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FATH-ALI SHAH QAJAR (Persian : فتح‌على شاه قاجار‎‎; var. Fathalishah, Fathali Shah, Fath Ali Shah; 5 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Shah
Shah
(Qajar emperor ) of Iran
Iran
. He reigned from 17 June 1797 until his death. His reign saw the irrevocable ceding of Iran's northern territories in the Caucasus
Caucasus
, comprising what is nowadays Georgia , Dagestan
Dagestan
, Azerbaijan , and Armenia
Armenia
, to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1804–13 and 1826–28 and the resulting treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay . Historian Joseph M. Upton says that he "is famous among Persians for three things: his exceptionally long beard, his wasp-like waist, and his progeny."

At the end of his reign, his difficult economic problems and military and technological liabilities took Iran
Iran
to the verge of governmental disintegration, which was quickened by a consequent struggle for the throne after his death.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 2 Russo-Persian wars

* 2.1 Russo-Persian War (1804–1813)
Russo-Persian War (1804–1813)

* 2.1.1 Treaty of Gulistan

* 2.2 Interlude on a different front

* 2.3 Russo-Persian War (1826–1828)
Russo-Persian War (1826–1828)

* 2.3.1 Treaty of Turkmenchay
Treaty of Turkmenchay

* 3 Later life * 4 Marriage and children * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

EARLY LIFE

Fath-Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar

He was born in Damghan
Damghan
on 5 September 1772, and was called Fath-Ali, a name which his great-grandfather, a prominent figure bore. He was the son of Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar, brother of Agha Mohammad Khan . He was also known by his second name of Baba Khan, a name he would use until his coronation in 1797.

Fath-Ali was governor of Fars when his uncle was assassinated in 1797. Fath-Ali then ascended the throne and used the name of Fath Ali Shah
Shah
(with the word "shah" added on his name). He became suspicious of his chancellor Ebrahim Khan Kalantar
Ebrahim Khan Kalantar
and ordered his execution. Hajji Ebrahim Khan
Ebrahim Khan
had been chancellor to Zand and Qajar rulers for some fifteen years.

Much of his reign was marked by the resurgence of Persian arts and painting, as well as a deeply elaborate court culture with extremely rigid etiquette. In particular during his reign, portraiture and large-scale oil painting reached a height previously unknown under any other Islamic dynasty, largely due to his personal patronage.

Fat′h Ali also ordered the creation of much royal regalia, including coronations chairs; the "Takht-e Khurshīd" or Sun Throne
Sun Throne
; the "Takht-e Nāderi" or Naderi Throne
Naderi Throne
, which was also used by later kings; and the "Tāj-e Kiyāni" or Kiani Crown
Kiani Crown
, a modification of the crown of the same name created by his uncle Agha Mohammad Khan . The latter, like most of his regalia, was studded with a large number of pearls and gems.

In 1797, Fat′h Ali was given a complete set of the Britannica's 3rd edition, which he read completely; after this feat, he extended his royal title to include "Most Formidable Lord and Master of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
." In 1803, Fath-Ali Shah
Shah
appointed his cousin Ebrahim Khan
Ebrahim Khan
as the governor of the Kerman Province , which had been devastated during the reign of Agha Mohammad Khan.

RUSSO-PERSIAN WARS

RUSSO-PERSIAN WAR (1804–1813)

Main article: Russo-Persian War (1804–1813)
Russo-Persian War (1804–1813)
The siege of Ganja Fortress in 1804 during the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813)
Russo-Persian War (1804-1813)
by the Russian forces under leadership of general Pavel Tsitsianov
Pavel Tsitsianov
.

