy and complex, voiceover
narrative structure are echoed in dozens of classic film noirs.
of the 1940s, with its emphasis on quasi-documentary authenticity, was an acknowledged influence on trends that emerged in American noir. ''The Lost Weekend
'' (1945), directed by Billy Wilder
, another Vienna-born, Berlin-trained American auteur
, tells the story of an alcoholic in a manner evocative of neorealism. It also exemplifies the problem of classification: one of the first American films to be described as a film noir, it has largely disappeared from considerations of the field. Director Jules Dassin
of ''The Naked City
'' (1948) pointed to the neorealists as inspiring his use of location photography with non-professional extras. This semidocumentary
approach characterized a substantial number of noirs in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Along with neorealism, the style had an American precedent cited by Dassin, in director Henry Hathaway
's ''The House on 92nd Street
'' (1945), which demonstrated the parallel influence of the cinematic newsreel.
The primary literary influence on film noir was the hardboiled
school of American detective
and crime fiction
, led in its early years by such writers as Dashiell Hammett
(whose first novel, ''Red Harvest
'', was published in 1929) and James M. Cain
(whose ''The Postman Always Rings Twice
'' appeared five years later), and popularized in pulp magazine
s such as ''Black Mask
''. The classic film noirs ''The Maltese Falcon
'' (1941) and ''The Glass Key
'' (1942) were based on novels by Hammett; Cain's novels provided the basis for ''Double Indemnity
'' (1944), ''Mildred Pierce
'' (1945), ''The Postman Always Rings Twice
'' (1946), and ''Slightly Scarlet
'' (1956; adapted from ''Love's Lovely Counterfeit''). A decade before the classic era, a story by Hammett was the source for the gangster melodrama ''City Streets
'' (1931), directed by Rouben Mamoulian
and photographed by Lee Garmes
, who worked regularly with Sternberg. Released the month before Lang's ''M'', ''City Streets'' has a claim to being the first major film noir; both its style and story had many noir characteristics.
, who debuted as a novelist with ''The Big Sleep
'' in 1939, soon became the most famous author of the hardboiled school. Not only were Chandler's novels turned into major noirs—''Murder, My Sweet
'' (1944; adapted from ''Farewell, My Lovely
''), ''The Big Sleep
'' (1946), and ''Lady in the Lake
'' (1947)—he was an important screenwriter
in the genre as well, producing the scripts for ''Double Indemnity'', ''The Blue Dahlia
'' (1946), and ''Strangers on a Train
'' (1951). Where Chandler, like Hammett, centered most of his novels and stories on the character of the private eye, Cain featured less heroic protagonists and focused more on psychological exposition than on crime solving; the Cain approach has come to be identified with a subset of the hardboiled genre dubbed "noir fiction
". For much of the 1940s, one of the most prolific and successful authors of this often downbeat brand of suspense tale was Cornell Woolrich
(sometimes under the pseudonym George Hopley or William Irish). No writer's published work provided the basis for more film noirs of the classic period than Woolrich's: thirteen in all, including ''Black Angel
'' (1946), ''Deadline at Dawn
'' (1946), and ''Fear in the Night
Another crucial literary source for film noir was W. R. Burnett
, whose first novel to be published was ''Little Caesar'', in 1929. It was turned into a hit for Warner Bros.
in 1931; the following year, Burnett was hired to write dialogue for ''Scarface'', while ''The Beast of the City
'' (1932) was adapted from one of his stories. At least one important reference work identifies the latter as a film noir despite its early date. Burnett's characteristic narrative approach fell somewhere between that of the quintessential hardboiled writers and their noir fiction compatriots—his protagonists were often heroic in their own way, which happened to be that of the gangster. During the classic era, his work, either as author or screenwriter, was the basis for seven films now widely regarded as film noirs, including three of the most famous: ''High Sierra
'' (1941), ''This Gun for Hire
'' (1942), and ''The Asphalt Jungle
The 1940s and 1950s are generally regarded as the "classic period" of American ''film noir''. While ''City Streets'' and other pre-WWII crime melodramas such as ''Fury
'' (1936) and ''You Only Live Once
'' (1937), both directed by Fritz Lang, are categorized as full-fledged ''noir'' in Alain Silver and Elizabeth Ward's ''film noir'' encyclopedia, other critics tend to describe them as "proto-noir" or in similar terms.
The film now most commonly cited as the first "true" ''film noir'' is ''Stranger on the Third Floor
'' (1940), directed by Latvian-born, Soviet-trained Boris Ingster
[See, e.g., Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 19; Irwin (2006), p. 210; Lyons (2000), p. 36; Porfirio (1980), p. 269.]
Hungarian émigré Peter Lorre
—who had starred in Lang's ''M
''—was top-billed, although he did not play the primary lead. He later played secondary roles
in several other formative American noirs. Although modestly budgeted, at the high end of the B movie
scale, ''Stranger on the Third Floor'' still lost its studio, RKO
, US$56,000 (), almost a third of its total cost. ''Variety
'' magazine found Ingster's work: "...too studied and when original, lacks the flare to hold attention. It's a film too arty for average audiences, and too humdrum for others." ''Stranger on the Third Floor'' was not recognized as the beginning of a trend, let alone a new genre, for many decades.
Most film noirs of the classic period were similarly low- and modestly-budgeted features without major stars—B movies either literally or in spirit. In this production context, writers, directors, cinematographers, and other craftsmen were relatively free from typical big-picture constraints. There was more visual experimentation than in Hollywood filmmaking as a whole: the Expressionism now closely associated with noir and the semi-documentary style that later emerged represent two very different tendencies. Narrative structures sometimes involved convoluted flashbacks uncommon in non-noir commercial productions. In terms of content, enforcement of the Production Code ensured that no film character could literally get away with murder or be seen sharing a bed with anyone but a spouse; within those bounds, however, many films now identified as noir feature plot elements and dialogue that were very risqué for the time.
Thematically, film noirs were most exceptional for the relative frequency with which they centered on portrayals of women of questionable virtue—a focus that had become rare in Hollywood films after the mid-1930s and the end of the pre-Code era. The signal film in this vein was ''Double Indemnity'', directed by Billy Wilder; setting the mold was Barbara Stanwyck's unforgettable femme fatale, Phyllis Dietrichson—an apparent nod to Marlene Dietrich, who had built her extraordinary career playing such characters for Sternberg. An A-level feature all the way, the film's commercial success and seven Oscar nominations made it probably the most influential of the early noirs. A slew of now-renowned noir "bad girls" followed, such as those played by Rita Hayworth in ''Gilda'' (1946), Lana Turner in ''The Postman Always Rings Twice'' (1946), Ava Gardner in ''The Killers'' (1946), and Jane Greer in ''Out of the Past'' (1947). The iconic noir counterpart to the femme fatale, the private eye, came to the fore in films such as ''The Maltese Falcon'' (1941), with Humphrey Bogart as Sam Spade, and ''Murder, My Sweet'' (1944), with Dick Powell as Philip Marlowe.
The prevalence of the private eye as a lead character declined in film noir of the 1950s, a period during which several critics describe the form as becoming more focused on extreme psychologies and more exaggerated in general. A prime example is ''Kiss Me Deadly'' (1955); based on a novel by Mickey Spillane, the best-selling of all the hardboiled authors, here the protagonist is a private eye, Mike Hammer. As described by Paul Schrader, "Robert Aldrich's teasing direction carries ''noir'' to its sleaziest and most perversely erotic. Hammer overturns the underworld in search of the 'great whatsit' hichturns out to be—joke of jokes—an exploding atomic bomb." Orson Welles's baroquely styled ''Touch of Evil'' (1958) is frequently cited as the last noir of the classic period. Some scholars believe film noir never really ended, but continued to transform even as the characteristic noir visual style began to seem dated and changing production conditions led Hollywood in different directions—in this view, post-1950s films in the noir tradition are seen as part of a continuity with classic noir. A majority of critics, however, regard comparable films made outside the classic era to be something other than genuine film noirs. They regard true film noir as belonging to a temporally and geographically limited cycle or period, treating subsequent films that evoke the classics as fundamentally different due to general shifts in filmmaking style and latter-day awareness of noir as a historical source for allusion.
Directors and the business of noir
While the inceptive noir, ''Stranger on the Third Floor'', was a B picture directed by a virtual unknown, many of the film noirs still remembered were A-list productions by well-known film makers. Debuting as a director with ''The Maltese Falcon'' (1941), John Huston followed with ''Key Largo'' (1948) and ''The Asphalt Jungle'' (1950). Opinion is divided on the noir status of several Alfred Hitchcock thrillers from the era; at least four qualify by consensus: ''Shadow of a Doubt'' (1943), ''Notorious'' (1946), ''Strangers on a Train'' (1951) and ''The Wrong Man'' (1956), Otto Preminger's success with ''Laura'' (1944) made his name and helped demonstrate noir's adaptability to a high-gloss 20th Century-Fox presentation. Among Hollywood's most celebrated directors of the era, arguably none worked more often in a noir mode than Preminger; his other noirs include ''Fallen Angel'' (1945), ''Whirlpool'' (1949), ''Where the Sidewalk Ends'' (1950) (all for Fox) and ''Angel Face'' (1952). A half-decade after ''Double Indemnity'' and ''The Lost Weekend'', Billy Wilder made ''Sunset Boulevard'' (1950) and ''Ace in the Hole'' (1951), noirs that were not so much crime dramas as satires on Hollywood and the news media. ''In a Lonely Place'' (1950) was Nicholas Ray's breakthrough; his other noirs include his debut, ''They Live by Night'' (1948) and ''On Dangerous Ground'' (1952), noted for their unusually sympathetic treatment of characters alienated from the social mainstream.
