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Pantherinae Felinae †Machairodontinae †Proailurinae[2]

Felidae
Felidae
ranges

The biological family Felidae
Felidae
is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats. A member of this family is also called a felid.[3][4][5][6] The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to domestic cats. The characteristic features of cats have evolved to support a carnivorous lifestyle, with adaptations for ambush or stalking and short pursuit hunting. They have gracile and muscular bodies, strong flexible forelimbs and retractable claws for holding prey, dental and cranial adaptations for a strong bite, and often have characteristic striped or spotted coat patterns for camouflage. Cats are obligate carnivores, meaning they are dependent on nutrients in animal flesh for survival, and because of the large proportion of meat in their diet are sometimes referred to as hypercarnivores. Of the 13 terrestrial families in the order Carnivora, they are the strictest carnivores.[7] Living cats belong to two subfamilies, the Pantherinae
Pantherinae
and Felinae. The former comprises the "big cats" (the tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard, snow leopard, clouded leopard and Sunda clouded leopard).[5] Felinae comprises all the non-pantherine cats,[8] which range in size from the small rusty-spotted cat to the big cat–sized puma and includes such diverse forms as the lynx, ocelot, serval and cheetah, as well as the domestic cat. The first cats emerged during the Oligocene, about 25 million years ago, with the appearance of Proailurus
Proailurus
and Pseudaelurus. The latter species complex was ancestral to two main lines of felids, the cats in the extant subfamilies and a third major group of extinct cats, which are assigned to the subfamily Machairodontinae. The machairodonts included the saber-toothed cats such as the Smilodon. The "false sabre toothed cats", the Barbourofelidae
Barbourofelidae
and Nimravidae, are not true cats, but are closely related and together with Felidae
Felidae
and other cat-like carnivores (hyaenas, viverrids and mongooses) make up the feliform carnivores.

Contents

1 Evolution 2 Classification

2.1 Extant species 2.2 Phylogeny 2.3 Fossil genera

3 Characteristics

3.1 Physical appearance 3.2 Senses 3.3 Dentition 3.4 Vocalisations

4 Fossil felids 5 See also 6 Cited references 7 General references 8 External links

Evolution[edit]

Feliform evolutionary timeline

Results of mitochondrial analysis indicates that all the Felidae descended from a common ancestor. Cats originated in Asia and spread across continents by crossing land bridges. Testing of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed that the ancient cats evolved into eight main lineages that diverged in the course of at least 10 migrations (in both directions) from continent to continent via the Bering land bridge and the Isthmus of Panama, with the Panthera
Panthera
genus being the oldest and the Felis
Felis
genus being the youngest. About 60% of the modern cat species are estimated to have developed within the last million years.[9] The Felidae's closest relatives are thought to be the Asiatic linsangs.[10] Together with the Viverridae, hyenas, mongooses, and Madagascar carnivores, they form the suborder Feliformia.[11] Most cat species share a genetic anomaly that prevents them from tasting sweetness.[12] Most cat species have a haploid number of 18 or 19. New World cats (those in Central and South America) have a haploid number of 18, possibly due to the combination of two smaller chromosomes into a larger one.[13] Domestic cats
Domestic cats
may either have a long or short tail. At one point, biologists had to consider whether the short tail also found in the lynx was the ancestral or derived trait. Without looking at the fossil record, researchers were able to look at the character states found in their outgroups. Because all animals belonging to Felidae’s sister taxa, Viverridae, have long tails, scientists could infer that this character state represents the ancestral trait.[11] Some domestic cats display a rosette pattern on their coats. This character state, however, is not related to the rosettes found on big cats. Domestic cats
Domestic cats
and big cats underwent convergent evolution for this trait. The most common ancestor to all cats had a flecked coat. Lynxes display this character state. The jaguarundi lost this character state secondarily. The most common recent ancestor of snow leopards, tigers, jaguars, lions, and leopards developed a coat with rosette patterns from the flecked patterns. Tigers and lions, however, do not display rosettes as adults. They both have lost this ancestral character state over time. Adult tigers actually display elongated rosettes that now appear as stripes. Adult lions seem to lack any distinctive markings altogether. Both juvenile tigers and lions, however, display partial rosettes. This ancestral character state appears only during these early stages, supporting the notion that ontogeny reflects phylogeny. The rosette patterns found on snow leopards, jaguars, and leopards all have a common origin.[14] Fossil occurrences indicate that the Felidae
Felidae
arrived in North America about 10 million years later than the Canidae, and about 20 million years later than the Ursidae
Ursidae
and the Nimravidae.[15] Classification[edit] Traditionally, five subfamilies have been distinguished within the Felidae
Felidae
based on phenotypical features: the Felinae, the Pantherinae, the Acinonychinae
Acinonychinae
(cheetahs), the extinct Machairodontinae, and the extinct Proailurinae.[2] Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that living (extant) felids fall into eight lineages (clades).[1][9][16][17] The placement of the cheetah within the Puma lineage invalidates the traditional subfamily Acinonychinae, and recent sources use only two subfamilies for extant genera.[1] The eight lineages divide between these as follows:

Subfamily Pantherinae:

Lineage 1 ( Panthera
Panthera
lineage): Panthera, Neofelis

Subfamily Felinae:

Lineage 2 ( Bay cat
Bay cat
lineage): Pardofelis, Catopuma Lineage 3 ( Caracal
Caracal
lineage): Leptailurus, Caracal
Caracal
(including Profelis) Lineage 4 ( Ocelot
Ocelot
cat lineage): Leopardus Lineage 5 ( Lynx
Lynx
lineage): Lynx Lineage 6 (Puma lineage): Puma, Acinonyx, Herpailurus Lineage 7 ( Leopard
Leopard
cat lineage): Prionailurus, Otocolobus Lineage 8 ( Domestic cat
Domestic cat
lineage): Felis

The last four lineages are more related to each other than to any of the first four, so form a clade within the Felinae
Felinae
subfamily of family Felidae.[9] Extant species[edit] Main article: List of felid species

Tiger

Lion

Jaguar

Eurasian lynx

Cougar

Cheetah

Ocelot

Margay

Leopard
Leopard
cat

Domestic cat

European wildcat

The following is the complete list of genera within the Felidae, grouped according to the traditional phenotypical classification with the corresponding genotypical lineages indicated. It includes all of the currently living cat species.[1][18]

Subfamily Pantherinae

Genus Panthera
Panthera
[Lineage 1]

Tiger
Tiger
( Panthera
Panthera
tigris) Lion
Lion
( Panthera
Panthera
leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
( Panthera
Panthera
onca) Leopard
Leopard
( Panthera
Panthera
pardus) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
( Panthera
Panthera
uncia; syn., Uncia uncia)[19]

Genus Neofelis
Neofelis
[Lineage 1]

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
( Neofelis
Neofelis
nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
( Neofelis
Neofelis
diardi)

Subfamily Felinae

Genus Pardofelis
Pardofelis
[Lineage 2]

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
( Pardofelis
Pardofelis
marmorata)

Genus Catopuma
Catopuma
[Lineage 2] — syn. Pardofelis[9]

Bay cat
Bay cat
( Catopuma
Catopuma
badia) — syn. P. badia[9] Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
( Catopuma
Catopuma
temminckii) — syn. P. temminckii[9]

Genus Caracal
Caracal
[Lineage 3]

Caracal
Caracal
( Caracal
Caracal
caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
( Caracal
Caracal
aurata) — syn. Profelis
Profelis
aurata;[9][20]

Genus Leptailurus
Leptailurus
[Lineage 3]

Serval
Serval
( Leptailurus
Leptailurus
serval[18]:58 or Caracal
Caracal
serval[9])

Genus Leopardus
Leopardus
[Lineage 4]

