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First World War

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Battle of the Somme
* Spring Offensive * Meuse-Argonne Offensive

AWARDS Légion d\'honneur (Grand Cross) Médaille militaire Croix de guerre Order of Leopold (Grand Cross) Order of Ouissam Alaouite (Grand Cross) Order of the White Eagle Virtuti Militari
Virtuti Militari
(Grand Cross) Order of St. George (2nd Class) Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
(Honorary Grand Cross) Order of the Redeemer Order of Merit
Order of Merit
Distinguished Service Order Distinguished Service Medal (US)

Marshal FERDINAND JEAN MARIE FOCH (French pronunciation: ​ ) (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French general and Marshal of France , Great Britain and Poland, a military theorist and the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War
First World War
. An aggressive, even reckless commander at the First Marne, Flanders, and Artois campaigns of 1914-1916, Foch became the Allied Commander-in-Chief in 1918 and successfully coordinated the French, British, American, and Italian efforts into a coherent whole, deftly handling his strategic reserves.

At the outbreak of war in August 1914, Foch's XX Corps participated in the brief invasion of Germany before retiring in the face of a German counter-attack and successfully blocking the Germans short of Nancy . Ordered west to defend Paris, Foch's prestige soared as a result of the victory at the Marne , for which he was widely credited as a chief protagonist while commanding the French Ninth Army . He was then promoted again to Assistant Commander-in-Chief for the Northern Zone, a role which evolved into command of Army Group North, and in which role he was required to cooperate with the British forces at Ypres
Ypres
and the Somme . At the end of 1916, partly owing to the disappointing results of the latter offensive and partly owing to wartime political rivalries, Foch was transferred to Italy.

Foch was ultimately appointed " Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies" on 26 March 1918 following being the Commander-in-Chief of Western Front with title Généralissime in 1918. He played a decisive role in halting a renewed German advance on Paris
Paris
in the Second Battle of the Marne , after which he was promoted to Marshal of France . Addington says, "to a large extent the final Allied strategy which won the war on land in Western Europe in 1918 was Foch's alone."

On 11 November 1918 Foch accepted the German request for an armistice. Foch advocated peace terms that would make Germany unable to pose a threat to France ever again. Foch considered the Treaty
Treaty
of Versailles too lenient on Germany and as the Treaty
Treaty
was being signed on 28 June 1919, he declared: "This is not a peace. It is an armistice for twenty years". His words proved prophetic: the Second World War started twenty years and 64 days later.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Military
Military
thought

* 3 World War I
World War I

* 3.1 1914 * 3.2 1915–16 * 3.3 1917 * 3.4 1918

* 4 Assessments * 5 Paris
Paris
Peace Conference * 6 Post-war career and legacy * 7 Distinctions

* 8 Honors and awards

* 8.1 France * 8.2 Foreign decorations

* 9 Quotations attributed to Foch * 10 See also

* 11 Notes

* 11.1 Bibliography

* 12 Further reading * 13 External links

EARLY LIFE

Foch's birthplace in Tarbes

Foch was born at Tarbes , Hautes-Pyrénées , the son of a civil servant from Comminges . His German surname was of his paternal side ancestry which originally came from Alsace in the 18th century. He attended school at Tarbes, Rodez
Rodez
and the Jesuit College at Saint-Étienne . His brother later became a Jesuit priest, which may initially have hindered Foch's rise through the ranks of the French Army since the Republican government of France was anti-clerical .

At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
in 1870, Foch enlisted in the French 4th Infantry Regiment which did not take part in combat, and stayed in the Army at the end of the war. In 1871, he entered the _ École Polytechnique _, choosing the school of artillery . In 1873, he received his commission as an artillery officer and served as a Lieutenant
Lieutenant
in the 24th Artillery
Artillery
Regiment in Tarbes, despite not having had time to complete his course due to the shortage of junior officers. In 1876, he attended the cavalry school of Saumur to train as a mounted artillery officer. On 30 September 1878 he became a Captain and arrived in Paris
Paris
on 24 September 1879 as an assistant in the Central Personnel Service Depot of the artillery.