Orson Welles had notorious problems with financing but his three film noirs were well budgeted: ''The Lady from Shanghai'' (1947) received top-level, "prestige" backing, while ''The Stranger'' (1946), his most conventional film, and ''Touch of Evil'' (1958), an unmistakably personal work, were funded at levels lower but still commensurate with headlining releases. Like ''The Stranger'', Fritz Lang's ''The Woman in the Window'' (1945) was a production of the independent International Pictures. Lang's follow-up, ''Scarlet Street'' (1945), was one of the few classic noirs to be officially censored: filled with erotic innuendo, it was temporarily banned in Milwaukee, Atlanta and New York State. ''Scarlet Street'' was a semi-independent, cosponsored by Universal and Lang's Diana Productions, of which the film's co-star, Joan Bennett, was the second biggest shareholder. Lang, Bennett and her husband, the Universal veteran and Diana production head Walter Wanger, made ''Secret Beyond the Door'' (1948) in similar fashion.
Before leaving the United States while subject to the Hollywood blacklist, Jules Dassin made two classic noirs that also straddled the major–independent line: ''Brute Force'' (1947) and the influential documentary-style ''The Naked City'' (1948) were developed by producer Mark Hellinger, who had an "inside/outside" contract with Universal similar to Wanger's. Years earlier, working at Warner Bros., Hellinger had produced three films for Raoul Walsh, the proto-noirs ''They Drive by Night'' (1940), ''Manpower'' (1941) and ''High Sierra'' (1941), now regarded as a seminal work in noir's development. Walsh had no great name during his half-century as a director but his noirs ''White Heat'' (1949) and ''The Enforcer'' (1951) had A-list stars and are seen as important examples of the cycle. Other directors associated with top-of-the-bill Hollywood film noirs include Edward Dmytryk (''Murder, My Sweet'' (1944), ''Crossfire'' (1947))—the first important noir director to fall prey to the industry blacklist—as well as Henry Hathaway (''The Dark Corner'' (1946), ''Kiss of Death'' (1947)) and John Farrow (''The Big Clock'' (1948), ''Night Has a Thousand Eyes'' (1948)).
Most of the Hollywood films considered to be classic noirs fall into the category of the "B movie". Some were Bs in the most precise sense, produced to run on the bottom of double bills by a low-budget unit of one of the major studios or by one of the smaller Poverty Row outfits, from the relatively well-off Monogram to shakier ventures such as Producers Releasing Corporation (PRC). Jacques Tourneur had made over thirty Hollywood Bs (a few now highly regarded, most forgotten) before directing the A-level ''Out of the Past'', described by scholar Robert Ottoson as "the ''ne plus ultra'' of forties film noir". Movies with budgets a step up the ladder, known as "intermediates" by the industry, might be treated as A or B pictures depending on the circumstances. Monogram created Allied Artists in the late 1940s to focus on this sort of production. Robert Wise (''Born to Kill'' 947 ''The Set-Up'' 949 and Anthony Mann (''T-Men'' 947and ''Raw Deal'' 948 each made a series of impressive intermediates, many of them noirs, before graduating to steady work on big-budget productions. Mann did some of his most celebrated work with cinematographer John Alton, a specialist in what James Naremore called "hypnotic moments of light-in-darkness". ''He Walked by Night'' (1948), shot by Alton and though credited solely to Alfred Werker, directed in large part by Mann, demonstrates their technical mastery and exemplifies the late 1940s trend of "police procedural" crime dramas. It was released, like other Mann-Alton noirs, by the small Eagle-Lion company; it was the inspiration for the ''Dragnet'' series, which debuted on radio in 1949 and television in 1951.
Several directors associated with noir built well-respected oeuvres largely at the B-movie/intermediate level. Samuel Fuller's brutal, visually energetic films such as ''Pickup on South Street'' (1953) and ''Underworld U.S.A.'' (1961) earned him a unique reputation; his advocates praise him as "primitive" and "barbarous". Joseph H. Lewis directed noirs as diverse as ''Gun Crazy'' (1950) and ''The Big Combo'' (1955). The former—whose screenplay was written by the blacklisted Dalton Trumbo, disguised by a front—features a bank hold-up sequence shown in an unbroken take of over three minutes that was influential. ''The Big Combo'' was shot by John Alton and took the shadowy noir style to its outer limits. The most distinctive films of Phil Karlson (''The Phenix City Story'' 955and ''The Brothers Rico'' 957 tell stories of vice organized on a monstrous scale. The work of other directors in this tier of the industry, such as Felix E. Feist (''The Devil Thumbs a Ride'' 947 ''Tomorrow Is Another Day'' 951, has become obscure. Edgar G. Ulmer spent most of his Hollywood career working at B studios and once in a while on projects that achieved intermediate status; for the most part, on unmistakable Bs. In 1945, while at PRC, he directed a noir cult classic, ''Detour''. Ulmer's other noirs include ''Strange Illusion'' (1945), also for PRC; ''Ruthless'' (1948), for Eagle-Lion, which had acquired PRC the previous year and ''Murder Is My Beat'' (1955), for Allied Artists.
A number of low- and modestly-budgeted noirs were made by independent, often actor-owned, companies contracting with larger studios for distribution. Serving as producer, writer, director and top-billed performer, Hugo Haas made films like ''Pickup'' (1951), ''The Other Woman'' (1954) and Jacques Tourneur, ''The Fearmakers (1958)''). It was in this way that accomplished noir actress Ida Lupino established herself as the sole female director in Hollywood during the late 1940s and much of the 1950s. She does not appear in the best-known film she directed, ''The Hitch-Hiker'' (1953), developed by her company, The Filmakers, with support and distribution by RKO. It is one of the seven classic film noirs produced largely outside of the major studios that have been chosen for the United States National Film Registry. Of the others, one was a small-studio release: ''Detour''. Four were independent productions distributed by United Artists, the "studio without a studio": ''Gun Crazy''; ''Kiss Me Deadly''; ''D.O.A.'' (1950), directed by Rudolph Maté and ''Sweet Smell of Success'' (1957), directed by Alexander Mackendrick. One was an independent distributed by MGM, the industry leader: ''Force of Evil'' (1948), directed by Abraham Polonsky and starring John Garfield, both of whom were blacklisted in the 1950s. Independent production usually meant restricted circumstances but ''Sweet Smell of Success'', despite the plans of the production team, was clearly not made on the cheap, though like many other cherished A-budget noirs, it might be said to have a B-movie soul.
Perhaps no director better displayed that spirit than the German-born Robert Siodmak, who had already made a score of films before his 1940 arrival in Hollywood. Working mostly on A features, he made eight films now regarded as classic-era film noirs (a figure matched only by Lang and Mann). In addition to ''The Killers'', Burt Lancaster's debut and a Hellinger/Universal co-production, Siodmak's other important contributions to the genre include 1944's ''Phantom Lady'' (a top-of-the-line B and Woolrich adaptation), the ironically titled ''Christmas Holiday'' (1944), and ''Cry of the City'' (1948). ''Criss Cross'' (1949), with Lancaster again the lead, exemplifies how Siodmak brought the virtues of the B-movie to the A noir. In addition to the relatively looser constraints on character and message at lower budgets, the nature of B production lent itself to the noir style for economic reasons: dim lighting saved on electricity and helped cloak cheap sets (mist and smoke also served the cause); night shooting was often compelled by hurried production schedules; plots with obscure motivations and intriguingly elliptical transitions were sometimes the consequence of hastily written scripts, of which there was not always enough time or money to shoot every scene. In ''Criss Cross'', Siodmak achieved these effects with purpose, wrapping them around Yvonne De Carlo, playing the most understandable of femme fatales; Dan Duryea, in one of his many charismatic villain roles; and Lancaster as an ordinary laborer turned armed robber, doomed by a romantic obsession.
Outside the United States
Some critics regard classic film noir as a cycle exclusive to the United States; Alain Silver and Elizabeth Ward, for example, argue, "With the Western, film noir shares the distinction of being an indigenous American form ... a wholly American film style." However, although the term "film noir" was originally coined to describe Hollywood movies, it was an international phenomenon. Even before the beginning of the generally accepted classic period, there were films made far from Hollywood that can be seen in retrospect as film noirs, for example, the French productions ''Pépé le Moko'' (1937), directed by Julien Duvivier, and ''Le Jour se lève'' (1939), directed by Marcel Carné. In addition, Mexico experienced a vibrant film noir period from roughly 1946 to 1952, which was around the same time film noir was blossoming in the United States.