During the early reign of Fat′h Ali Shah, Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
took control of Georgia , a territory which Iran
Iran
had ruled intermittently since 1555 with the Peace of Amasya
Peace of Amasya
. Georgia, led by Erekle II
Erekle II
, had forged an alliance with Persia's rival, Russia, following the Treaty of Georgievsk . To punish his Georgian subjects, his uncle, Agha Mohammad Khan, had invaded and sacked Tblisi , seeking to reestablishing full Persian suzerainty over Georgia, in which he succeeded. Even though the Russian garrisons in the city had to retreat, Persia
Persia
didn't manage to put back all of its needed garrisons over the country as Agha Mohammad Khan was assassinated soon afterwards in Shusha , following with Russia's act of annexation of those priorly-Iranian ruled parts of Georgia in 1801, after many Georgian embassies and a treaty. Also, not only was Georgia annexed but also was Dagestan
Dagestan
invaded, which had also been under Persian rule since the early Safavid era. As it was seen as a direct intrusion into Persian territory, Fat′h Ali Shah, determined to reassert Persian hegemony over the whole region, declared war on Russia after General Pavel Tsitsianov
Pavel Tsitsianov
attacked and stormed the city of Ganja , massacring many of its inhabitants and forcing many thousands to flee deeper within the Iranian domains. In 1804, Fath Ali Shah
Shah
ordered the invasion of Georgia in order to regain it, under pressure from the Shia
Shia
clergy, who were urging a war against Russia. The war began with notable victories for the Persians, but Russia shipped in advanced weaponry and cannons that disadvantaged the technologically inferior Qajar forces, who did not have the artillery to match. Russia continued with a major campaign against Persia; Persia
Persia
asked for help from Britain on the grounds of a military agreement with that country (the military agreement was signed after the rise of Napoleon
Napoleon
in France). However, Britain refused to help Persia
Persia
claiming that the military agreement concerned a French attack not Russian. General Gardane , with colleagues Jaubert and Joanin, at the Persian court of Fat′h Ali Shah
Shah
in 1808.

Persia
Persia
had to ask for help from France, sending an ambassador to Napoleon
Napoleon
and concluding a Franco-Persian alliance
Franco-Persian alliance
with the signature of the Treaty of Finkenstein . However, just when the French were ready to help Persia, Napoleon
Napoleon
made peace with Russia. At this time, John Malcolm arrived in Persia
Persia
and promised support but Britain later changed its mind and asked Persia
Persia
to retreat. Though many years the war had been stale and located in various parts of Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
, the peace with Napoleon
Napoleon
enabled the Russians to increase their war efforts in the Caucasus
Caucasus
against Iran. In early 1813, under General Pyotr Kotlyarevsky , the Russians successfully stormed Lankaran . Russian troops invaded Tabriz
Tabriz
in 1813 and Persia
Persia
was forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan with Russia.

Treaty Of Gulistan

Map showing Irans's northwestern borders in the 19th century, comprising Eastern Georgia , Dagestan
Dagestan
, Armenia
Armenia
, and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, before being forced to cede the territories to Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
per the two Russo-Persian Wars of the 19th century. Main article: Treaty of Gulistan

On account of consecutive defeats of Persia
Persia
and after the fall of Lankaran on 1 January 1813, Fath Ali Shah, was forced to sign the disastrous Treaty of Gulistan . The text of treaty was prepared by a British diplomat; Sir Gore Ouseley
Gore Ouseley
; and was signed by Nikolai Fyodorovich Rtischev from the Russian side" and Hajji Mirza Abol Hasan Khan from the Iranian side on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan .

By this treaty all of the cities, towns, and villages of Georgia , villages and towns on the coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
, all of the cities, towns and villages of the Khanates
Khanates
in the South Caucasus
Caucasus
and North Caucasus
Caucasus
, and part of the Talysh Khanate
Talysh Khanate
, including Megrelia , Abkhazia
Abkhazia
, Imeretia , Guria
Guria
, Baku khanate
Baku khanate
, Shirvan Khanate , Derbent , Karabakh khanate , Ganja khanate
Ganja khanate
, Shaki Khanate
Shaki Khanate
and Quba
Quba
Khanate became part of Russia. These territories altogether comprise modern-day Georgia, southern Dagestan
Dagestan
, and most of the contemporary Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Republic. In return, Russia pledged to support Abbas Mirza as heir to the Persian throne after the death of Fat′h Ali Shah.

INTERLUDE ON A DIFFERENT FRONT

Between 1805 and 1816, Qajar rulers began invading Herat in neighboring Afghanistan
Afghanistan
with small detachments. The Persians were attempting to retake control of the city but were forced to abandon it due to Afghan uprisings. In 1818 the Shah
Shah
sent his son Mohammad Vali Mirza to capture the city but he was defeated at the Battle of Kafir Qala .