Pampas cat
Pampas cat
( Leopardus
Leopardus
colocola). Most authorities recognise the Pampas cat as a single species,[9][18]:51 although some authorities recognise three species as follows:[1]

Pantanal cat ( Leopardus
Leopardus
braccatus or Leopardus
Leopardus
colocolo braccatus) Colocolo
Colocolo
( Leopardus
Leopardus
colocolo or Leopardus
Leopardus
colocolo colocolo) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
( Leopardus
Leopardus
pajeros or Leopardus
Leopardus
colocolo pajeros)

Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
( Leopardus
Leopardus
geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
( Leopardus
Leopardus
guigna) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
( Leopardus
Leopardus
guttulus) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
( Leopardus
Leopardus
jacobitus) Ocelot
Ocelot
( Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis) Oncilla
Oncilla
( Leopardus
Leopardus
tigrinus) Margay
Margay
( Leopardus
Leopardus
wiedii)

Genus Lynx
Lynx
[Lineage 5]

Canadian lynx
Canadian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
( Lynx
Lynx
rufus)

Genus Puma [Lineage 6]

Cougar
Cougar
(Puma concolor) Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
( Herpailurus
Herpailurus
yagouaroundi)

Genus Acinonyx[1][Lineage 6]

Cheetah
Cheetah
( Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus)

Genus Prionailurus
Prionailurus
[Lineage 7]

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat ( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis)

Iriomote cat
Iriomote cat
( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis iriomotensis)[18]:27 [sometimes recognised as a distinct species Prionailurus
Prionailurus
iriomotensis[1]]

Sunda leopard cat
Sunda leopard cat
( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
javanensis)[18]:28 Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
rubiginosus)

Genus Otocolobus
Otocolobus
[Lineage 7]

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
( Otocolobus
Otocolobus
manul)

Genus Felis
Felis
[Lineage 8]

Jungle cat
Jungle cat
( Felis
Felis
chaus) Sand cat
Sand cat
( Felis
Felis
margarita) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
( Felis
Felis
nigripes) European wildcat
European wildcat
( Felis
Felis
silvestris)[18] Near Eastern wildcat ( Felis
Felis
lybica)[18] Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
( Felis
Felis
bieti) Domestic cat
Domestic cat
( Felis
Felis
catus)

There is considerable variation in the taxonomy used for the wildcat. It used to be regarded as Felis
Felis
silvestris with distinct subspecies F. s. silvestris, F. s. lybica and F. s. ornata in Europe, Africa and Asia respectively. The Cat
Cat
Classification Taskforce of the Cat Specialist Group now recognises silvestris and lybica as distinct species.[18]:16 Phylogeny[edit] The phylogenetic relationships of extant felids are shown in the following cladogram, based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis of Johnson et al. (2006).[9] The lineages, genera and species are as used in that study.

Felidae

Felidae

Panthera
Panthera
lineage

Pantherinae

Neofelis

Neofelis
Neofelis
nebulosa (clouded leopard)

Neofelis
Neofelis
diardi (Sunda clouded leopard)

Panthera

Panthera
Panthera
uncia (snow leopard)

Panthera
Panthera
tigris (tiger)

Panthera
Panthera
pardus (leopard)

Panthera
Panthera
onca (jaguar)

Panthera
Panthera
leo (lion)

Felinae

Bay cat
Bay cat
lineage

Pardofelis

Pardofelis
Pardofelis
marmorata (marbled cat)

Catopuma

Catopuma
Catopuma
badia (bay cat)

Catopuma
Catopuma
temminckii (Asian golden cat)

Caracal
Caracal
lineage

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
serval (serval)

Caracal
Caracal
caracal (caracal)

Caracal
Caracal
aurata (African golden cat)

Ocelot
Ocelot
lineage

Leopardus

Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis (ocelot)

Leopardus
Leopardus
wiedii (margay)

Leopardus
Leopardus
jacobita (Andean mountain cat)

