The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.[1] Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects,[2] although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.[3][4]

According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation.[5] Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (Zelenograd, Troitsk, Kronstadt, Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city – keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993 the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008 the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014 Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.

Every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution and legislation. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies.[6][7] The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy (asymmetric federalism).

Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR and didn't change at the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992 during so-called "parade of sovereignties", separatist sentiments and the War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian: Федеративный договор Federativny Dogovor),[8] establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR.[citation needed] The current Constitution of Russia, adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on December 25, 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice it[clarification needed] was never allowed), which conflicts with country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and didn't grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world.[citation needed] In the 2000s, following the policy of Vladimir Putin and of the United Russia party (dominant party in all federal subjects), the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.

There are several groupings of Russian regions:


An official government translation of the Constitution of Russia in Article 5 states: "1. The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."[9]

Another translation of the Constitution of Russia gives for article 65: "The Russian Federation includes the following subjects of the Russian Federation:".[10]

How to translate the Russian term was discussed during the 49th annual American Translators Association conference in Orlando, in which Tom Fennel, a freelance translator, argued that the term "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" should be preferred to "subject".[11] This recommendation is also shared by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department, Goltsblat BLP, who in her "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" presentation in Paris stated that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".[12]

Rank (as given in constitution and ISO) Russian (Cyrillic) Russian (Latin) English – official translation of the constitution [13] English – unofficial translation of the constitution[10] ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))
N/A субъект Российской Федерации subʺyekt Rossiyskoy Federatsii constituent entity of the Russian Federation subject of the Russian Federation (not mentioned)
1 республика respublika republic republic republic
2 край kray kray territory administrative territory
3 область oblastʹ oblast region administrative region
4 город федерального значения gorod federalʹnogo znacheniya city of federal significance city of federal importance autonomous city
(the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is автономный город avtonomnyy gorod)
5 автономная область avtonomnaya oblastʹ autonomous oblast autonomous region autonomous region
6 автономный округ avtonomnyy okrug autonomous okrug autonomous area autonomous district


Federal subjects of Russia.

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:

Legend Description
  46 oblasts
The most common type of federal subject with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centers.
  22 republics
Nominally[citation needed] autonomous, each has its own constitution and legislature; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; is meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority.
  9 krais
Essentially the same as oblasts. The title "territory" is historic, originally given because they were once considered frontier regions.
With a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
Major cities that function as separate regions.
  1 autonomous oblast
The only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.


Click any region for more information. Go here for image description.
Republic of Adygea Republic of Bashkortostan Republic of Buryatia Altai Republic Republic of Dagestan Republic of Ingushetia Kabardino-Balkar Republic Republic of Kalmykia Karachay-Cherkess Republic Republic of Karelia Komi Republic Mari El Republic Republic of Mordovia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Republic of North Ossetia-Alania Republic of Tatarstan Tuva Republic Udmurt Republic Republic of Khakassia Chechen Republic Chuvash Republic Altai Krai Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Krai Krasnoyarsk Krai Primorsky Krai Stavropol Krai Khabarovsk Krai Amur Oblast Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Oblast Astrakhan Oblast Belgorod Oblast Bryansk Oblast Vladimir Oblast Volgograd Oblast Vologda Oblast Voronezh Oblast Ivanovo Oblast Irkutsk Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast Kaluga Oblast Kemerovo Oblast Kirov Oblast Kostroma Oblast Kurgan Oblast Kursk Oblast Leningrad Oblast Lipetsk Oblast Magadan Oblast Moscow Oblast Murmansk Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast Novosibirsk Oblast Omsk Oblast Orenburg Oblast Oryol Oblast Penza Oblast Perm Krai Pskov Oblast Rostov Oblast Ryazan Oblast Samara Oblast Saratov Oblast Sakhalin Oblast Sverdlovsk Oblast Smolensk Oblast Tambov Oblast Tver Oblast Tomsk Oblast Tula Oblast Tyumen Oblast Ulyanovsk Oblast Chelyabinsk Oblast Zabaykalsky Krai Yaroslavl Oblast Moscow Saint Petersburg Jewish Autonomous Oblast Nenets Autonomous Okrug Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Kamchatka KraiFederal subjects of Russia (by number).png
About this image