During the classic period, there were many films produced in Europe, particularly in France, that share elements of style, theme, and sensibility with American film noirs and may themselves be included in the genre's canon. In certain cases, the interrelationship with Hollywood noir is obvious: American-born director Jules Dassin moved to France in the early 1950s as a result of the Hollywood blacklist, and made one of the most famous French film noirs, ''Rififi'' (1955). Other well-known French films often classified as noir include ''Quai des Orfèvres'' (1947) and ''Les Diaboliques'' (1955), both directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. ''Casque d'Or'' (1952), ''Touchez pas au grisbi'' (1954), and ''Le Trou'' (1960) directed by Jacques Becker; and ''Ascenseur pour l'échafaud'' (1958), directed by Louis Malle. French director Jean-Pierre Melville is widely recognized for his tragic, minimalist film noirs—''Bob le flambeur'' (1955), from the classic period, was followed by ''Le Doulos'' (1962), ''Le deuxième souffle'' (1966), ''Le Samouraï'' (1967), and ''Le Cercle rouge'' (1970).
Scholar Andrew Spicer argues that British film noir evidences a greater debt to French poetic realism than to the expressionistic American mode of noir. Examples of British noir from the classic period include ''Brighton Rock'' (1947), directed by John Boulting; ''They Made Me a Fugitive'' (1947), directed by Alberto Cavalcanti; ''The Small Back Room'' (1948), directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger; ''The October Man'' (1950), directed by Roy Ward Baker; and ''Cast a Dark Shadow'' (1955), directed by Lewis Gilbert. Terence Fisher directed several low-budget thrillers in a noir mode for Hammer Film Productions, including ''The Last Page'' (a.k.a. ''Man Bait''; 1952), ''Stolen Face'' (1952), and ''Murder by Proxy'' (a.k.a. ''Blackout''; 1954). Before leaving for France, Jules Dassin had been obliged by political pressure to shoot his last English-language film of the classic noir period in Great Britain: ''Night and the City'' (1950). Though it was conceived in the United States and was not only directed by an American but also stars two American actors—Richard Widmark and Gene Tierney—it is technically a UK production, financed by 20th Century-Fox's British subsidiary. The most famous of classic British noirs is director Carol Reed's ''The Third Man'' (1949), from a screenplay by Graham Greene. Set in Vienna immediately after World War II, it also stars two American actors, Joseph Cotten and Orson Welles, who had appeared together in ''Citizen Kane''.
Elsewhere, Italian director Luchino Visconti adapted Cain's ''The Postman Always Rings Twice'' as ''Ossessione'' (1943), regarded both as one of the great noirs and a seminal film in the development of neorealism. (This was not even the first screen version of Cain's novel, having been preceded by the French ''Le Dernier Tournant'' in 1939.) In Japan, the celebrated Akira Kurosawa directed several films recognizable as film noirs, including ''Drunken Angel'' (1948), ''Stray Dog'' (1949), ''The Bad Sleep Well'' (1960), and ''High and Low'' (1963). Spanish author Mercedes Formica's novel ''La ciudad perdida'' (The Lost City) was adapted into film in 1960.
Among the first major neo-noir films—the term often applied to films that consciously refer back to the classic noir tradition—was the French ''Tirez sur le pianiste'' (1960), directed by François Truffaut from a novel by one of the gloomiest of American noir fiction writers, David Goodis. Noir crime films and melodramas have been produced in many countries in the post-classic area. Some of these are quintessentially self-aware neo-noirs—for example, ''Il Conformista'' (1969; Italy), ''Der Amerikanische Freund'' (1977; Germany), ''The Element of Crime'' (1984; Denmark), and ''El Aura'' (2005; Argentina). Others simply share narrative elements and a version of the hardboiled sensibility associated with classic noir, such as ''Castle of Sand'' (1974; Japan), ''Insomnia'' (1997; Norway), ''Croupier'' (1998; UK), and ''Blind Shaft'' (2003; China).
Neo-noir and echoes of the classic mode
The neo-noir film genre developed mid-way into the Cold War. This cinematological trend reflected much of the cynicism and the possibility of nuclear annihilation of the era. This new genre introduced innovations that were not available with the earlier noir films. The violence was also more potent.
1960s and 1970s
While it is hard to draw a line between some of the noir films of the early 1960s such as ''Blast of Silence'' (1961) and ''Cape Fear'' (1962) and the noirs of the late 1950s, new trends emerged in the post-classic era. ''The Manchurian Candidate'' (1962), directed by John Frankenheimer, ''Shock Corridor'' (1963), directed by Samuel Fuller, and ''Brainstorm'' (1965), directed by experienced noir character actor William Conrad, all treat the theme of mental dispossession within stylistic and tonal frameworks derived from classic film noir.
[ ''The Manchurian Candidate'' examined the situation of American prisoners of war (POWs) during the Korean War. Incidents that occurred during the war as well as those post-war, functioned as an inspiration for a "Cold War Noir" subgenre.] The television series ''The Fugitive'' (1963–67) brought classic noir themes and mood to the small screen for an extended run. [Ursini (1995), pp. 284–86; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 278.]
In a different vein, films began to appear that self-consciously acknowledged the conventions of classic film noir as historical archetypes to be revived, rejected, or reimagined. These efforts typify what came to be known as neo-noir. Though several late classic noirs, ''Kiss Me Deadly'' in particular, were deeply self-knowing and post-traditional in conception, none tipped its hand so evidently as to be remarked on by American critics at the time. The first major film to overtly work this angle was French director Jean-Luc Godard's ''À bout de souffle'' (''Breathless''; 1960), which pays its literal respects to Bogart and his crime films while brandishing a bold new style for a new day. In the United States, Arthur Penn (1965's ''Mickey One'', drawing inspiration from Truffaut's ''Tirez sur le pianiste'' and other French New Wave films), John Boorman (1967's ''Point Blank'', similarly caught up, though in the ''Nouvelle vague'''s deeper waters), and Alan J. Pakula (1971's ''Klute'') directed films that knowingly related themselves to the original film noirs, inviting audiences in on the game.
A manifest affiliation with noir traditions—which, by its nature, allows different sorts of commentary on them to be inferred—can also provide the basis for explicit critiques of those traditions. In 1973, director Robert Altman flipped off noir piety with ''The Long Goodbye''. Based on the novel by Raymond Chandler, it features one of Bogart's most famous characters, but in iconoclastic fashion: Philip Marlowe, the prototypical hardboiled detective, is replayed as a hapless misfit, almost laughably out of touch with contemporary mores and morality. Where Altman's subversion of the film noir mythos was so irreverent as to outrage some contemporary critics, around the same time Woody Allen was paying affectionate, at points idolatrous homage to the classic mode with ''Play It Again, Sam'' (1972). The "blaxploitation" film ''Shaft'' (1971), wherein Richard Roundtree plays the titular African-American private eye, John Shaft, takes conventions from classic noir.
The most acclaimed of the neo-noirs of the era was director Roman Polanski's 1974 ''Chinatown''. Written by Robert Towne, it is set in 1930s Los Angeles, an accustomed noir locale nudged back some few years in a way that makes the pivotal loss of innocence in the story even crueler. Where Polanski and Towne raised noir to a black apogee by turning rearward, director Martin Scorsese and screenwriter Paul Schrader brought the noir attitude crashing into the present day with ''Taxi Driver'' (1976), a crackling, bloody-minded gloss on bicentennial America. In 1978, Walter Hill wrote and directed ''The Driver'', a chase film as might have been imagined by Jean-Pierre Melville in an especially abstract mood.
Hill was already a central figure in 1970s noir of a more straightforward manner, having written the script for director Sam Peckinpah's ''The Getaway'' (1972), adapting a novel by pulp master Jim Thompson, as well as for two tough private eye films: an original screenplay for ''Hickey & Boggs'' (1972) and an adaptation of a novel by Ross Macdonald, the leading literary descendant of Hammett and Chandler, for ''The Drowning Pool'' (1975). Some of the strongest 1970s noirs, in fact, were unwinking remakes of the classics, "neo" mostly by default: the heartbreaking ''Thieves Like Us'' (1974), directed by Altman from the same source as Ray's ''They Live by Night'', and ''Farewell, My Lovely'' (1975), the Chandler tale made classically as ''Murder, My Sweet'', remade here with Robert Mitchum in his last notable noir role. Detective series, prevalent on American television during the period, updated the hardboiled tradition in different ways, but the show conjuring the most noir tone was a horror crossover touched with shaggy, ''Long Goodbye''-style humor: ''Kolchak: The Night Stalker'' (1974–75), featuring a Chicago newspaper reporter investigating strange, usually supernatural occurrences.