Leopardus
Leopardus
colocolo (Pampas cat)

Leopardus
Leopardus
geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat)

Leopardus
Leopardus
guigna (kodkod)

Leopardus
Leopardus
tigrinus (oncilla or tigrina)

Lynx
Lynx
lineage

Lynx

Lynx
Lynx
rufus (bobcat)

Lynx
Lynx
canadensis (Canadian lynx)

Lynx
Lynx
lynx (Eurasian lynx)

Lynx
Lynx
pardinus (Iberian lynx)

Puma lineage

Acinonyx

Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus (cheetah)

Puma

Puma concolor
Puma concolor
(cougar or mountain lion)

Puma yagouaroundi
Puma yagouaroundi
(jaguarundi)

Leopard
Leopard
cat lineage

Otocolobus

Otocolobus
Otocolobus
manul (Pallas's cat)

Prionailurus

Prionailurus
Prionailurus
rubiginosus (rusty spotted cat)

Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis (Asian leopard cat)

Prionailurus
Prionailurus
viverrinus (fishing cat)

Prionailurus
Prionailurus
planiceps (flat-headed cat)

Felis

 

Felis
Felis
chaus (jungle cat)

Felis
Felis
nigripes (black-footed cat)

Felis
Felis
margarita (sand or desert cat)

Felis
Felis
bieti (Chinese desert cat)

Felis
Felis
libyca (African wild cat)

Felis
Felis
silvestris (European wild cat)

Felis
Felis
catus (domestic cat)

Domestic cat
Domestic cat
lineage    

Fossil genera[edit]

The American lion
American lion
was one of the abundant Pleistocene
Pleistocene
megafauna, a wide variety of very large mammals that became extinct about 10,000 years ago.[21]

Megantereon

The list follows McKenna and Bell's Classification of Mammals for prehistoric genera. Pseudaelurus
Pseudaelurus
is included in the Felinae
Felinae
as per McKenna & Bell, despite its basal position in felid evolution.[2] The list differs from McKenna and Bell as follows: Sivapanthera is included in the Felinae, as Acinonychinae
Acinonychinae
is no longer recognised as distinct subfamily; Ischyrosmilus
Ischyrosmilus
is considered a synonym of the genus Homotherium;[22] and three newly recognised genera, Miracinonyx, Lokotunjailurus
Lokotunjailurus
and Xenosmilus, have been added.

†Proailurinae

†Proailurus

Felinae

†Pseudaelurus †Sivaelurus †Vishnufelis †Pikermia †Abelia †Pratifelis †Adelphailurus †Dolichofelis †Sivapardus †Jansofelis †Sivapanthera †Miracinonyx

Pantherinae

†Leontoceryx †Dromopanthera †Schaubia †Viretailurus

†Machairodontinae

Amphimachairodus
Amphimachairodus
(Late Miocene; Africa, Eurasia, North America)[23] † Adelphailurus
Adelphailurus
(Miocene; North America) †Yoshi (Miocene; Europe)[24] † Dinofelis
Dinofelis
(Early Pliocene,Early Pleistocene; Eurasia, Africa, North America)(Late Miocene, Africa, Eurasia, North America)[23] †Stenailurus † Metailurus
Metailurus
(Miocene, Pliocene, Middle Pleistocene; North America, Eurasia, Africa)[23] † Machairodus
Machairodus
(Late Miocene; Africa, Eurasia, North America)[23] † Homotherium
Homotherium
(Pliocene, Pleistocene; Africa, Eurasia, North America) † Xenosmilus
Xenosmilus
(Pleistocene; North America) † Nimravides
Nimravides
(Middle to Late Miocene; North America)[23] † Lokotunjailurus
Lokotunjailurus
(Latest Miocene; Africa) † Miomachairodus
Miomachairodus
(Middle Miocene; Africa, Asia) †Hemimachairodus † Paramachairodus
Paramachairodus
(Late Miocene; Eurasia, Africa) † Promegantereon (Miocene, Spain)[23] † Megantereon
Megantereon
(Pliocene, Pleistocene; North America, Africa, Eurasia) † Smilodon
Smilodon
(Pleistocene; North South America) † Rhizosmilodon
Rhizosmilodon
(Pliocene, North America)