Code Name Capital/Administrative center[a] Flag Coat
of arms
Federal district Economic region Area
01 Adygea, Republic of Maykop Flag of Adygea.svg Coat of arms of Adygea.svg Southern North Caucasus 7,600 447,109 1922
02 Bashkortostan, Republic of Ufa Flag of Bashkortostan.svg Coat of Arms of Bashkortostan.svg Volga Ural 143,600 4,104,336 1919
03 Buryatia, Republic of Ulan-Ude Flag of Buryatia.svg Coat of Arms of Buryatiya.svg Siberian East Siberian 351,300 981,238 1923
04 Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk Flag of Altai Republic.svg Coat of Arms of Altai Republic.svg Siberian West Siberian 92,600 202,947 1922
05 Dagestan, Republic of Makhachkala Flag of Dagestan.svg Coat of Arms of Dagestan.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 50,300 2,576,531 1921
06 Ingushetia, Republic of Magas
(Largest city: Nazran)
Flag of Ingushetia.svg Coat of Arms of Ingushetia.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 4,000 467,294 1992
07 Kabardino-Balkar Republic Nalchik Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg Coat of Arms of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 12,500 901,494 1936
08 Kalmykia, Republic of Elista Flag of Kalmykia.svg Coat of Arms of Kalmykia.svg Southern Volga 76,100 292,410 1957
09 Karachay-Cherkess Republic Cherkessk Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg Coat of Arms of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 14,100 439,470 1957
10 Karelia, Republic of Petrozavodsk Flag of Karelia.svg Coat of Arms of Republic of Karelia.svg Northwestern Northern 172,400 716,281 1956
11 Komi Republic Syktyvkar Flag of Komi.svg Coat of Arms of the Komi Republic.svg Northwestern Northern 415,900 1,018,674 1921
12 Mari El Republic Yoshkar-Ola Flag of Mari El.svg Coat of Arms of Mari El.svg Volga Volga-Vyatka 23,200 727,979 1920
13 Mordovia, Republic of Saransk Flag of Mordovia.svg Coat of Arms of Mordovia.svg Volga Volga-Vyatka 26,200 888,766 1930
14 Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Yakutsk Flag of Sakha.svg Coat of Arms of Sakha (Yakutia).svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 3,103,200 949,280 1922
15 North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of Vladikavkaz Flag of North Ossetia.svg Wapen Ossetien.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 8,000 710,275 1924
16 Tatarstan, Republic of Kazan Flag of Tatarstan.svg Coat of Arms of Tatarstan.svg Volga Volga 68,000 3,779,265 1920
17 Tuva Republic Kyzyl Flag of Tuva.svg Coat of arms of Tuva.svg Siberian East Siberian 170,500 305,510 1944
18 Udmurt Republic Izhevsk Flag of Udmurtia.svg Coat of arms of Udmurtia.svg Volga Ural 42,100 1,570,316 1920
19 Khakassia, Republic of Abakan Flag of Khakassia.svg Coat of arms of Khakassia.svg Siberian East Siberian 61,900 546,072 1930
20 Chechen Republic Grozny Flag of the Chechen Republic.svg Coat of arms of Chechnya.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 15,300 1,103,686 1991
21 Chuvash Republic Cheboksary Flag of Chuvashia.svg Coat of Arms of Chuvashia.svg Volga Volga-Vyatka 18,300 1,313,754 1920
22 Altai Krai Barnaul Flag of Altai Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Altai Krai.svg Siberian West Siberian 169,100 2,607,426 1937
75 Zabaykalsky Krai Chita Flag of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg Coat of arms of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg Siberian East Siberian 431,500 1,155,346 2008
41 Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Flag of Kamchatka Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Kamchatka Krai.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 472,300 358,801 2007
23 Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Flag of Krasnodar Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Krasnodar Kray.svg Southern North Caucasus 76,000 5,125,221 1937
24 Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk Flag of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg Coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg Siberian East Siberian 2,339,700 2,966,042 1934
59 Perm Krai Perm Flag of Perm Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Perm Krai.svg Volga Ural 160,600 2,819,421 2005
25 Primorsky Krai Vladivostok Flag of Primorsky Krai.svg Coat of arms of Primorsky Krai.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 165,900 2,071,210 1938
26 Stavropol Krai Stavropol Flag of Stavropol Krai.svg Coat of arms of Stavropol Krai.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 66,500 2,735,139 1934