RUSSO-PERSIAN WAR (1826–1828)

Main article: Russo-Persian War (1826–1828)
Russo-Persian War (1826–1828)
Battle of Elisabethpol , 1828, Franz Roubaud
Franz Roubaud
. Part of the collection of the Museum for History, Baku
Baku
.

In 1826, 13 years after the Treaty of Gulistan , the Shah
Shah
on the advice of British agents and the utter dissatisfaction with the outcome of the previous war, Fath Ali Shah
Shah
decided to occupy the lost territories. Crown prince
Crown prince
Abbas Mirza
Abbas Mirza
, head of the armies, invaded the Talysh Khanate
Talysh Khanate
and Karabakh khanate with an army of 35,000 on 16 July 1826. The first year of the war was very successful, and the Persians managed to regain most of their lost territories of the 1804-1813 war, including the principal cities of Lenkoran , Quba
Quba
, and Baku
Baku
. However the tide turned after the winter. In May 1827, Ivan Paskevich , Governor of Caucasus
Caucasus
, invaded Echmiadzin
Echmiadzin
, Nakhichevan , Abbasabad and on 1 October Erivan
Erivan
. Fourteen days later, General Eristov entered Tabriz
Tabriz
. In January 1828, when the Russians reached the shores of Lake Urmia , Abbas Mirza
Abbas Mirza
urgently signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay on 2 February 1828.

Treaty Of Turkmenchay

Main article: Treaty of Turkmenchay
Treaty of Turkmenchay

The Turkmenchay Treaty was signed on 21 February 1828 by Hajji Mirza Abol Hasan Khan and General Ivan Paskevich
Ivan Paskevich
. By this treaty the Erivan khanate (most of present-day Armenia
Armenia
, and also a small part of Eastern Anatolia ), Nakhchivan khanate
Nakhchivan khanate
(most of the present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
), the Talysh Khanate (southeastern Azerbaijan), and the Ordubad and Mughan became under the rule of Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
. By this treaty, Iran
Iran
had lost all of its Caucasian territories comprising all of Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
and Dagestan
Dagestan
to neighboring Imperial Russia. Iran
Iran
furthermore pledged to pay Russia 10 Million in Gold, and in return Russia pledged to support Abbas Mirza as heir to the Persian throne after the death of Fat′h Ali Shah. The treaty also stipulated the resettlement of Armenians from Persia
Persia
to the Caucasus, which also included an outright liberation of Armenian captives who were brought and had lived in Iran
Iran
since 1804 or as far back as 1795.

LATER LIFE

Fath Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar firman in Shikasta Nastaʿlīq script, January 1831.

Fat′h Ali later employed writers and painters to make a book about his wars with Russia, inspired by the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
. This book, considered by many to be the most important Persian book written in the Qajar period, is called the Shahanshahnama.

In 1829, Alexandr Griboyedov , the Russian diplomat and playwright was killed in the encirclement of the Russia embassy in Tehran
Tehran
. To apologize, the Shah
Shah
sent prince Khosrow Mirza to Tsar Nicholas I to deliver a formal apology, as well as one of the biggest diamonds of his crown jewelry, namely Shah
Shah
Diamond .

When his beloved son and crown prince Abbas Mirza
Abbas Mirza
died on 25 October 1833, Fat′h Ali named his grandson Mohammed Mirza as his crown prince. Fat′h Ali died a year later, on 23 October 1834.

He is instantly recognizable in all 25 known portraits – mainly due to his immense, deeply black beard, which reached well beneath his narrow waist. One of these portraits is being exhibited in the collection of the University of Oxford . Another one that of which artist was Mihr Ali is at the Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum
.

Besides eulogistic chronicles, the only real sources that allow us to judge his personality are those of British, French and Russian diplomats. These vary greatly: earlier in his reign they tend to portray him as vigorous, manly and highly intelligent. Later they begin to point out his extreme indolence and avarice. The image of decadence was epitomised by the story that he had a special harem slide of marble constructed. Every day he would lie on his back naked "as, one by one, naked harem beauties swooped down a slide, specially made for the sport, into the arms of their lord and master before being playfully dunked in a pool."