1980s and 1990s
The turn of the decade brought Scorsese's black-and-white ''Raging Bull'' (cowritten by Schrader); an acknowledged masterpiece—the American Film Institute ranks it as the greatest American film of the 1980s and the fourth greatest of all time—it is also a retreat, telling a story of a boxer's moral self-destruction that recalls in both theme and visual ambience noir dramas such as ''Body and Soul'' (1947) and ''Champion'' (1949). From 1981, the popular ''Body Heat'', written and directed by Lawrence Kasdan, invokes a different set of classic noir elements, this time in a humid, erotically charged Florida setting; its success confirmed the commercial viability of neo-noir, at a time when the major Hollywood studios were becoming increasingly risk averse. The mainstreaming of neo-noir is evident in such films as ''Black Widow'' (1987), ''Shattered'' (1991), and ''Final Analysis'' (1992). Few neo-noirs have made more money or more wittily updated the tradition of the noir double-entendre than ''Basic Instinct'' (1992), directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Joe Eszterhas. The film also demonstrates how neo-noir's polychrome palette can reproduce many of the expressionistic effects of classic black-and-white noir.
Like ''Chinatown'', its more complex predecessor, Curtis Hanson's Oscar-winning ''L.A. Confidential'' (1997), based on the James Ellroy novel, demonstrates an opposite tendency—the deliberately retro film noir; its tale of corrupt cops and femmes fatales is seemingly lifted straight from a film of 1953, the year in which it is set. Director David Fincher followed the immensely successful neo-noir ''Seven'' (1995) with a film that developed into a cult favorite after its original, disappointing release: ''Fight Club'' (1999) is a ''sui generis'' mix of noir aesthetic, perverse comedy, speculative content, and satiric intent.
Working generally with much smaller budgets, brothers Joel and Ethan Coen have created one of the most extensive film oeuvres influenced by classic noir, with films such as ''Blood Simple'' (1984) and ''Fargo'' (1996), considered by some a supreme work in the neo-noir mode. The Coens cross noir with other generic lines in the gangster drama ''Miller's Crossing'' (1990)—loosely based on the Dashiell Hammett novels ''Red Harvest'' and ''The Glass Key''—and the comedy ''The Big Lebowski'' (1998), a tribute to Chandler and an homage to Altman's version of ''The Long Goodbye''. The characteristic work of David Lynch combines film noir tropes with scenarios driven by disturbed characters such as the sociopathic criminal played by Dennis Hopper in ''Blue Velvet'' (1986) and the delusionary protagonist of ''Lost Highway'' (1997). The ''Twin Peaks'' cycle, both TV series (1990–91) and film, ''Fire Walk with Me'' (1992), puts a detective plot through a succession of bizarre spasms. David Cronenberg also mixes surrealism and noir in ''Naked Lunch'' (1991), inspired by William S. Burroughs' novel.
Perhaps no American neo-noirs better reflect the classic noir A-movie-with-a-B-movie-soul than those of director-writer Quentin Tarantino; neo-noirs of his such as ''Reservoir Dogs'' (1992) and ''Pulp Fiction'' (1994) display a relentlessly self-reflexive, sometimes tongue-in-cheek sensibility, similar to the work of the New Wave directors and the Coens. Other films from the era readily identifiable as neo-noir (some retro, some more au courant) include director John Dahl's ''Kill Me Again'' (1989), ''Red Rock West'' (1992), and ''The Last Seduction'' (1993); four adaptations of novels by Jim Thompson—''The Kill-Off'' (1989), ''After Dark, My Sweet'' (1990), ''The Grifters'' (1990), and the remake of ''The Getaway'' (1994); and many more, including adaptations of the work of other major noir fiction writers: ''The Hot Spot'' (1990), from ''Hell Hath No Fury'', by Charles Williams; ''Miami Blues'' (1990), from the novel by Charles Willeford; and ''Out of Sight'' (1998), from the novel by Elmore Leonard.] [ Several films by director-writer David Mamet involve noir elements: ''House of Games'' (1987), ''Homicide'' (1991),] [Noir and Neonoir|The Criterion Collection](_blank)
/ref> ''The Spanish Prisoner'' (1997), and ''Heist'' (2001). On television, ''Moonlighting'' (1985–89) paid homage to classic noir while demonstrating an unusual appreciation of the sense of humor often found in the original cycle.
[Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 279.] Between 1983 and 1989, Mickey Spillane's hardboiled private eye Mike Hammer was played with wry gusto by Stacy Keach in a series and several stand-alone television films (an unsuccessful revival followed in 1997–98). The British miniseries ''The Singing Detective'' (1986), written by Dennis Potter, tells the story of a mystery writer named Philip Marlow; widely considered one of the finest neo-noirs in any medium, some critics rank it among the greatest television productions of all time.
Among big-budget auteurs, Michael Mann has worked frequently in a neo-noir mode, with such films as ''Thief'' (1981)
and ''Heat'' (1995) and the TV series ''Miami Vice'' (1984–89) and ''Crime Story'' (1986–88). Mann's output exemplifies a primary strain of neo-noir or as affectionately called "neon noir", in which classic themes and tropes are revisited in a contemporary setting with an up-to-date visual style and rock- or hip hop-based musical soundtrack.
Neo-noir film borrows from and reflects many of the characteristics of the film noir: a presence of crime, violence, complex characters and plot-lines, mystery, ambiguity and moral ambivalence, all come into play in the neon-noir genre. But more so than the superficial traits of the genre, neon noir emphasizes the socio-critique of film noir, recalling the specific socio-cultural dimensions of the interwar years when noirs first became prominent; a time of global existential crisis, depression and the mass movement of rural persons towards the cities. Long shots or montages of cityscapes, often portrayed as dark and menacing were suggestive of what Dueck referred to as a ‘bleak societal perspective’, providing a critique on global capitalism and consumerism. Other tactics also made use of heavily stylized lighting techniques such the chiaroscuro juxtaposition of light and dark, with neon signs and brightly lit buildings providing a sense of alienation and entrapment.
Accentuating the already present use of artificial or neon lighting in the noir films of the '40s and '50s, neon-noir films imbue this aesthetic style with electrifying color and manipulated light to accentuate their socio-cultural critique as backdrop to thematic references to contemporary and pop culture. In doing so, films of the neon-noir genre orbit the themes of urban decay, consumerist decadence and capitalism, existentialism, sexuality and issues of race and violence in the contemporary cultural landscape, not only of America, but the globalized world at large.
Neon-noirs seek to bring the contemporary noir, somewhat diluted under the umbrella of neo-noir, back into the exploration of culture: class, race, gender, patriarchy, capitalism are key thematic references and departures for the neon-noir; an existential confrontation of society in a hyper technological and globalized world. Illustrating society as decadent and consumerist, and identity as confused and anxious, neon-noirs reposition the contemporary noir in urban decay, often setting their scenes in the underground city-haunts; brothels, nightclubs, casinos, strip bars, pawnshops, Laundromats, etc.
Neon noirs were popularized in the '70s and '80s by films like ''Taxi Driver'' (1976), ''Blade Runner'' (1982), and David Lynch films such as ''Blue Velvet'' (1986) and later, ''Lost Highway'' (1997). In the more current cinematic landscape, films like Harmony Korine’s highly provocative ''Spring Breakers'', and Danny Boyle’s ''Trance'' (2013) have been especially recognized for their neon-infused rendering of the noir genre; While ''Trance'' was celebrated for ‘shak(ing) the ingredients (of the noir) like colored sand in a jar’, ''Spring Breakers'' notoriously produced
slew of criticism
referring to its ‘fever-dream’ aesthetic and ‘neon-caked explosion of excess’ (Kohn). Another neon-noir endowed with th
The Persian Connection
', expressly linked to Lynchian aesthetics as a neon-drenched contemporary noir.
Neon-noir can be seen as a response to the over-use of the term neo-noir. While the contemporary term neo-noir functions to bring the noir into the contemporary landscape, it has been often criticized for its dilution of the noir genre, Arnett commenting on its ‘amorphous’ reach: ‘any film featuring a detective or crime qualifies’, and Cawelti recognizing its ‘generic exhaustion’. The neon-noir, more specifically, seeks to revive the noir sensibilities in a more targeted manner of reference, focalizing especially its socio-cultural commentary and hyper-stylized aesthetic.
2000s and 2010s
The Coen brothers make reference to the noir tradition again with ''The Man Who Wasn't There'' (2001); a black-and-white crime melodrama set in 1949, it features a scene apparently staged to mirror one from ''Out of the Past''. Lynch's ''Mulholland Drive'' (2001) continued in his characteristic vein, making the classic noir setting of Los Angeles the venue for a noir-inflected psychological jigsaw puzzle. British-born director Christopher Nolan's black-and-white debut, ''Following'' (1998), was an overt homage to classic noir. During the new century's first decade, he was one of the leading Hollywood directors of neo-noir with the acclaimed ''Memento'' (2000) and the remake of ''Insomnia'' (2002).