27 Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk Flag of Khabarovsk Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Khabarovsky kray (N2).png Far Eastern Far Eastern 788,600 1,436,570 1938
28 Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk Flag of Amur Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Amur oblast.png Far Eastern Far Eastern 363,700 902,844 1932
29 Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Flag of Arkhangelsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Arkhangelsk oblast.svg Northwestern Northern 587,400 1,336,539 1937
30 Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Flag of Astrakhan Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Astrakhan Oblast.svg Southern Volga 44,100 1,005,276 1943
31 Belgorod Oblast Belgorod Flag of Belgorod Oblast.svg New Coat of Arms of Belgorod Oblast.svg Central Central Black Earth 27,100 1,511,620 1954
32 Bryansk Oblast Bryansk Flag of Bryansk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Bryansk Oblast.svg Central Central 34,900 1,378,941 1944
33 Vladimir Oblast Vladimir Flag of Vladimirskaya Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Vladimiri Oblast.svg Central Central 29,000 1,523,990 1944
34 Volgograd Oblast Volgograd Flag of Volgograd Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Volgograd oblast.svg Southern Volga 113,900 2,699,223 1937
35 Vologda Oblast Vologda
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
Flag of Vologda oblast.svg Coat of arms of Vologda oblast.svg Northwestern Northern 145,700 1,269,568 1937
36 Voronezh Oblast Voronezh Flag of Voronezh Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Voronezh Oblast.svg Central Central Black Earth 52,400 2,378,803 1934
37 Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo Flag of Ivanovo Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Ivanovo Oblast.svg Central Central 21,800 1,148,329 1936
38 Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk Flag of Irkutsk Oblast.svg Герб Иркутской области.svg Siberian East Siberian 767,900 2,581,705 1937
39 Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg Kaliningrad Oblast Coat of Arms 2006.svg Northwestern Kaliningrad 15,100 955,281 1946
40 Kaluga Oblast Kaluga Flag of Kaluga Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kaluga Oblast.svg Central Central 29,900 1,041,641 1944
42 Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo
(Largest city: Novokuznetsk)
Flag of Kemerovo oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kemerovo Oblast.svg Siberian West Siberian 95,500 2,899,142 1943
43 Kirov Oblast Kirov Flag of Kirov Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kirov Region.svg Volga Volga-Vyatka 120,800 1,503,529 1934
44 Kostroma Oblast Kostroma Flag of Kostroma Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kostroma Oblast.svg Central Central 60,100 736,641 1944
45 Kurgan Oblast Kurgan Flag of Kurgan Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kurgan Oblast.svg Ural Ural 71,000 1,019,532 1943
46 Kursk Oblast Kursk Flag of Kursk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Kursk oblast.svg Central Central Black Earth 29,800 1,235,091 1934
47 Leningrad Oblast Largest city: Gatchina[b] Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Leningrad Oblast.svg Northwestern Northwestern 84,500 1,669,205 1927
48 Lipetsk Oblast Lipetsk Flag of Lipetsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Lipetsk oblast.svg Central Central Black Earth 24,100 1,213,499 1954
49 Magadan Oblast Magadan Flag of Magadan Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Magadan oblast.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 461,400 182,726 1953
50 Moscow Oblast Largest city: Balashikha[c] Flag of Moscow oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Moscow oblast.svg Central Central 44,300[16] 6,618,538 1929
51 Murmansk Oblast Murmansk Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg Герб Мурманской области.svg Northwestern Northern 144,900 892,534 1938
52 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg Coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg Volga Volga-Vyatka 76,900 3,524,028 1936
53 Novgorod Oblast Veliky Novgorod Flag of Novgorod Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Novgorod Oblast.svg Northwestern Northwestern 55,300 694,355 1944