Characteristics[edit] Cats are obligate carnivores, requiring a diet of meat and organs to survive. Aside from the lion, wild felids are generally solitary; feral domestic cats do, however, form colonies. Cheetah
Cheetah
males are also known to live and hunt in groups. Felids are generally secretive animals, often nocturnal, and live in relatively inaccessible habitats. Around three-quarters of cat species live in forested terrain, and they are generally agile climbers. However, felids may be found in almost any environment, with some species being native to mountainous terrain or deserts. Wild felids are native to every continent except Australasia
Australasia
and Antarctica. Physical appearance[edit]

Skull of the machairodontine Smilodon
Smilodon
(reconstruction)

Lion
Lion
skull

Felids tend to have lithe and flexible bodies with muscular limbs. In the great majority of species, the tail is between a third and a half of the body length, although with some exceptions (for example, the bobcat and margay). The limbs are digitigrade with soft toe pads and protractible claws. Compared with most other mammals, the head is highly domed with a short muzzle. The skull possesses wide zygomatic arches and a large sagittal crest, both of which allow for the attachment of strong jaw muscles.[25] The various species of felids vary greatly in size. One of the smallest is the black-footed cat with a head-to-body length of 36.7 to 43.3 cm (14.4 to 17.0 in).[26] The largest is the tiger, which can grow up to 330 cm (10.8 ft) in head-to-body length and weigh up to 306 kg (675 lb).[27] Felid fur takes many different forms, being much thicker in those species living in cold environments, such as the snow leopard. The color of felids is also highly variable—although brown to golden fur is common in most species—usually marked with distinctive spots, stripes, or rosettes. The only felids to lack significant markings are the lion, puma, caracal, and jaguarundi. Many species exhibit melanism, in which some individuals have an all-black coat.[25] The tongue of felids is covered with horny papillae, which rasp meat from prey and aid in grooming.[28] All felids have protractible claws that can protract from a retracted, at-rest position. In a few species, such as the cheetah, the claws remain visible even when at rest (retracted). The claws are retracted when the animal is relaxed and protracted when they are in use. They are attached to the terminal bone of the toe with a tough ligament; when the animal contracts muscles in the toe to straighten it, the ligament forces the claw outwards.[25] Cats have five toes on their forefeet and four on their hindfeet, reflecting their reliance on gripping and holding down their prey with their claws.[29] Relative to body size, felids have shorter bacula than canids.[30] Senses[edit]

Comparative illustration of cats of the genus Panthera
Panthera
and Felis
Felis
by N. N. Kondakov

Feeding postures of Panthera
Panthera
and Felis, as illustrated by N. N. Kondakov

