Feizi (Chinese: 非子; died 858 BC), also known by the title Qin
Ying,[n 1] was the founder of the ancient Chinese state of Qin,
predecessor of the Qin
Dynasty that would conquer all other Chinese
states and unite China in 221 BC.
1 Mythical origin of Qin
3 Founding of Qin
4 After death
Mythical origin of Qin
According to the founding myths of Qin recorded in the Records of the
Grand Historian by Han
Dynasty historian Sima Qian,
from the mythical
Yellow Emperor and his grandson and successor
Zhuanxu. Zhuanxu's granddaughter Nüxiu (女脩) gave birth to Daye
(大業) after swallowing an egg of a swallow. Daye's son Boyi
(伯益) was awarded the ancestral name Ying (嬴) by the mythical
Chinese ruler Shun.
During the Shang Dynasty, Boyi's descendant
Zhongjue was in charge of
Xichui (西垂, also called Quanqiu, in present-day Li County, Gansu)
in the midst of the Rong tribes. Zhongjue's son Feilian (蜚廉) and
Elai served King Zhou of Shang, and
Elai was killed when King
Wu of Zhou overthrew Shang and founded the Zhou Dynasty. Feizi's
father Daluo (大骆) was the great-great-grandson of Elai.
However, Daluo's legal heir was not Feizi, but his other son Cheng,
because Cheng was born to Daluo's main wife, daughter of the Marquis
of the state of Shen.
Founding of Qin
Feizi lived in Xichui and was a skilled horse breeder. King Xiao of
Zhou learned of his reputation and put him in charge of breeding and
training horses for the Zhou army. To reward his contributions, King
Xiao wanted to make
Feizi his father's legal heir instead of his
half-brother Cheng. However, Marquis of Shen, Cheng's grandfather,
objected and said that the
Rong people would revolt if the king
deposed Cheng. The king changed his mind and awarded
Feizi the small
fief of Qin instead (in present-day Zhangjiachuan County, Gansu),
separate from his father's fief of Xichui, and gave
Feizi the title
Qin Ying, a combination of his fief and ancestral name.
This was the beginning of the
State of Qin
State of Qin that would over six
centuries later conquer all other states and unify China under the
rule of Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty. At
this time Qin was only a minor state classified as an "attached state"
(附庸, fuyong), and
Feizi did not receive any nobility rank. Qin
would not become a major vassal state until five generations later,
King Ping of Zhou granted
Duke Xiang of Qin a formal nobility
rank and recognition as a feudal lord for protecting the king during
the invasion of the
Feizi died in 858 BC and was succeeded by his son, known as the
Marquis of Qin. In 842 BC the
Rong people rebelled, destroying the
clan of Feizi's half-brother at Xichui. Twenty years later, Feizi's
Qin Zhong was also killed by the Rong in 822 BC.
However, Qin Zhong's son and successor
Duke Zhuang of Qin defeated the
Rong and annexed Xichui, thus reuniting the territories of the two
branches of the House of Ying.
^ Also formerly romanized as Fei-tse and Feitsa.
^ p. 12.
^ Birks, Thomas Rawson (1878), Commentary on the Book of Isaiah,
p. 247 .
^ a b c d e Sima Qian. 秦本纪 [Annals of Qin]. Records of the Grand
Historian (in Chinese). guoxue.com. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
^ a b c d e Han, Zhaoqi (2010). "Annals of Qin". Annotated Shiji (in
Chinese). Zhonghua Book Company. pp. 345–346.
^ Li, Feng (2006). Landscape And Power In Early China. Cambridge
University Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-521-85272-2.
House of Ying
Died: 858 BC
Ruler of Qin
Marquis of Qin
Rulers of Qin
Marquis of Qin
State of Qin
Duke Hui I
Duke Hui II
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Er Shi
Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16
Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5
Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan
→ Ming →