Director Sean Penn's ''The Pledge'' (2001), though adapted from a very self-reflexive novel by Friedrich Dürrenmatt, plays noir comparatively straight, to devastating effect. Screenwriter David Ayer updated the classic noir bad-cop tale, typified by ''Shield for Murder'' (1954) and ''Rogue Cop'' (1954), with his scripts for ''Training Day'' (2001) and, adapting a story by James Ellroy, ''Dark Blue'' (2002); he later wrote and directed the even darker ''Harsh Times'' (2006). Michael Mann's ''Collateral'' (2004) features a performance by Tom Cruise as an assassin in the lineage of ''Le Samouraï''. The torments of ''The Machinist'' (2004), directed by Brad Anderson, evoke both ''Fight Club'' and ''Memento''. In 2005, Shane Black directed ''Kiss Kiss Bang Bang'', basing his screenplay in part on a crime novel by Brett Halliday, who published his first stories back in the 1920s. The film plays with an awareness not only of classic noir but also of neo-noir reflexivity itself.
With ultra-violent films such as ''Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance'' (2002) and ''Thirst'' (2009), Park Chan-wook of South Korea has been the most prominent director outside of the United States to work regularly in a noir mode in the new millennium. The most commercially successful neo-noir of this period has been ''Sin City'' (2005), directed by Robert Rodriguez in extravagantly stylized black and white with splashes of color. The film is based on a series of comic books created by Frank Miller (credited as the film's codirector), which are in turn openly indebted to the works of Spillane and other pulp mystery authors. Similarly, graphic novels provide the basis for ''Road to Perdition'' (2002), directed by Sam Mendes, and ''A History of Violence'' (2005), directed by David Cronenberg; the latter was voted best film of the year in the annual ''Village Voice'' poll. Writer-director Rian Johnson's ''Brick'' (2005), featuring present-day high schoolers speaking a version of 1930s hardboiled argot, won the Special Jury Prize for Originality of Vision at the Sundance Film Festival. The television series ''Veronica Mars'' (2004–07) also brought a youth-oriented twist to film noir. Examples of this sort of generic crossover have been dubbed "teen noir".
Neo-noir films released in the 2010s include Kim Jee-woon’s ''I Saw the Devil'' (2010), Fred Cavaye’s ''Point Blank'' (2010), Na Hong-jin’s ''The Yellow Sea'' (2010), Nicolas Winding Refn’s ''Drive'' (2011), and Claire Denis' ''Bastards'' (2013).
Science fiction noir
In the post-classic era, a significant trend in noir crossovers has involved science fiction. In Jean-Luc Godard's ''Alphaville'' (1965), Lemmy Caution is the name of the old-school private eye in the city of tomorrow. ''The Groundstar Conspiracy'' (1972) centers on another implacable investigator and an amnesiac named Welles. ''Soylent Green'' (1973), the first major American example, portrays a dystopian, near-future world via a self-evidently noir detection plot; starring Charlton Heston (the lead in ''Touch of Evil''), it also features classic noir standbys Joseph Cotten, Edward G. Robinson, and Whit Bissell. The film was directed by Richard Fleischer, who two decades before had directed several strong B noirs, including ''Armored Car Robbery'' (1950) and ''The Narrow Margin'' (1952).
The cynical and stylish perspective of classic film noir had a formative effect on the cyberpunk genre of science fiction that emerged in the early 1980s; the film most directly influential on cyberpunk was ''Blade Runner'' (1982), directed by Ridley Scott, which pays evocative homage to the classic noir mode (Scott subsequently directed the poignant 1987 noir crime melodrama ''Someone to Watch Over Me''). Scholar Jamaluddin Bin Aziz has observed how "the shadow of Philip Marlowe lingers on" in such other "future noir" films as ''12 Monkeys'' (1995), ''Dark City'' (1998) and ''Minority Report'' (2002). Fincher's feature debut was ''Alien 3'' (1992), which evoked the classic noir jail film ''Brute Force''.
David Cronenberg's ''Crash'' (1996), an adaptation of the speculative novel by J. G. Ballard, has been described as a "film noir in bruise tones". The hero is the target of investigation in ''Gattaca'' (1997), which fuses film noir motifs with a scenario indebted to ''Brave New World''. ''The Thirteenth Floor'' (1999), like ''Blade Runner'', is an explicit homage to classic noir, in this case involving speculations about virtual reality. Science fiction, noir, and anime are brought together in the Japanese films of 90s ''Ghost in the Shell'' (1995) and ''Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence'' (2004), both directed by Mamoru Oshii.
[ ''The Animatrix'' (2003), based on and set within the world of ''The Matrix'' film trilogy, contains an anime short film in classic noir style titled "A Detective Story". Anime television series with science fiction noir themes include ''Noir'' (2001)] [Dargis (2004); Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 234.] and ''Cowboy Bebop'' (1998).
The 2015 film ''Ex Machina'' puts an understated film noir spin on the Frankenstein mythos, with the sentient android Ava as a potential ''femme fatale'', her creator Nathan embodying the abusive husband or father trope, and her would-be rescuer Caleb as a "clueless drifter" enthralled by Ava.
Film noir has been parodied many times in many manners. In 1945, Danny Kaye starred in what appears to be the first intentional film noir parody, ''Wonder Man''.
[Silver and Ward (1992), p. 332.] That same year, Deanna Durbin was the singing lead in the comedic noir ''Lady on a Train'', which makes fun of Woolrich-brand wistful miserablism. Bob Hope inaugurated the private-eye noir parody with ''My Favorite Brunette'' (1947), playing a baby-photographer who is mistaken for an ironfisted detective. In 1947 as well, The Bowery Boys appeared in ''Hard Boiled Mahoney'', which had a similar mistaken-identity plot; they spoofed the genre once more in ''Private Eyes'' (1953). Two RKO productions starring Robert Mitchum take film noir over the border into self-parody: ''The Big Steal'' (1949), directed by Don Siegel, and ''His Kind of Woman'' (1951). The "Girl Hunt" ballet in Vincente Minnelli's ''The Band Wagon'' (1953) is a ten-minute distillation of—and play on—noir in dance. ''The Cheap Detective'' (1978), starring Peter Falk, is a broad spoof of several films, including the Bogart classics ''The Maltese Falcon'' and ''Casablanca''. Carl Reiner's black-and-white ''Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid'' (1982) appropriates clips of classic noirs for a farcical pastiche, while his ''Fatal Instinct'' (1993) sends up noir classic (''Double Indemnity'') and neo-noir (''Basic Instinct''). Robert Zemeckis's ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' (1988) develops a noir plot set in 1940s L.A. around a host of cartoon characters.
Noir parodies come in darker tones as well. ''Murder by Contract'' (1958), directed by Irving Lerner, is a deadpan joke on noir, with a denouement as bleak as any of the films it kids. An ultra-low-budget Columbia Pictures production, it may qualify as the first intentional example of what is now called a neo-noir film; it was likely a source of inspiration for both Melville's ''Le Samouraï'' and Scorsese's ''Taxi Driver''. Belying its parodic strain, ''The Long Goodbye''s final act is seriously grave. ''Taxi Driver'' caustically deconstructs the "dark" crime film, taking it to an absurd extreme and then offering a conclusion that manages to mock every possible anticipated ending—triumphant, tragic, artfully ambivalent—while being each, all at once. Flirting with splatter status even more brazenly, the Coens' ''Blood Simple'' is both an exacting pastiche and a gross exaggeration of classic noir. Adapted by director Robinson Devor from a novel by Charles Willeford, ''The Woman Chaser'' (1999) sends up not just the noir mode but the entire Hollywood filmmaking process, with seemingly each shot staged as the visual equivalent of an acerbic Marlowe wisecrack.
In other media, the television series ''Sledge Hammer!'' (1986–88) lampoons noir, along with such topics as capital punishment, gun fetishism, and Dirty Harry. ''Sesame Street'' (1969–curr.) occasionally casts Kermit the Frog as a private eye; the sketches refer to some of the typical motifs of noir films, in particular the voiceover. Garrison Keillor's radio program ''A Prairie Home Companion'' features the recurring character Guy Noir, a hardboiled detective whose adventures always wander into farce (Guy also appears in the Altman-directed film based on Keillor's show). Firesign Theatre's Nick Danger has trod the same not-so-mean streets, both on radio and in comedy albums. Cartoons such as ''Garfield's Babes and Bullets'' (1989) and comic strip characters such as Tracer Bullet of ''Calvin and Hobbes'' have parodied both film noir and the kindred hardboiled tradition—one of the sources from which film noir sprang and which it now overshadows.