Felids have relatively large eyes, situated to provide binocular vision. Their night vision is especially good due to the presence of a tapetum lucidum, which reflects light back inside the eyeball, and gives felid eyes their distinctive shine. As a result, the eyes of felids are about six times more light sensitive than those of humans, and many species are at least partially nocturnal. The retina of felids also contains a relatively high proportion of rod cells, adapted for distinguishing moving objects in conditions of dim light, which are complemented by the presence of cone cells for sensing color during the day. However, felids appear to have relatively poor color vision in comparison with humans.[25] The external ears of felids are also large, and especially sensitive to high-frequency sounds in the smaller cats. This sensitivity allows them to locate small rodent prey; cats do not apparently produce such sounds.[25] Felids also have a highly developed sense of smell, although not to the degree seen in canids; this is further supplemented by the presence of a vomeronasal organ in the roof of the mouth, allowing the animal to "taste" the air. The use of this organ is associated with the Flehmen response, in which the upper lip is curled upwards. Most felids are unable to taste sweetness due to a mutated gene in their taste buds. Felids possess highly sensitive whiskers set deep within the skin, which provide the cat with sensory information about the slightest air movement around it. Whiskers
Whiskers
are especially helpful to nocturnal hunters.[31] Most felids are able to land on their feet after a fall due to the cat righting reflex. Dentition[edit] Felids have a relatively small number of teeth compared with other carnivorans, a feature associated with their short muzzles. With a few exceptions, such as the lynx, they have the dental formula: 3.1.3.13.1.2.1. The canine teeth are large, reaching exceptional size in the extinct saber-tooth species. The upper third premolar and lower molar are adapted as carnassial teeth, suited to tearing and cutting flesh.[25] Felid jaws can only move vertically, which prevents them from being able to chew efficiently, but makes it easier for their powerful jaw muscles to hold prey.[citation needed] Vocalisations[edit] All felids share a broadly similar set of vocalisations, but with some variation between species. In particular, the pitch of calls varies, with larger species producing deeper sounds. All felids are able to spit, hiss, growl, snarl, and mew. The first four sounds are all used in an aggressive context. The spitting sound is a sudden burst, typically used when making threats, especially towards other species. The hiss is a prolonged, atonal sound used in close range to other members of the species, when the animal is uncertain whether to attack or retreat. The mewing sound may be used either as a close-contact call, typically between a mother and kittens, or as a louder, longer distance call, primarily during the mating season. The acoustic properties of the mew vary somewhat between different felid species; extreme examples include the whistling sound made by cougars and the mew-grunt of lions and tigers.[citation needed] Most felids seem to be able to purr, vibrating the muscles in their larynx to produce a distinctive buzzing sound. In the wild, purring is used while a mother is caring for kittens. Precisely which species of felids are able to purr is a matter of debate, but the sound has been recorded in most of the smaller species, as well as being common for the cheetah and cougar, and may also be found in other big cats. Other common felid vocalisations include the gurgle, wah-wah, prusten, and roar. The first two sounds are found only among the Felinae
Felinae
(small cats). Gurgling is a quiet sound used during meetings between friendly individuals, as well as during courtship and when nursing kittens. The wah-wah is a short, deep-sounding call used in close contact, and is not found in all species (it is, for example, absent in the domestic cat). In contrast, prusten and roaring are found only in big cats. Prusten is a short, soft, snorting sound reported in tigers, jaguars, snow leopards, and clouded leopards; it is used during contact between friendly individuals. The roar is an especially loud call with a distinctive pattern that depends on the species. The ability to roar comes from an elongated and specially adapted larynx and hyoid apparatus.[32] When air passes through the larynx on the way from the lungs, the cartilage walls of the larynx vibrate, producing sound. Only lions, leopards, tigers, and jaguars are truly able to roar, although the loudest mews of snow leopards have a similar, if less structured, sound.[25] Fossil felids[edit] Possibly the oldest known true felid (Proailurus) lived in the late Oligocene
Oligocene
and early Miocene
Miocene
epochs. During the Miocene, it gave way to Pseudaelurus. Pseudaelurus
Pseudaelurus
is believed to be the latest common ancestor of the two extant subfamilies and the extinct subfamily, Machairodontinae. This group, better known as the saber-tooth cats, became extinct in the Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
era. The group includes the genera Smilodon, Machairodus
Machairodus
and Homotherium. The Metailurini
Metailurini
were originally classified as a distinct tribe within Machairodontinae, though they count as members of the Felinae
Felinae
in recent times.[33][34] Most extinct cat-like animals, once regarded as members of the Felidae, later turned out to be members of related, but distinct, families: the "false sabretooths" Nimravidae
Nimravidae
and Barbourofelidae. As a result, sabretooth "cats" seem to belong to four different lineages. The total number of fossil felids known to science is low compared to other carnivoran families, such as dogs and bears. Felidae
Felidae
radiated quite recently and most of the extant species are relatively young. See also[edit]