MARRIAGE AND CHILDREN

Muhammad Hasan (Persian, active 1808–1840). Prince Yahya, ca. the 1830s.Prince Yahya, born in 1817, was the forty-third son of the Qajar ruler Fath Ali Shah
Shah
(r. 1798–1834). Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

Fath Ali Shah
Shah
is reported to have had more than 1,000 spouses. He was survived by fifty-seven sons and forty-six daughters, along with 296 grandsons and 292 granddaughters.

A book published in England in 1874 provided different numbers:

"It is believed that Fetteh Ali had the largest number of children ever born to a man. Like a pious Mohammedan, he had only four wives, but his harem generally contained from 800 to 1000 ladies. By these he had 130 sons and 150 daughters, and it is believed that at the time of his death his descendants numbered five thousand souls. The three grandsons who merit notice were the sons of Hussein Ali, the governor of Fars, who aspired to the throne. The princes, Riza Kuli Mirza, Nejeff Kuli Mirza, and Timour Mirza, were at Shiraz when their father attempted to seize the throne. They were able to make their escape from the city."

While this is a large number of children, the claim that Fath-Ali holds the record is not true. (Moulay Ismail ibn Sharif, who lived a hundred years earlier in Morocco, is said to hold the record for the most number of children born to a man.)

Fath-Ali's first son, Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah , was seven months older than his brother Abbas Mirza
Abbas Mirza
(Fath Ali Shah's Crown Prince), but on account of his mother, Ziba Chehreh Khanoum's non-Qajar origin (she was Georgian ) he was unable to claim the title "Valiahd." ( Crown prince
Crown prince
).

SONS

* Mohammad Ali Mirza (1788–1821) * Mohammad Qoli Mirza 'Molk Ara' (1788–1874) * Mohammad Vali Mirza (1789–1869) * Abbas Mirza
Abbas Mirza
'Nayeb os-Saltaneh' (1789–1833) * Hossein Ali Mirza 'Farman Farma' (1789–1835) * Hassan Ali Mirza 'Etemad os-Saltaneh' 'Shoja os-Saltaneh' (1789-1854) * Mohammad Taqi Mirza 'Hessam os-Saltaneh' (1791-1853) * Ali Naqi Mirza 'Rokn od-Doleh' (1793) * Sheikh Ali Mirza 'Sheikh ol-Molouk' (1796) * Ali Shah
Shah
Mirza * Abdollah Mirza * Imam Verdi Mirza 'Keshikchi Bashi' (1796-1869) * Mohammad Reza Mirza 'Afsar' (1797) * Mahmud Mirza (1799-1835) * Heydar Qoli Mirza (1799) * Homayoun Mirza (1801-1856/1857) * Allah Verdi Mirza 'Navab' (1801-1843) * Esma'il Mirza (1802-1853) * Ahmad Ali Mirza (1804) * Ali Reza Mirza * Keyghobad Mirza (1806) * Haj Bahram Mirza (1806) * Shapour Mirza (1807) * Malek Iraj Mirza (1807) * Manouchehr Mirza 'Baha ol-Molk' * Keykavous Mirza (1807) * Malek Ghassem Mirza (1807-1859) * Shah
Shah
Qoli Mirza (1808) * Mohammad Mehdi Mirza 'Zargam ol-Molk' (1808) * Jahanshah Mirza (1809) * Keykhosrow Mirza 'Sepahsalar' (1809) * Kiomarth Mirza "Il-Khani" (1809-1872/1873) * Soleiman Mirza 'Shoa od-Doleh' (1810) * Fathollah Mirza 'Shoa os-Saltaneh' (1811-1869/1870) * Malek Mansour Mirza (1811) * Bahman Mirza 'Baha od-Doleh' * Soltan Ebrahim Mirza (1813) * Soltan Mostafa Mirza (1813) * Soltan Mohammad Mirza 'Seyf od-Doleh' * Seyfollah Mirza (Jahanbani) (1814) * Yahya Mirza (1817) * Mohammad Amin Mirza (1819-1886) * Zakaria Mirza (1819) s.p. * Farrokhseyr Mirza 'Nayer od-Doleh' (1819) * Soltan Hamzeh Mirza (1819) * Tahmoures Mirza (1820) s.p. * Aliqoli Mirza Etezado-ol-Saltaneh 'Etezad os-Saltaneh' (1822) * Soltan Ahmad Mirza 'Azod od-Doleh' (1824-1901) * Eskandar Mirza 'Saheb Khaghan' * Parviz Mirza 'Nayer od-Doleh' * Jalaleddin Mirza 'Ehtesham ol-Molk' (1826) * Amanollah Mirza 'Agha Lili' * Soltan Hossein Mirza * Hossein Qoli Mirza 'Jahansouz Mirza " 'Amir Toman' (1830-1900/1901) * Haj Abbas Qoli Mirza * Nouroldar Mirza * Kamran Mirza * Orangzeb Mirza (1830/1831-1867/1868) * Mohammad Hadi Mirza (1832)