In 1885 Foch undertook a course at the _Ecole Supérieur de Guerre_ where he was later an instructor from 1895 to 1901. He was promoted Lieutenant- Colonel
Colonel
in 1898, and colonel in 1903. As a colonel he became regimental commander of the 35th Artillery
Artillery
Regiment (35e R.A) at Vannes. An extremely short man, Foch was known for his physical strength and his sharp mind who always maintained a highly dignified bearing. Foch was a quiet man, known for saying little and when he did speak, it was a volley of words accompanied by much gesturing of his hands that required some knowledge of him to understand properly. One of Foch's favorite phrases was "_Pas de protocole!_" as Foch preferred to be approachable by all officers and whose only rigidity was always taking his meals at noon and at 7:30; otherwise Foch would work all sorts of irregular hours from dawn until well into the night.

In 1907 Foch was promoted to _Général de Brigade _, and in the same year he assumed command of the French War College. He held this position until 1911, the year in which he was appointed _Général de Division _. Foch influenced General Joseph Joffre (Chief of General Staff, 28 July 1911 – 12 December 1916) when he drafted the French plan of campaign ( Plan XVII ) in 1913. In 1913 he took command of XX Corps at Nancy , and he had held this appointment for exactly one year when he led XX Corps into battle in August 1914.

MILITARY THOUGHT

Regimental commander Colonel
Colonel
Foch in his uniform of the 35th Artillery
Artillery
Regiment in 1903.

Foch was later acclaimed as "the most original military thinker of his generation". He became known for his critical analyses of the Franco-Prussian and Napoleonic campaigns and of their relevance to military operations in the new twentieth Century. His re-examination of France's defeat in 1870 was amongst the first of its kind. At the College, Foch was a professor of military history, strategy and general tactics while becoming the French theorist on offensive strategies.

During his time as an instructor Foch created renewed interest in French military history , inspired confidence in a new class of French officers, and brought about "the intellectual and moral regeneration of the French Army". His thinking on military doctrine was shaped by the Clausewitzian philosophy, then uncommon in France, that "the will to conquer is the first condition of victory." Collections of his lectures, which reintroduced the concept of the offensive to French military theory, were published in the volumes _"Des Principes de la Guerre"_ ("On the Principles of War") in 1903, and _"De la Conduite de la Guerre"_ ("On the Conduct of War") in 1904. While Foch advised "qualification and discernment" in military strategy and cautioned that "recklessness in attack could lead to prohibitive losses and ultimate failure," his concepts, distorted and misunderstood by contemporaries, became associated with the extreme offensive doctrines (_l'offensive à outrance_) of his successors. The cult of the offensive came to dominate military circles, and Foch's reputation was damaged when his books were cited in the development of the disastrous offensive that brought France close to ruin in August 1914.

Foch was seen as a master of the Napoleonic school of military thought, but he was the only one of the Military
Military
College Commandants (Maillard, Langlois, Bonnal) still serving. Their doctrines had been challenged, not only by the German school, but also since about 1911 by a new French school inspired by General Loiseau de Grandmaison, which criticised them as lacking in vigour and offensive spirit, and contributing to needless dispersion of force. The French Army
French Army
fought under the new doctrines, but they failed in the first battles of August 1914, and it remained to be seen whether the Napoleonic doctrine would hold its own, would give way to doctrines evolved during the war, or would incorporate the new moral and technical elements into a new outward form within which the spirit of Napoleon remained unaltered. The war gave an ambiguous answer to these questions, which remains a source of controversy amongst experts.

WORLD WAR I

1914

On the outbreak of World War I
World War I
, Foch was in command of XX Corps, part of the Second Army of General de Castelnau . On 14 August the Corps advanced towards the Sarrebourg
Sarrebourg
Morhange line, taking heavy casualties in the Battle of the Frontiers . The defeat of the XV Corps to its right forced Foch into retreat. Foch acquitted himself well, covering the withdrawal to Nancy and the Charmes Gap before launching a counter-attack that prevented the Germans from crossing the River Meurthe .