Felid hybrid Panthera
Panthera
hybrid Big cat Saber-toothed cat

Cited references[edit]

^ a b c d e f g Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Felidae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species
Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–548. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b c McKenna, M. C.; Bell, S. K. (2000). Classification of Mammals. Columbia University Press. p. 631. ISBN 978-0-231-11013-6.  ^ Salles, L. O. (1992). "Felid phylogenetics: extant taxa and skull morphology (Felidae, Aeluroidea)" (PDF). American Museum Novitates (3047).  ^ Hemmer, H (1978). "Evolutionary systematics of living Felidae
Felidae
– present status and current problems". Carnivore. 1: 71–79.  ^ a b Johnson, W. E.; Dratch, P. A.; Martenson, J. S.; O'Brien, S. J. (1996). "Resolution of recent radiations within three evolutionary lineages of Felidae
Felidae
using mitochondrial restriction fragment length polymorphism variation". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 3 (2): 97–120. doi:10.1007/bf01454358.  ^ Christiansen, P (2008). "Evolution of skull and mandible shape in cats (Carnivora: Felidae)". PLOS ONE. 3 (7): e2807. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002807.  ^ Legrand-Defretin, V (1994). "Differences between cats and dogs: a nutritional view". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 53 (01): 15–24. doi:10.1079/pns19940004.  ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Felinae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species
Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–545. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The late miocene radiation of modern Felidae: a genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.  ^ Eizirik E.; Murphy W. J.; Koepfli K. P.; Johnson W. E.; Dragoo J. W.; O'Brien S. J. (2010). "Pattern and timing of the diversification of the mammalian order Carnivora
Carnivora
inferred from multiple nuclear gene sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (1): 49–63. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.033. PMID 20138220.  ^ a b Gaubert, P.; Veron, G. (2003). "Exhaustive sample set among Viverridae
Viverridae
reveals the sister-group of felids: the linsangs as a case of extreme morphological convergence within Feliformia". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 270 (1532): 2523–2530. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2521. PMC 1691530 . PMID 14667345.  ^ Li, X.; Li, W.; Wang, H.; Cao, J.; Maehashi, K.; Huang, L.; Bachmanov, A. A.; Reed, D. R.; Legrand-Defretin, V.; Beauchamp, G. K. & J. G. Brand (2005). "Pseudogenization of a Sweet-Receptor Gene Accounts for Cats' Indifference toward Sugar". Public Library of Science. 1 (1): 27–35. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0010003. PMC 1183522 . PMID 16103917. Retrieved 2008-06-30.  ^ Vella, C.; Shelton, L. M.; McGonagle, J. J. & Stanglein, T. W. (2002). Robinson's Genetics for Cat
Cat
Breeders and Veterinarians (4th ed.). Oxford: Butterworh-Heinemann Ltd. ISBN 0-7506-4069-3.  ^ Werdelin, L.; Olsson, L. (2008). "How the leopard got its spots: a phylogenetic view of the evolution of felid coat patterns". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 62 (3): 383–400. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1997.tb01632.x. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Silvestro, D., Antonelli, A., Salamin, N. and Quental, T.B. (2015). "The role of clade competition in the diversification of North American canids". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (28): 8684−8689. doi:10.1073/pnas.1502803112. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Johnson, WE; O'Brien, SJ (1997). "Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae
Felidae
using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 44 Suppl 1: S98–116. doi:10.1007/PL00000060. PMID 9071018.  ^ O'Brien, S. J.; Johnson, W. E. (2005). " Big cat
Big cat
genomics". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 6: 407–429. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.6.080604.162151. PMID 16124868.  ^ a b c d e f g h Kitchener, A. C., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Eizirik, E., Gentry, A., Werdelin, L., Wilting A., Yamaguchi, N., Abramov, A. V., Christiansen, P., Driscoll, C., Duckworth, J. W., Johnson, W., Luo, S.-J., Meijaard, E., O’Donoghue, P., Sanderson, J., Seymour, K., Bruford, M., Groves, C., Hoffmann, M., Nowell, K., Timmons, Z. & Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae. The final report of the Cat