54 Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk Flag of Novosibirsk oblast.svg Coat of arms of Novosibirsk oblast.svg Siberian West Siberian 178,200 2,692,251 1937
55 Omsk Oblast Omsk Flag of Omsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Omsk Oblast.svg Siberian West Siberian 139,700 2,079,220 1934
56 Orenburg Oblast Orenburg Flag of Orenburg Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Orenburg Oblast.svg Volga Ural 124,000 2,179,551 1934
57 Oryol Oblast Oryol Flag of Oryol Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Oryol Oblast (small).svg Central Central 24,700 860,262 1937
58 Penza Oblast Penza Flag of Penza Oblast.svg Gerb of Penza region.jpg Volga Volga 43,200 1,452,941 1939
60 Pskov Oblast Pskov Flag placeholder.svg Coat of Arms of Pskov Oblast.svg Northwestern Northwestern 55,300 760,810 1944
61 Rostov Oblast Rostov-on-Don Flag of Rostov Oblast.svg Rostov oblast coa.png Southern North Caucasus 100,800 4,404,013 1937
62 Ryazan Oblast Ryazan Flag of Ryazan Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Ryazan oblast.png Central Central 39,600 1,227,910 1937
63 Samara Oblast Samara Flag of Samara Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Samara oblast.png Volga Volga 53,600 3,239,737 1928
64 Saratov Oblast Saratov Flag of Saratov Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Saratov oblast.svg Volga Volga 100,200 2,668,310 1936
65 Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Flag of Sakhalin Oblast.svg Sakhalin Oblast Coat of Arms.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 87,100 546,695 1947
66 Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Sverdlovsk oblast.svg Ural Ural 194,800 4,486,214 1935
67 Smolensk Oblast Smolensk Flag of Smolensk oblast.svg Coat of arms of Smolensk oblast.svg Central Central 49,800 1,049,574 1937
68 Tambov Oblast Tambov Flag of Tambov Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Tambov Oblast.svg Central Central Black Earth 34,300 1,178,443 1937
69 Tver Oblast Tver Flag of Tver Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Tver oblast.svg Central Central 84,100 1,471,459 1935
70 Tomsk Oblast Tomsk Flag of Tomsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Tomsk Oblast, Russia.svg Siberian West Siberian 316,900 1,046,039 1944
71 Tula Oblast Tula Flag of Tula Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Tula oblast.png Central Central 25,700 1,675,758 1937
72 Tyumen Oblast Tyumen Flag of Tyumen Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Tyumen Oblast.svg Ural West Siberian 1,435,200 3,264,841 1944
73 Ulyanovsk Oblast Ulyanovsk Flag of Ulyanovsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Ulyanovsk Oblast.png Volga Volga 37,300 1,382,811 1943
74 Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg Ural Ural 87,900 3,603,339 1934
76 Yaroslavl Oblast Yaroslavl Flag of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Yaroslavl Oblast (2011) full.svg Central Central 36,400 1,367,398 1936
77 Moscow Flag of Moscow.svg Coat of Arms of Moscow.svg Central Central 2,511 10,382,754
78 Saint Petersburg Flag of Saint Petersburg Russia.svg Coat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003).svg Northwestern Northwestern 1,439 4,662,547
79 Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan Flag of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg Coat of arms of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 36,000 190,915 1934
83 Nenets Autonomous Okrug Naryan-Mar Flag of Nenets Autonomous District.svg Coat of arms of Nenets Autonomous Okrug.svg Northwestern Northern 176,700 41,546 1929
86 Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: Surgut)
Flag of Yugra.svg Coat of Arms of Yugra.svg Ural West Siberian 523,100 1,432,817 1930
87 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Anadyr Flag of Chukotka.svg Coat of Arms of Chukotka.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 737,700 53,824 1930
89 Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Salekhard
(Largest city: Noyabrsk)
Flag of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.svg Coat of Arms of Yamal Nenetsia.svg Ural West Siberian 750,300 507,006 1930
82 Crimea, Republic of[d] Simferopol Flag of Crimea.svg Emblem of Crimea.svg Southern[17][18] 26,964[19] 1,966,801[20] 2014
92 Sevastopol[d] Flag of Sevastopol.svg COA of Sevastopol.svg Southern[17][18] 864[21] 379,200[21] 2014
a. ^ The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative center.