Foch was then selected to command the newly formed Ninth Army during the First Battle of the Marne with Maxime Weygand as his Chief of Staff . Only a week after taking command, with the whole French Army in full retreat, he was forced to fight a series of defensive actions to prevent a German breakthrough. During the advance at the marshes at St.-Gond he is said to have declared: "My centre is yielding. My right is retreating. Situation excellent. I am attacking." These words were seen as a symbol both of Foch's leadership and of French determination to resist the invader at any cost, although there is little evidence that the signal was sent. Accordingly, on October 4, 1914, Ferdinand was made the Assistant Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Zone under Joseph Joffre.

Foch's counterattack was an implementation of the theories he had developed during his staff college days and succeeded in stopping the German advance. Foch received further reinforcements from the Fifth Army and, following another attack on his forces, counter-attacked again on the Marne. The Germans dug in before eventually retreating. On 12 September, Foch regained the Marne at Châlons and liberated the city. The people of Châlons greeted as a hero the man widely believed to have been instrumental in stopping the retreat and stabilising the Allied position. Receiving thanks from the Bishop of Châlons (Joseph-Marie Tissier), Foch piously replied, "_non nobis, Domine, non nobis, sed nomini tuo da gloriam._" ("Not unto us, o Lord, not unto us, but to Your name give glory", Psalm 115:1).

As assistant Commander-in-Chief with responsibility for co-ordinating the activities of the northern French armies and liaising with the British forces; this was a key appointment as the Race to the Sea was then in progress. General Joseph Joffre , Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the French Army, had also wanted to nominate Foch as his successor "in case of accident", to make sure the job would not be given to Joseph Gallieni , but the French Government would not agree to this. When the Germans attacked on 13 October, they narrowly failed to break through the British and French lines. They tried again at the end of the month during the First Battle of Ypres
First Battle of Ypres
, this time suffering terrible casualties. Foch had again succeeded in coordinating a defense and winning against the odds.

Field Marshal Sir John French , C-in-C of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had described Foch in August 1914 to J. E. B. Seely , a liaison officer, as "the sort of man with whom I know I can get on" and later in February 1915 described him to Lord Selbourne as "the best general in the world". By contrast, Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General William Robertson , another British officer, thought that Foch was "rather a flat-catcher, a mere professor, and very talkative" (28 September 1915).

On 2 December 1914, King George V appointed him an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
.

1915–16

General Foch in 1916

In 1915, his responsibilities by now crystallised in command of the Northern Army Group, he conducted the Artois Offensive and, in 1916, the French effort at the Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Somme
. He was strongly criticised for his tactics and the heavy casualties that were suffered by the Allied armies during these battles, and in December 1916 was removed from command by Joffre and sent to command Allied units on the Italian front ; Joffre was himself sacked days later.

1917

Just a few months later, after the failure of General Robert Nivelle 's offensive , General Philippe Pétain , the hero of Verdun , was appointed Chief of the General Staff; Foch hoped to succeed Pétain in command of Army Group Centre, but this job was instead given to General Fayolle. The following month Pétain was appointed C-in-C in place of Nivelle, and Foch was recalled and promoted to chief of the general staff. Like Pétain, Foch favoured only limited attacks (he had told Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Sir Henry Wilson , another British Army officer, that the planned Flanders offensive was "futile, fantastic after 1917 this was no longer the case, due to the vast number of casualties France's armies had suffered in the now three and a half year old struggle with Germany.

The Supreme War Council was formally established on 7 November 1917, containing the Prime Minister and a Minister from each of the Western Front powers (i.e., excluding Russia), to meet at least once a month. Foch (along with Wilson and Italian general Cadorna) were appointed military representatives, to whom the general staffs of each country were to submit their plans. The French tried to have Foch as representative to increase their control over the Western Front (by contrast Cadorna was disgraced after the recent Battle of Caporetto and Wilson, a personal friend of Foch, was deliberately appointed as a rival to Field Marshal Robertson, the British Chief of the Imperial General Staff , an ally of Haig's, who had recently lost 250,000 men at the battle of Ypres
Ypres
the same year. ) Clemenceau was eventually persuaded to appoint Foch's protégé Weygand instead, although many already suspected that Foch would eventually become the Allied Generalissimo.