In their original 1955 canon of film noir, Raymond Borde and Etienne Chaumeton identified twenty-two Hollywood films released between 1941 and 1952 as core examples; they listed another fifty-nine American films from the period as significantly related to the field of noir. A half-century later, film historians and critics had come to agree on a canon of approximately three hundred films from 1940–58. There remain, however, many differences of opinion over whether other films of the era, among them a number of well-known ones, qualify as film noirs or not. For instance, ''The Night of the Hunter'' (1955), starring Robert Mitchum in an acclaimed performance, is treated as a film noir by some critics, but not by others. Some critics include ''Suspicion'' (1941), directed by Alfred Hitchcock, in their catalogues of noir; others ignore it. Concerning films made either before or after the classic period, or outside of the United States at any time, consensus is even rarer.
To support their categorization of certain films as noirs and their rejection of others, many critics refer to a set of elements they see as marking examples of the mode. The question of what constitutes the set of noir's identifying characteristics is a fundamental source of controversy. For instance, critics tend to define the model film noir as having a tragic or bleak conclusion, but many acknowledged classics of the genre have clearly happy endings (e.g., ''Stranger on the Third Floor,'' ''The Big Sleep'', ''Dark Passage'', and ''The Dark Corner''), while the tone of many other noir denouements is ambivalent. Some critics perceive classic noir's hallmark as a distinctive visual style. Others, observing that there is actually considerable stylistic variety among noirs, instead emphasize plot and character type. Still others focus on mood and attitude. No survey of classic noir's identifying characteristics can therefore be considered definitive. In the 1990s and 2000s, critics have increasingly turned their attention to that diverse field of films called neo-noir; once again, there is even less consensus about the defining attributes of such films made outside the classic period.
The low-key lighting schemes of many classic film noirs are associated with stark light/dark contrasts and dramatic shadow patterning—a style known as chiaroscuro (a term adopted from Renaissance painting). The shadows of Venetian blinds or banister rods, cast upon an actor, a wall, or an entire set, are an iconic visual in noir and had already become a cliché well before the neo-noir era. Characters' faces may be partially or wholly obscured by darkness—a relative rarity in conventional Hollywood filmmaking. While black-and-white cinematography is considered by many to be one of the essential attributes of classic noir, the color films ''Leave Her to Heaven'' (1945) and ''Niagara'' (1953) are routinely included in noir filmographies, while ''Slightly Scarlet'' (1956), ''Party Girl'' (1958), and ''Vertigo'' (1958) are classified as noir by varying numbers of critics.
Film noir is also known for its use of low-angle, wide-angle, and skewed, or Dutch angle shots. Other devices of disorientation relatively common in film noir include shots of people reflected in one or more mirrors, shots through curved or frosted glass or other distorting objects (such as during the strangulation scene in ''Strangers on a Train''), and special effects sequences of a sometimes bizarre nature. Night-for-night shooting, as opposed to the Hollywood norm of day-for-night, was often employed. From the mid-1940s forward, location shooting became increasingly frequent in noir.
In an analysis of the visual approach of ''Kiss Me Deadly'', a late and self-consciously stylized example of classic noir, critic Alain Silver describes how cinematographic choices emphasize the story's themes and mood. In one scene, the characters, seen through a "confusion of angular shapes", thus appear "caught in a tangible vortex or enclosed in a trap." Silver makes a case for how "side light is used ... to reflect character ambivalence", while shots of characters in which they are lit from below "conform to a convention of visual expression which associates shadows cast upward of the face with the unnatural and ominous".
Structure and narrational devices
Film noirs tend to have unusually convoluted story lines, frequently involving flashbacks and other editing techniques that disrupt and sometimes obscure the narrative sequence. Framing the entire primary narrative as a flashback is also a standard device. Voiceover narration, sometimes used as a structuring device, came to be seen as a noir hallmark; while classic noir is generally associated with first-person narration (i.e., by the protagonist), Stephen Neale notes that third-person narration is common among noirs of the semidocumentary style. Neo-noirs as varied as ''The Element of Crime'' (surrealist), ''After Dark, My Sweet'' (retro), and ''Kiss Kiss Bang Bang'' (meta) have employed the flashback/voiceover combination.
Bold experiments in cinematic storytelling were sometimes attempted during the classic era: ''Lady in the Lake'', for example, is shot entirely from the point of view of protagonist Philip Marlowe; the face of star (and director) Robert Montgomery is seen only in mirrors. ''The Chase'' (1946) takes oneirism and fatalism as the basis for its fantastical narrative system, redolent of certain horror stories, but with little precedent in the context of a putatively realistic genre. In their different ways, both ''Sunset Boulevard'' and ''D.O.A.'' are tales told by dead men. Latter-day noir has been in the forefront of structural experimentation in popular cinema, as exemplified by such films as ''Pulp Fiction'', ''Fight Club'', and ''Memento''.
Plots, characters, and settings
Crime, usually murder, is an element of almost all film noirs; in addition to standard-issue greed, jealousy is frequently the criminal motivation. A crime investigation—by a private eye, a police detective (sometimes acting alone), or a concerned amateur—is the most prevalent, but far from dominant, basic plot. In other common plots the protagonists are implicated in heists or con games, or in murderous conspiracies often involving adulterous affairs. False suspicions and accusations of crime are frequent plot elements, as are betrayals and double-crosses. According to J. David Slocum, "protagonists assume the literal identities of dead men in nearly fifteen percent of all noir." Amnesia is fairly epidemic—"noir's version of the common cold", in the words of film historian Lee Server.
Film noirs tend to revolve around heroes who are more flawed and morally questionable than the norm, often fall guys of one sort or another. The characteristic protagonists of noir are described by many critics as "alienated"; in the words of Silver and Ward, "filled with existential bitterness". Certain archetypal characters appear in many film noirs—hardboiled detectives, femme fatales, corrupt policemen, jealous husbands, intrepid claims adjusters, and down-and-out writers. Among characters of every stripe, cigarette smoking is rampant. From historical commentators to neo-noir pictures to pop culture ephemera, the private eye and the femme fatale have been adopted as the quintessential film noir figures, though they do not appear in most films now regarded as classic noir. Of the twenty-six National Film Registry noirs, in only four does the star play a private eye: ''The Maltese Falcon'', ''The Big Sleep'', ''Out of the Past'', and ''Kiss Me Deadly''. Just four others readily qualify as detective stories: ''Laura'', ''The Killers'', ''The Naked City'', and ''Touch of Evil''. There is usually an element of drug or alcohol use, particularly as part of the detective's method to solving the crime, as an example the character of Mike Hammer in the 1955 film ''Kiss Me Deadly'' who walks into a bar saying "Give me a double bourbon, and leave the bottle". Chaumeton and Borde have argued that film noir grew out of the "literature of drugs and alcohol".
Film noir is often associated with an urban setting, and a few cities—Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York, and Chicago, in particular—are the location of many of the classic films. In the eyes of many critics, the city is presented in noir as a "labyrinth" or "maze". Bars, lounges, nightclubs, and gambling dens are frequently the scene of action. The climaxes of a substantial number of film noirs take place in visually complex, often industrial settings, such as refineries, factories, trainyards, power plants—most famously the explosive conclusion of ''White Heat'', set at a chemical plant. In the popular (and, frequently enough, critical) imagination, in noir it is always night and it always rains.
A substantial trend within latter-day noir—dubbed "film soleil" by critic D. K. Holm—heads in precisely the opposite direction, with tales of deception, seduction, and corruption exploiting bright, sun-baked settings, stereotypically the desert or open water, to searing effect. Significant predecessors from the classic and early post-classic eras include ''The Lady from Shanghai''; the Robert Ryan vehicle ''Inferno'' (1953); the French adaptation of Patricia Highsmith's ''The Talented Mr. Ripley'', ''Plein soleil'' (''Purple Noon'' in the United States, more accurately rendered elsewhere as ''Blazing Sun'' or ''Full Sun''; 1960); and director Don Siegel's version of ''The Killers'' (1964). The tendency was at its peak during the late 1980s and 1990s, with films such as ''Dead Calm'' (1989), ''After Dark, My Sweet'' (1990), ''The Hot Spot'' (1990), ''Delusion'' (1991), ''Red Rock West'' (1993) and the television series ''Miami Vice''.
Worldview, morality, and tone
Film noir is often described as essentially pessimistic. The noir stories that are regarded as most characteristic tell of people trapped in unwanted situations (which, in general, they did not cause but are responsible for exacerbating), striving against random, uncaring fate, and frequently doomed. The films are seen as depicting a world that is inherently corrupt. Classic film noir has been associated by many critics with the American social landscape of the era—in particular, with a sense of heightened anxiety and alienation that is said to have followed World War II. In author Nicholas Christopher's opinion, "it is as if the war, and the social eruptions in its aftermath, unleashed demons that had been bottled up in the national psyche." Film noirs, especially those of the 1950s and the height of the Red Scare, are often said to reflect cultural paranoia; ''Kiss Me Deadly'' is the noir most frequently marshaled as evidence for this claim.
Film noir is often said to be defined by "moral ambiguity", yet the Production Code obliged almost all classic noirs to see that steadfast virtue was ultimately rewarded and vice, in the absence of shame and redemption, severely punished (however dramatically incredible the final rendering of mandatory justice might be). A substantial number of latter-day noirs flout such conventions: vice emerges triumphant in films as varied as the grim ''Chinatown'' and the ribald ''Hot Spot''.