b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the government bodies of the oblast are located in the city of St. Petersburg. However, St. Petersburg is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.

c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the government bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.

d. ^ Not recognized internationally as a part of Russia.

e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.

Lists of federal subjects


Federal subjects of Russia

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories[why?]. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008.

Date of referendum Date of merger Original entities Original codes New code Original entities New entity
2003-12-07 2005-12-01 1, 1a 59 (1), 81 (1a) 90 Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) Perm Krai
2005-04-17 2007-01-01 2, 2a, 2b 24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b) 24 Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) Krasnoyarsk Krai
2005-10-23 2007-07-01 3, 3a 41 (3), 82 (3a) 91 Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) Kamchatka Krai
2006-04-16 2008-01-01 4, 4a 38 (4), 85 (4a) 38 Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) Irkutsk Oblast
2007-03-11 2008-03-01 5, 5a 75 (5), 80 (5a) 92 Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) Zabaykalsky Krai

See also



  1. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation: Chapter 3, The Federal Structure". Retrieved 2013-04-28. 
  2. ^ "Constitution of the Russian Federation". Russian Presidential Executive Office. Retrieved 2013-04-28. 
  3. ^ Kremlin.ru. Договор между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов (Treaty Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on Ascension to the Russian Federation of the Republic of Crimea and on Establishment of New Subjects Within the Russian Federation) (in Russian)
  4. ^ Steve Gutterman and Pavel Polityuk (March 18, 2014). "Putin signs Crimea treaty as Ukraine serviceman dies in attack". Reuters. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  5. ^ "Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System - The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  6. ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  7. ^ Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Constitution.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  8. ^ This treaty consisted of three treaties, see also Concluding and Transitional Provisions: [1] [2]
  9. ^ http://archive.government.ru/eng/gov/base/54.html (accessed="2014-10-17")
  10. ^ a b "Chapter 3. The Federal Structure - The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  11. ^ SlavFile Archive Slavic Languages Division Archived August 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.. Ata-divisions.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  12. ^ http://eulita.eu/sites/default/files/Tammy_presentation.pdf
  13. ^ "Official Website of the Government of the Russian Federation / The Russian Government". Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  14. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  15. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  16. ^ "1.1. ОСНОВНЫЕ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ в 2014 г" [MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS 2014]. Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators - 2015 (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  17. ^ a b "Crimea becomes part of vast Southern federal district of Russia". Retrieved 2016-07-29. 
  18. ^ a b "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Autonomous Republic of Crimea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  20. ^ "Population as of February 1, 2014. Average annual populations January 2014". ukrstat.gov.ua. Retrieved 2015-10-18. 
  21. ^ a b "A General data of the region". Sevastopol City State Administration. Archived from the original on February 11, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2014. 


  • 12 декабря 1993 г. «Конституция Российской Федерации», в ред. Федерального конституционного закона №7-ФКЗ от 30 декабря 2008 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №237, 25 декабря 1993 г. (December 12, 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation, as amended by the Federal Constitutional Law #7-FKZ of December 30, 2008. Effective as of the official publication date.).