Late in 1917 Foch would have liked to have seen Haig replaced as C-in-C of the BEF by General Herbert Plumer ; however, Haig would remain in command of the BEF for the remainder of the war.

1918

Marshal of France Ferdinand Foch
Ferdinand Foch
with baton .

In January 1918, in accordance with Lloyd George's wishes, an executive board was set up to control the planned Allied General Reserve, with Clemenceau 's agreement being obtained by having Foch on the board rather than Maxime Weygand . Pétain agreed to release only eight French divisions and made a bilateral agreement with Haig, who was reluctant to release any divisions at all, to assist one another. The situation was worsened by Clemenceau's and Pétain's dislike of Foch. At a Supreme War Council meeting in London (14–15 March), with a German offensive clearly imminent, Foch agreed under protest to shelve the Allied Reserve for the time being.

On the evening of 24 March, after the German Spring Offensive was threatening to split apart the British and French forces, Foch telegraphed Wilson (who by now had replaced Robertson as Chief of the Imperial General Staff) "asking what thought of situation "> Foch speaking to General Kazimierz Sosnkowski on the steps of the Belweder Palace in Warsaw
Warsaw
(1923). Seen in the centre is Chief of State Józef Piłsudski .

Foch was made a British Field Marshal in 1919, and, for his advice during the Polish–Bolshevik War of 1920, as well as his pressure on Germany during the Great Poland Uprising , he was awarded with the title of Marshal of Poland in 1923.

On 1 November 1921 Foch was in Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri
, to take part in the groundbreaking ceremony for the Liberty Memorial that was being constructed there. Also present that day were Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Baron Jacques of Belgium, Admiral David Beatty of Great Britain, General Armando Diaz
Armando Diaz
of Italy and General John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
of the United States. One of the main speakers was Vice President Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
of the United States. In 1935 bas-reliefs of Foch, Jacques, Diaz and Pershing by sculptor Walker Hancock were added to the memorial.

Foch made a 3000-mile circuit through the U.S. Mid West and industrial cities such as Pittsburgh PA, then on to Washington, D.C., which included Ceremonies at Arlington National Cemetery for what was then called Armistice Day. During the tour he received numerous honorary degrees from American Universities.

Foch died on 20 March 1929, and was interred in Les Invalides
Les Invalides
, next to Napoleon and other famous French soldiers and officers.

A statue of Foch was set up at the Compiègne Armistice site when the area was converted into a national memorial. This statue was the one item left undisturbed by the Germans following their defeat of France in June 1940. Following the signing of France's surrender on 21 June, the Germans ravaged the area surrounding the railway car in which both the 1918 and 1940 surrenders had taken place. The statue was left standing, to view nothing but a wasteland. The Armistice site was restored by German prisoner-of-war labour following the Second World War, with its memorials and monuments either restored or reassembled.

DISTINCTIONS

* 6 August 1918: Marshal of France * 19 July 1919 : Field Marshal of Great-Britain * 25 March 1921: Honorary Colonel
Colonel
(the first) of the Royal 22nd Regiment of the Canadian Army
Canadian Army
* 13 April 1923: Marshal of Poland

HONORS AND AWARDS

The aircraft carrier Foch (R99) was named in his honor.