SEE ALSO

* Sarah Shahi
Sarah Shahi
* Samson Makintsev * Tangeh Savashi
Tangeh Savashi
near Tehran
Tehran
, where Fath Ali Shah
Shah
had a relief carved into the side of a mountain pass. * Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia
Persia
* Naderi throne
Naderi throne
* Shah
Shah
Diamond * Poetry from the inmates of the harem of Fat′h Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar

REFERENCES

* ^ Dowling, Timothy C. (2014). Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond . ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-948-6 . , page 728 * ^ A B C Joseph M. Upton, The History of Modern Iran: An Interpretation. Contributors: - Author. Publisher: Harvard University Press. Place of publication: Cambridge, 1960, p.4 * ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/fath-ali-shah-qajar-2 * ^ A B "Index Fa-Fi". Rulers. Retrieved 26 July 2013. * ^ William Benton (1968). Banquet at Guildhall in the City of London, Tuesday, 15 October 1968, Celebrating the 200th Anniversary of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
and the 25th Anniversary of the Hon. William Benton as Its Chairman and Publisher. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 July 2013. * ^ "Relations between Tehran
Tehran
and Moscow, 1797-2014". Retrieved 10 March 2015. * ^ "The Qajar Dynasty
Dynasty
in Iran: The Most Important Occurence Evented in the Qajars Monarchy" (PDF). * ^ A B Treaty of Gulistan * ^ John F. Baddeley, "The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus", Longman , Green and Co., London: 1908, p. 90 * ^ Dumper, Michael; Bruce E. Stanley (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 170. ISBN 1-5760-7919-8 . Retrieved 2010-08-22. * ^ William Edward David Allen and Paul Muratoff. "Caucasian Battlefields: A History of the Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border 1828-1921. (Cambridge University Press, 2010). 20. * ^ Treaty of Turkmenchay * ^ "Your Paintings". BBC. Retrieved 26 July 2013. * ^ "Portrait of Fath \'Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar". Brooklyn Museum. Retrieved 26 July 2013. * ^ John H. Waller, Beyond the Khyber Pass: the road to British disaster in the First Afghan War, Random House, 1990, p. 59. * ^ The Literary World. 1882. p. 85. Retrieved 1 December 2012. Wording also available here under "The Shah's Palaces" * ^ "Qajar King Paraded Top-Cadre Wives Every Morning: Iranian Historian Says". Payvand. 13 August 2004. Retrieved 26 July 2013. * ^ Piggot, John (1874). Persia: Ancient & Modern. London: Henry S. King & Co. p. 89. * ^ "Qajars (Kadjar)". Retrieved 23 April 2015. * ^ Buyers, Christopher. "The Qajar Dynasty". Royalark. Retrieved 4 January 2016. * ^ L.A. Ferydoun Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn and Bahman Bayani, 'The Fath Ali Shah
Shah
Project', in Qajar Studies IV (2004), Journal of the International Qajar Studies Association, Rotterdam, Santa Barbara and Tehran
Tehran
2004

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Portrait of Fat′h Ali Shah
Shah
by Mihr Ali, Qajar Pages * Complete

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