The tone of film noir is generally regarded as downbeat; some critics experience it as darker still—"overwhelmingly black", according to Robert Ottoson. Influential critic (and filmmaker) Paul Schrader wrote in a seminal 1972 essay that "''film noir'' is defined by tone", a tone he seems to perceive as "hopeless". In describing the adaptation of ''Double Indemnity,'' noir analyst Foster Hirsch describes the "requisite hopeless tone" achieved by the filmmakers, which appears to characterize his view of noir as a whole. On the other hand, definitive film noirs such as ''The Big Sleep'', ''The Lady from Shanghai'', ''Scarlet Street'' and ''Double Indemnity'' itself are famed for their hardboiled repartee, often imbued with sexual innuendo and self-reflexive humor.
* Film gris-a term coined by experimental filmmaker Thom Andersen
* Scandinavian noir
* List of film noir titles
* List of neo-noir titles
* B movie
* Vulgar auteurism
* Postmodern film
- The plural forms of ''film noir'' in English include ''films noirs'' (derived from the French), ''films noir'', and ''film noirs''. Merriam-Webster, which acknowledges all three styles as acceptable, favors ''film noirs'',
while the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' lists only ''films noirs''.
- ''His Kind of Woman'' was originally directed by John Farrow, then largely reshot under Richard Fleischer after studio owner Howard Hughes demanded rewrites. Only Farrow was credited.
[Server (2002), pp. 182–98, 209–16; Downs (2002), p. 171; Ottoson (1981), pp. 82–83.]
- In ''Academic Dictionary of Arts'' (2005), Rakesh Chopra notes that the high-contrast film lighting schemes commonly referred to as "chiaroscuro" are more specifically representative of tenebrism, whose first great exponent was the Italian painter Caravaggio (p. 73). See also Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 16.
* Abbas, M. Ackbar (1997). ''Hong Kong: Culture and the Politics of Disappearance''. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
* Appel, Alfred (1974). ''Nabokov's Dark Cinema''. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
* Aziz, Jamaluddin Bin (2005). "Future Noir", chap. in "Transgressing Women: Investigating Space and the Body in Contemporary Noir Thrillers". Ph. D. dissertation, Department of English and Creative Writing, Lancaster University (chapter availabl
* Ballinger, Alexander, and Danny Graydon (2007). ''The Rough Guide to Film Noir''. London: Rough Guides.
* Bernstein, Matthew (1995). "A Tale of Three Cities: The Banning of ''Scarlet Street''", ''Cinema Journal'' 35, no. 1.
* Biesen, Sheri Chinen (2005). ''Blackout: World War II and the Origins of Film Noir''. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
* Borde, Raymond, and Etienne Chaumeton (2002 955. ''A Panorama of American Film Noir, 1941–1953'', trans. Paul Hammond. San Francisco: City Lights Books.
* Bould, Mark (2005). ''Film Noir: From Berlin to Sin City''. London and New York: Wallflower.
* Butler, David (2002). ''Jazz Noir: Listening to Music from'' Phantom Lady ''to'' The Last Seduction. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood.
* Cameron, Ian, ed. (1993). ''The Book of Film Noir''. New York: Continuum.
* Christopher, Nicholas (1998 997. ''Somewhere in the Night: Film Noir and the American City'', 1st paperback ed. New York: Owl/Henry Holt.
* Clarens, Carlos (1980). ''Crime Movies: An Illustrated History''. New York: W.W. Norton.
* Conard, Mark T. (2007). ''The Philosophy of Neo-Noir''. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
* Copjec, Joan, ed. (1993). ''Shades of Noir''. London and New York: Verso.
* Creeber, Glen (2007). ''The Singing Detective''. London: BFI Publishing.
* Dancyger, Ken, and Jeff Rush (2002). ''Alternative Scriptwriting: Successfully Breaking the Rules'', 3d ed. Boston and Oxford: Focal Press.
* Dargis, Manohla (2004). "Philosophizing Sex Dolls amid Film Noir Intrigue", ''The New York Times'', September 17 (availabl
* Davis, Blair (2004). "Horror Meets Noir: The Evolution of Cinematic Style, 1931–1958", in ''Horror Film: Creating and Marketing Fear'', ed. Steffen Hantke. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
* Downs, Jacqueline (2002). "Richard Fleischer", in ''Contemporary North American Film Directors: A Wallflower Critical Guide'', 2d ed., ed. Yoram Allon, Del Cullen, and Hannah Patterson. London and New York: Wallflower.
* Durgnat, Raymond (1970). "Paint It Black: The Family Tree of the ''Film Noir''", ''Cinema'' 6/7 (collected in Gorman et al., ''The Big Book of Noir'', and Silver and Ursini, ''Film Noir Reader ').
* Erickson, Glenn (2004). "Fate Seeks the Loser: Edgar G. Ulmer's ''Detour''", in Silver and Ursini, ''Film Noir Reader 4'', pp. 25–31.
* Gorman, Ed, Lee Server, and Martin H. Greenberg, eds. (1998). ''The Big Book of Noir''. New York: Carroll & Graf.
* Greene, Naomi (1999). ''Landscapes of Loss: The National Past in Postwar French Cinema''. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
* Greenspun, Roger (1973). "Mike Hodges's 'Pulp' Opens; A Private Eye Parody Is Parody of Itself", ''The New York Times'', February 9 (availabl
* Hanson, Helen (2008). ''Hollywood Heroines: Women in Film Noir and the Female Gothic Film''. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.
* Hayde, Michael J. (2001). ''My Name's Friday: The Unauthorized But True Story of Dragnet and the Films of Jack Webb''. Nashville, Tenn.: Cumberland House.
* Hirsch, Foster (1999). ''Detours and Lost Highways: A Map of Neo-Noir''. Pompton Plains, N.J.: Limelight.
* Hirsch, Foster (2001 981. ''The Dark Side of the Screen: Film Noir''. New York: Da Capo.
* Holden, Stephen (1999). "Hard-Boiled as a Two-Day-Old Egg at a Two-Bit Diner", ''The New York Times'', October 8 (availabl
* Holm, D. K. (2005). ''Film Soleil''. Harpenden, UK: Pocket Essentials.
* Hunter, Stephen (1982). "''Blade Runner''", in his ''Violent Screen: A Critic's 13 Years on the Front Lines of Movie Mayhem'' (1995), pp. 196–99. Baltimore: Bancroft.
* Irwin, John T. (2006). ''Unless the Threat of Death is Behind Them: Hard-Boiled Fiction and Film Noir''. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
* James, Nick (2002). "Back to the Brats", in ''Contemporary North American Film Directors'', 2d ed., ed. Yoram Allon, Del Cullen, and Hannah Patterson, pp. xvi–xx. London: Wallflower.
* Jones, Kristin M. (2009). "Dark Cynicism, British Style", ''Wall Street Journal'', August 18 (availabl
* Kennedy, Harlan (1982). "Twenty-First Century Nervous Breakdown", ''Film Comment'', July/August.
* Kirgo, Julie (1980). "''Farewell, My Lovely'' (1975)", in Silver and Ward, ''Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference'', pp. 101–2.
* Kolker, Robert (2000). ''A Cinema of Loneliness'', 3d ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
* Krutnik, Frank, Steve Neale, and Brian Neve (2008). ''"Un-American" Hollywood: Politics and Film in the Blacklist Era''. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
* Lynch, David, and Chris Rodley (2005). ''Lynch on Lynch'', rev. ed. New York and London: Faber and Faber.
* Lyons, Arthur (2000). ''Death on the Cheap: The Lost B Movies of Film Noir''. New York: Da Capo.
* Macek, Carl (1980). "''City Streets'' (1931)", in Silver and Ward, ''Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference'', pp. 59–60.
* Macek, Carl, and Alain Silver (1980). "''House on 92nd Street'' (1945)", in Silver and Ward, ''Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference'', pp. 134–35.
* Mackendrick, Alexander (2006). ''On Film-making: An Introduction to the Craft of the Director''. New York: Macmillan.
* Marshman, Donald (1947). "Mister 'See'-Odd-Mack'", ''Life'', August 25.
* Martin, Richard (1997). ''Mean Streets and Raging Bulls: The Legacy of Film Noir in Contemporary American Cinema''. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.
* Maslin, Janet (1996). "Deadly Plot by a Milquetoast Villain", ''The New York Times'', March 8 (availabl
* McGilligan, Patrick (1997). ''Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beast''. New York and London: Faber and Faber.
* Muller, Eddie (1998). ''Dark City: The Lost World of Film Noir''. New York: St. Martin's.
* Naremore, James (2008). ''More Than Night: Film Noir in Its Contexts'', 2d ed. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press.
* Neale, Steve (2000). ''Genre and Hollywood''. London and New York: Routledge.