A heavy cruiser and an aircraft carrier were named in his honor. An early district of Gdynia
Gdynia
, Poland was also named "Foch" after the Marshal, but was renamed by the communist government after the Second World War. Nevertheless, one of the major avenues of the town of Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
, located then in the Polish corridor , holds Foch's name as sign of gratitude for his campaigning for an independent Poland. Avenue Foch
Avenue Foch
, a street in Paris, was named after him. Several other streets have been named in his honor in Melbourne
Melbourne
, Ypres
Ypres
, Lyon
Lyon
, Kraków
Kraków
, Chrzanów , Grenoble
Grenoble
, Quito
Quito
, Beirut
Beirut
, New Orleans
New Orleans
, Wynnum , Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts
, Mineola, New York
Mineola, New York
, Queens, New York , Milltown , Shanghai
Shanghai
(now part of Yan\'a Road ) and Singapore (Foch Road). A city quarter in the former French sector of Berlin is called Cité Foch in his honor. This is where French garrison soldiers were housed while Berlin was divided. Fochville in South Africa
South Africa
was also named in his honour. A statue of Foch stands near Victoria railway station in London. He is the only Frenchman ever to be made an honorary field-marshal by the British. A statue of Foch stands on the Bapaume-Peronne road, near the village of Bouchavesnes, at the point where Messimy 's _chasseurs_ broke through on 12 September 1916. General Debeney spoke at the statue's unveiling in 1926, praising Foch's operational concepts of 1918. Foch also has a grape cultivar named after him. In the Belgian city of Leuven
Leuven
, one of the central squares was named after him after the First World War, but it was renamed in 2012. Mount Foch in Alberta
Alberta
is also named after him.

FRANCE

* Legion of Honour :

Knight – 9 July 1892; Officer – 11 July 1908; Commander – 31 December 1913; Grand Officer – 18 September 1914; Grand Cross – 8 October 1915.

* Médaille militaire – 21 December 1916. * Croix de guerre 1914-1918 * Commemorative medal of the 1870–1871 War * Officer of Public Instruction.

FOREIGN DECORATIONS

* Order of Merit
Order of Merit
(United Kingdom) * Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
(United Kingdom) * Distinguished Service Order (United Kingdom) * Order of the White Eagle (Poland) (15 April 1923) * Grand Cross of the Order of Virtuti Militari
Virtuti Militari
(15 April 1923, Poland) * Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta (Poland) * Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold (Belgium) * Grand Cross of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite (Morocco) * Distinguished Service Medal (United States) * Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer (Greece) * Order of Lāčplēsis 3rd Class (Latvia) * Order of Saint George
Order of Saint George
Second Class (_Орден Святого Георгия_, 1916, Russian Empire) * Knights Grand Commander (First Class) of the Order of Rama (_Senangapati_, 16 November 1918, Thailand)

Foch received the title of Doctor honoris causa of the Jagiellonian University of Kraków
Kraków
in 1918.

QUOTATIONS ATTRIBUTED TO FOCH

* " _Aucun, sauf un lâche ose se vanter qu'il n'a jamais connu la peur._ "

English Translation: _None but a coward dares to boast that he has never known fear_.

* " _Ne me dites pas que ce problème est difficile. S'il n'était pas difficile, ce ne serait pas un problème._"

English Translation: _Don't tell me that this problem is difficult. If it wasn't difficult, it wouldn't be a problem._

* " _Il n'y a pas d'homme cultivé ; il n'y a que des hommes qui se cultivent._"

English Translation: _There is no man that is cultivated; there are only men that cultivate themselves._

* " _A la guerre, c’est celui qui doute qui est perdu : on ne doit jamais douter._"

English Translation: _In war, he who has doubts is lost: one should never doubt._

* "_Accepter l'idée d'une défaite, c'est être vaincu..._"

English Translation: _Accepting the idea of a defeat, is being defeated..._

* " _La réalité du champ de bataille est que l'on n'y étudie pas : simplement on fait ce que l'on peut pour appliquer ce que l'on sait. " (1903) _

English Translation: _The reality of the battlefield is not an element that can be studied: we simply do what we can to be able to apply what we know_

* " _Les aéroplanes sont des jouets scientifiques intéressants, mais ne présentent pas de valeur militaire._ " (1911)

English translation: _Aeroplanes are interesting scientific toys, but they are of no military value._(1911)

* " _Il faut travailler, toujours travailler pour nous tenir au courant, car les moyens évoluent, les solutions sont chaque jour différentes. Faire la guerre prochaine avec les procédés de la dernière, quelle utopie ! Il faudra que le chef d'alors improvise des solutions nouvelles. Travaillez… les improvisations géniales sur le champ de bataille ne sont que le résultat des méditations antérieures._ " (conférence à l' École navale – August 1920).