Cat
Classification Task Force of the IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat
Cat
News. Special
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Issue 11: 1−80. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ McCarthy, T., Mallon, D., Jackson, R., Zahler, P. & McCarthy, K. (2017). " Panthera
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uncia". IUCN Red List
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of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Bahaa-el-din, L.; Mills, D.; Hunter, L. & Henschel, P. (2015). " Caracal
Caracal
aurata". The IUCN Red List
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of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T18306A50663128. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T18306A50663128.en. Retrieved 14 January 2018.  ^ Leidy, J. (1853). Description of an extinct species of American lion: Felis
Felis
atrox. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society: 319–321. ^ The Paleobiology Database. "Ischyrosmilus". fossilworks.org. Retrieved 28 November 2017.  ^ a b c d e f Anton, Mauricio (2013). Sabertooth. Bloomington, Indiana: University of Indiana Press. ISBN 9780253010421.  ^ https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10914-014-9266-5 ^ a b c d e f g Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). Wild cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 5–16. ISBN 0-226-77999-8.  ^ Smithers, R.H.N. (1983). The mammals of the southern African subregion. Pretoria: University of Pretoria. ^ Mazák, V. (1981). " Panthera
Panthera
tigris" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 152 (152): 1–8. doi:10.2307/3504004. JSTOR 3504004.  ^ Kitchener, Andrew C., Blaire Van Valkenburgh, and Nobuyuki Yamaguchi. "Felid form and function." Biology and conservation of wild felids (2010): 83-106. ^ " Felidae
Felidae
Cats".  ^ Ewer, R. F. (1973). The Carnivores. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8493-3. Retrieved 27 January 2013.  ^ "Why Do Cats Have Whiskers?". WebMD. Retrieved 2017-05-19.  ^ Weissengruber, G. E.; Forstenpointner, G.; Peters, G.; Kübber-Heiss, A.; Fitch, W.T. (2002). "Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion ( Panthera
Panthera
leo), jaguar ( Panthera
Panthera
onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah ( Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus) and the domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus)". Journal of Anatomy. Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 201 (3): 195–209. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00088.x. PMC 1570911 . PMID 12363272.  ^ van den Hoek Ostende, L. W.; M. Morlo; D. Nagel (2006). "Fossils explained 52 Majestic killers: the sabre-toothed cats". Geology Today. 22 (4): 150–157. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2451.2006.00572.x. Retrieved 2008-06-30.  ^ Turner, A. (1997). The Big Cats and their fossil relatives. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-231-10228-5. 

General references[edit]

Shoemaker, Alan (1996). "1996 Taxonomic and Legal Status of the Felidae". Felid Taxonomic Advisory Group of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association. Archived from the original on 2006-06-12. Retrieved 2006-07-15.  Turner, A. (1997). The big cats and their fossil relatives. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10229-1.  Kirby, G. (1984). " Cat
Cat
family". In Macdonald, D. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Facts on File. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutFelidaeat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Data from Wikidata Taxonomy from Wikispecies

Felidae
Felidae
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Felidae
Felidae
at the Encyclopedia of Life
Encyclopedia of Life
Secrets of the World's 38 Species
Species
of Wild Cats National Geographic Society

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat
Domestic cat
(F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx
Canadian lynx
(L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain
Mountain
weasel (M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q25265 ADW: Felidae EoL: 7674 EPPO: 1FELIF Fauna Europaea: 12641 Fossilworks: 41045 GBIF: 9703 ITIS: 180580 MSW: 14000003 NCBI: 9681

Authority control

GND: 4163488-3 BNF: cb119319900 (d

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