* Ottoson, Robert (1981). ''A Reference Guide to the American Film Noir: 1940–1958''. Metuchen, N.J., and London: Scarecrow Press.
* Palmer, R. Barton (2004). "The Sociological Turn of Adaptation Studies: The Example of ''Film Noir''", in ''A Companion To Literature And Film'', ed. Robert Stam and Alessandra Raengo, pp. 258–77. Maiden, Mass., Oxford, and Carlton, Australia: Blackwell.
* Place, Janey, and Lowell Peterson (1974). "Some Visual Motifs of ''Film Noir''", ''Film Comment'' 10, no. 1 (collected in Silver and Ursini, ''Film Noir Reader ').
* Porfirio, Robert (1980). "''Stranger on the Third Floor'' (1940)", in Silver and Ward, ''Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference'', p. 269.
* Ray, Robert B. (1985). ''A Certain Tendency of the Hollywood Cinema, 1930–1980''. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
* Richardson, Carl (1992). ''Autopsy: An Element of Realism in Film Noir''. Metuchen, N.J., and London: Scarecrow Press.
* Sanders, Steven M. (2006). "Film Noir and the Meaning of Life", in ''The Philosophy of Film Noir'', ed. Mark T. Conard, pp. 91–106. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
* Sarris, Andrew (1996 968. ''The American Cinema: Directors and Directions, 1929–1968''. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo.
* Schatz, Thomas (1981). ''Hollywood Genres: Formulas, Filmmaking, and the Studio System''. New York: Random House.
* Schatz, Thomas (1998 996. ''The Genius of the System: Hollywood Filmmaking in the Studio Era'', new ed. London: Faber and Faber.
* Schrader, Paul (1972). "Notes on Film Noir", ''Film Comment'' 8, no. 1 (collected in Silver and Ursini, ''Film Noir Reader ').
* Server, Lee (2002). ''Robert Mitchum: "Baby I Don't Care"''. New York: Macmillan.
* Server, Lee (2006). ''Ava Gardner: "Love Is Nothing"''. New York: Macmillan.
* Silver, Alain (1996 975. "''Kiss Me Deadly'': Evidence of a Style", rev. versions in Silver and Ursini, ''Film Noir Reader ', pp. 209–35 and ''Film Noir Compendium'' (newest with remastered frame captures, 2016), pp. 302–325.
* Silver, Alain (1996). "Introduction", in Silver and Ursini, ''Film Noir Reader ', pp. 3–15, rev. ver. in Silver and Ursini, ''Film Noir Compendium'' (2016), pp. 10–25.
* Silver, Alain, and James Ursini (and Robert Porfirio—vol. 3), eds. (2004 996–2004. ''Film Noir Reader'', vols. 1–4. Pompton Plains, N.J.: Limelight.
* Silver, Alain, and Elizabeth Ward (1992). ''Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference to the American Style'', 3d ed. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press. (See also: Silver, Ursini, Ward, and Porfirio 010 ''Film Noir: The Encyclopedia'', 4th rev., exp. ed. Overlook. )
* Slocum, J. David (2001). ''Violence and American Cinema''. London and New York: Routledge.
* Spicer, Andrew (2007). ''European Film Noir''. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
* Telotte, J. P. (1989). ''Voices in the Dark: The Narrative Patterns of Film Noir''. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
* Thomson, David (1998). ''A Biographical Dictionary of Film'', 3rd ed. New York: Knopf.
* Turan, Kenneth (2008). "UCLA's Pre-Code Series", ''Los Angeles Times'', January 27 (availabl
* Tuska, Jon (1984). ''Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective''. Westport, Conn., and London: Greenwood.
* Tyree, J. M., and Ben Walters (2007). ''The Big Lebowski''. London: BFI Publishing.
* Ursini, James (1995). "Angst at Sixty Fields per Second", in Silver and Ursini, ''Film Noir Reader ', pp. 275–87.
* "''Variety'' staff" (anon.) (1940). "''Stranger on the Third Floor''" eview ''Variety'' (excerpte
* "''Variety'' staff" (anon.) (1955). "''Kiss Me Deadly''" eview ''Variety'' (excerpte
* Vernet, Marc (1993). "''Film Noir'' on the Edge of Doom", in Copjec, ''Shades of Noir'', pp. 1–31.
* Wager, Jans B. (2005). ''Dames in the Driver's Seat: Rereading Film Noir''. Austin: University of Texas Press.
* Walker, Michael (1992). "Robert Siodmak", in Cameron, ''The Book of Film Noir'', pp. 110–51.
* White, Dennis L. (1980). "''Beast of the City'' (1932)", in Silver and Ward, ''Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference'', pp. 16–17.
* Widdicombe, Toby (2001). ''A Reader's Guide to Raymond Chandler''. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood.
* Williams, Linda Ruth (2005). ''The Erotic Thriller in Contemporary Cinema''. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
* Auerbach, Jonathan (2011). ''Film Noir and American Citizenship.'' Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
* Chopra-Gant, Mike (2005). ''Hollywood Genres and Postwar America: Masculinity, Family and Nation in Popular Movies and Film Noir''. London: IB Tauris.
* Cochran, David (2000). ''America Noir: Underground Writers and Filmmakers of the Postwar Era''. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
* Dickos, Andrew (2002). ''Street with No Name: A History of the Classic American Film Noir''. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
* Dimendberg, Edward (2004). ''Film Noir and the Spaces of Modernity''. Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London: Harvard University Press.
* Dixon, Wheeler Winston (2009). ''Film Noir and the Cinema of Paranoia''. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
* Grossman, Julie (2009). ''Rethinking the Femme Fatale in Film Noir: Ready for Her Close-Up''. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
* Hannsberry, Karen Burroughs (1998). ''Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film''. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.
* Hannsberry, Karen Burroughs (2003). ''Bad Boys: The Actors of Film Noir''. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.
* Hare, William (2003). ''Early Film Noir: Greed, Lust, and Murder Hollywood Style''. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.
* Hogan, David J. (2013). ''Film Noir FAQ''. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard.
* Kaplan, E. Ann, ed. (1998). ''Women in Film Noir'', new ed. London: British Film Institute.
* Keaney, Michael F. (2003). ''Film Noir Guide: 745 Films of the Classic Era, 1940–1959''. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.
* Mason, Fran (2002). ''American Gangster Cinema: From'' Little Caesar ''to'' Pulp Fiction. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave.
* Mayer, Geoff, and Brian McDonnell (2007). ''Encyclopedia of Film Noir''. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood.
* McArthur, Colin (1972). ''Underworld U.S.A.'' New York: Viking.
* Naremore, James (2019). ''Film Noir: A Very Short Introduction''. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
*Osteen, Mark. ''Nightmare Alley: Film Noir and the American Dream'' (Johns Hopkins University Press; 2013) 336 pages; interprets film noir as a genre that challenges the American mythology of upward mobility and self-reinvention.
* Palmer, R. Barton (1994). ''Hollywood's Dark Cinema: The American Film Noir''. New York: Twayne.
* Palmer, R. Barton, ed. (1996). ''Perspectives on Film Noir''. New York: G.K. Hall.
* Pappas, Charles (2005). ''It's a Bitter Little World: The Smartest, Toughest, Nastiest Quotes from Film Noir''. Iola, Wisc.: Writer's Digest Books.
* Rabinowitz, Paula (2002). ''Black & White & Noir: America's Pulp Modernism''. New York: Columbia University Press.
* Schatz, Thomas (1997). ''Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s''. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press.
* Selby, Spencer (1984). ''Dark City: The Film Noir''. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.
* Shadoian, Jack (2003). ''Dreams and Dead Ends: The American Gangster Film'', 2d ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
* Silver, Alain, and James Ursini (1999). ''The Noir Style''. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press.
* Silver, Alain, and James Ursini (2016). ''Film Noir Compendium''. Milwaukee, WI: Applause.
* Spicer, Andrew (2002). ''Film Noir''. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.
* Starman, Ray (2006). ''TV Noir: the 20th Century''. Troy, N.Y.: The Troy Bookmakers Press.
holdings of the UC Berkeley Library
Film Noir: An Introduction
essay with links to discussions of ten important noirs; part of ''Images: A Journal of Film and Popular Culture''
Film Noir Studies
writings by John Blaser, with film noir glossary, timeline, and noir-related media
unrevised online version of essay by Alain Silver in three parts
A Guide to Film Noir Genre
ten deadeye bullet points from Roger Ebert
An Introduction to Neo-Noir
essay by Lee Horsley
''The Noir Thriller'': Introduction
excerpt from 2001 book by Lee Horsley
essay by Alain Silver and Linda Brookover
Arthur Lyons Film Noir Festival
co-sponsored by the Palm Springsbr>Cultural Center
Noir and Neonoir | The Criterion Collection
Notebook Primer: Film Noir
Collection: "Film Noir, Visuality and Themes"
from the University of Michigan Museum of Art
Category:Film and video terminology
Category:History of film
Category:1930s in film
Category:1940s in film
Category:1950s in film