English Translation: _Work must be done, always work to keep up, because means evolve and accordingly solutions change daily. Conduct the next war with the procedures of the former war, what a utopia ! The chief would have to improvise new solutions. Work...the great improvisations on the battle field are only the results of previous thought_

* " _De gouverner, c'est prévoir, on a fait: gouverner, c'est attendre_ " (Les Cahiers – 1926)

English Translation: _To govern is to anticipate, we did: governing is waiting_ (1920)

* " _Parce qu'un homme sans mémoire est un homme sans vie, un peuple sans mémoire est un peuple sans avenir…_ "

English Translation: _Since a man without memory is a man without a life, a people without memory are a people without a future..._

* " _Mon centre cède, ma droite recule. Situation excellente, j'attaque._ " ( First Battle of the Marne - 8 September 1914)

English Translation: _My center is yielding, my right is retreating. Excellent situation, I am attacking_

* " _Les peuples cessent de vivre quand ils cessent de se souvenir."_

English Translation: _Peoples will stop living when they stop remembering_

* " _Une assemblée pour décider doit avoir un nombre impair, mais trois, c'est déjà trop._"

English Translation: _A committee should have an odd number of members, and three is already too many_

SEE ALSO

* Biography portal

* Jean de Lattre de Tassigny * List of French paratrooper units * Pierre Segretain * Pierre Jeanpierre * Marcel Bigeard * 35th Parachute Artillery Regiment * Moroccan Division * Russian Expeditionary Force in France * Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion * Army Manoeuvres of 1912 * Foch Line * Marshal Foch Professor of French Literature , a chair at the University of Oxford established in Foch's honour in 1918 * Non-U.S. recipients of U.S. gallantry awards

NOTES

* ^ Charles Messenger, ed., _Reader's Guide to Military
Military
History_ (2001) pp 170-71. * ^ _A_ _B_ Greenhalgh, 2011 * ^ _A_ _B_ Addington, Larry H. (1994). _The Patterns of War Since the Eighteenth Century_. Indiana UP. pp. 167–68. * ^ Williamson Murray; Jim Lacey (2009). _The Making of Peace: Rulers, States, and the Aftermath of War_. Cambridge UP. p. 209. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Winter, Denis _Haig's Command: A Reassessment_, New York: Viking, 1991 page 275. * ^ Palmowski, Jan. "The Western Front, 1914–1915". Oxford Reference. Missing or empty url= (help ); access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Michael Carver (editor), _The War Lords: Military
Military
Commanders of the Twentieth Century_, (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1976), p. 123. ISBN 0-297-77084-5 * ^ _A_ _B_ Shirer, p. 81 * ^ Shirer, p. 80 * ^ _ Atkinson, Charles Francis (1922). "Foch, Ferdinand". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_ (12th ed.). London & New York. * ^ Raymond Recouly, _Foch: Le Vainqueur de la Guerre_ (Paris, France: Hachette, 1919), page 121 : "Mon centre céde, ma droite recule, situation excellente, j'attaque." (My centre is giving way, my right is retreating, situation excellent, I am attacking.) * ^ Cowley, Robert; Parker, Geoffrey, eds. (1996). _The Reader's Companion to Military
Military
History_. sponsored by the Society for Military History (1st ed.). Houghton Mifflin. pp. 164–165. ISBN 0-395-66969-3 . * ^ "Nouvelles de Rome: S. G. Mgr. Tissier à Rome (Rome, 19 janvier 1917)" , _Le Croix_ (French Catholic newspaper), 25 January 1917, page 7: "On sent … qu'il n'oubliera plus jamais le réponse du général Foch à ses félicitions, au lendemain de la victoire: _Non nobis, Domine, non nobis; sed nomini tuo da gloriam_." (One feels … that he will never forget the reply of General Foch to his congratulations in the aftermath of the victory: _Not to us, Lord, not to us; but to Your name give glory_.) * ^ Flat-catcher (British racing slang) a horse that looks good but is not. See: Merriam-Webster on-line dictionary. * ^ Holmes 2004, p243 * ^ "No. 29044". _ The London Gazette _. 19 January 1915. p. 601. * ^ Woodward, 1998, pp135 * ^ Woodward, 1998, pp139 * ^ Woodward, 1998, pp144-6 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Woodward, 1998, pp187-9 * ^ Whelan, B. (2010). "War in History". _British Library Serials_. 4. 17: 526. * ^ Jeffery 2006, pp 206-8, 210-11 * ^ Jeffery 2006, pp 212-3 * ^ Jeffery 2006, pp 214-5, 219-20 * ^ Jeffery 2006, pp 220-1 * ^ Keegan, John, "The First World War" (Vintage Books, 1998), p. 403.

* ^

* _Foch the Man_ at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg

* ^ Harris 2008, p477 * ^ Harris 2008, p478 * ^ Harris 2008, p479 * ^ " 'How did I win the war?' Foch will say chaffingly to André de Marincourt, many months later. 'By smoking my pipe. That is to say, by not getting excited, by reducing everything to simple terms, by avoiding useless emotions, and keeping all my strength for the job.' " Frank H. Simonds, _History of the World War_, Vol. 5, Ch. 3, III. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1920. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ernest R. Troughton, _It's Happening Again_ (John Gifford, 1944), p. 17. * ^ Anthony Adamthwaite, _Grandeur and Misery: France's Bid for Power in Europe, 1914-40_ (Hodder Arnold, 1995), p. 57. * ^ Ruth Henig, _Versailles and After, 1919-33_ (Routledge, 1995), p. 52. * ^ "No. 31481". _ The London Gazette _ (Supplement). 29 July 1919. p. 9809. * ^ New York Times, 10 November 1921 "Foch Sees Ingots Rolled into Plates." * ^ Chrzanovia Patria Parva Street chart of Chrzanów * ^ Palmowski, Jan (2008). "Foch, Ferdinand". _A Dictionary of Contemporary World History_ (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199295678 . Retrieved 9 October 2012. * ^ Philpott 2009, p441, p555 * ^ 1 Fochsquare gets new name * ^ Les Principes de la guerre. Conférences faites à l'École supérieure de guerre, Paris, Berger-Levrault, 1903

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* _Les Principes de la guerre. Conférences faites à l'Ecole supérieure de guerre_ (_On the Principles of War_), Berger-Levrault, (1903) * _La Conduite de la guerre_ (_On the Conduct of War_), Berger-Levrault, 1905 * Foch, F. (1931). _Mémoire pour servir à l\'histoire de la guerre 1914–1918: avec 18 gravures hors-texte et 12 cartes_ (PDF) (in French). Translated by T Bentley Mott (Heinemann ed.). Paris: Plon. OCLC
OCLC
86058356 . Retrieved 6 September 2014. * Porte, Rémy, and F Cochet. _Ferdinand Foch, 1851-1929: Apprenez À Penser : Actes Du Colloque International, École Militaire, Paris, 6–7 November 2008._ Paris: Soteca, 2010. ISBN 978-2-916385-43-3

FURTHER READING

* Doughty, Robert A. _Pyrrhic Victory: French Strategy and Operations in the Great War_ (Harvard U.P. 2005) * Greenhalgh, Elizabeth. _Foch in Command. The Forging of a First World War General_ (Cambridge University Press, 2011); 550 pp. online review in H-FRANCE * Greenhalgh, Elizabeth. _Victory Through Coalition. Britain and France During the First World War_ (2005) * Harris, J.P. _Douglas Haig and the First World War_. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-521-89802-7 * Holmes, Richard (2004). _The Little Field Marshal: A Life of Sir John French_. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84614-0 . * Jeffery, Keith (2006). _Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson: A Political Soldier_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820358-2 . * King, Jere Clemens. _Foch versus Clemenceau_ (Harvard University Press, 1960) * Neiberg, Michael S. _Foch: Supreme Allied Commander in the Great War_ (Brassey's Inc., 2003), short popular