The Falkland Islands (; es|Islas Malvinas, ) is an archipelago
in the South Atlantic Ocean
on the Patagonian Shelf
. The principal islands are about east of South America
's southern Patagonia
n coast and about from the northern tip
of the Antarctic Peninsula
, at a latitude of about 52°S. The archipelago, with an area of , comprises East Falkland
, West Falkland
, and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory
, the Falklands have internal self-governance
, and the United Kingdom takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The capital and largest settlement is Stanley
on East Falkland.
Controversy exists over the Falklands' discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans. At various times, the islands have had French, British, Spanish, and Argentine settlements. Britain reasserted its rule in 1833
, but Argentina maintains its claim to the islands
. In April 1982, Argentine military forces invaded the islands
. British administration was restored two months later at the end of the Falklands War
. Almost all Falklanders favour
the archipelago remaining a UK overseas territory. Its sovereignty status is part of an ongoing dispute between Argentina and the United Kingdom
The population (3,398 inhabitants in 2016)
consists primarily of native-born Falkland Islanders
, the majority of British descent. Other ethnicities include French, Gibraltarian
, and Scandinavian. Immigration from the United Kingdom, the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena
, and Chile
has reversed a population decline. The predominant (and official) language is English. Under the British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983
, Falkland Islanders are British citizens
The islands lie on the boundary of the subantarctic oceanic
and tundra climate
zones, and both major islands have mountain ranges reaching . They are home to large bird populations, although many no longer breed on the main islands due to predation by introduced species
. Major economic activities include fishing, tourism and sheep farming, with an emphasis on high-quality wool exports. Oil exploration, licensed by the Falkland Islands Government
, remains controversial as a result of maritime disputes with Argentina.
The name "Falkland Islands" comes from Falkland Sound
, the strait
that separates the two main islands. The name "Falkland" was applied to the channel by John Strong
, captain of an English expedition that landed on the islands in 1690. Strong named the strait in honour of Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount of Falkland
, the Treasurer of the Navy
who sponsored his journey. The Viscount's title originates from the town of Falkland
, Scotland—the town's name likely comes from a Gaelic
term referring to an "enclosure" (), but it could less plausibly be from the Anglo-Saxon term "folkland" (land held by folk-right
). The name "Falklands" was not applied to the islands until 1765, when British
captain John Byron
of the Royal Navy
claimed them for King George III
as "Falkland's Islands". The term "Falklands" is a standard abbreviation used to refer to the islands.
The Spanish name for the archipelago, ''Islas Malvinas'', derives from the French ''Îles Malouines''—the name given to the islands by French
explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville
in 1764. Bougainville, who founded the islands' first settlement, named the area after the port of Saint-Malo
(the point of departure for his ships and colonists). The port, located in the Brittany
region of western France, was named after St. Malo
(or Maclou), the Christian evangelist
who founded the city.
At the twentieth session of the United Nations General Assembly
, the Fourth Committee
determined that, in all languages other than Spanish, all UN documentation would designate the territory as ''Falkland Islands (Malvinas)''. In Spanish, the territory was designated as ''Islas Malvinas (Falkland Islands)''. The nomenclature used by the United Nations for statistical processing purposes is ''Falkland Islands (Malvinas)''.
may have visited the Falkland Islands in prehistoric times, the islands were uninhabited when Europeans first discovered them. Claims of discovery date back to the 16th century, but no consensus exists on whether early explorers discovered the Falklands or other islands in the South Atlantic.
The first undisputed landing on the islands is attributed to English captain John Strong, who, en route to Peru
and Chile's littoral in 1690, discovered the Falkland Sound and noted the islands' water and game.
The Falklands remained uninhabited until the 1764 establishment of Port Louis
on East Falkland
by French captain Louis Antoine de Bougainville
and the 1766 foundation of Port Egmont
on Saunders Island
by British captain John MacBride
. Whether or not the settlements were aware of each other's existence is debated by historians. In 1766, France surrendered its claim on the Falklands to Spain, which renamed the French colony Puerto Soledad
the following year. Problems began when Spain discovered and captured Port Egmont
in 1770. War
was narrowly avoided by its restitution to Britain in 1771.
Both the British
settlements coexisted in the archipelago until 1774, when Britain's new economic and strategic considerations led it to voluntarily withdraw from the islands, leaving a plaque claiming the Falklands for King George III. Spain's Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
became the only governmental presence in the territory. West Falkland
was left abandoned, and Puerto Soledad became mostly a prison camp. Amid the British invasions of the Río de la Plata
during the Napoleonic Wars
in Europe, the islands' governor evacuated the archipelago in 1806; Spain's remaining colonial garrison followed suit in 1811, except for gaucho
s and fishermen who remained voluntarily.
Thereafter, the archipelago was visited only by fishing ships; its political status was undisputed until 1820, when Colonel David Jewett
, an American privateer
working for the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
, informed anchored ships about Buenos Aires
' 1816 claim to Spain's territories in the South Atlantic. Since the islands had no permanent inhabitants, in 1823 Buenos Aires granted German-born merchant Luis Vernet
permission to conduct fishing activities and exploit feral cattle in the archipelago. Vernet settled at the ruins of Puerto Soledad in 1826, and accumulated resources on the islands until the venture was secure enough to bring settlers and form a permanent colony. Buenos Aires named Vernet military and civil commander of the islands in 1829, and he attempted to regulate sealing to stop the activities of foreign whalers and sealers. Vernet's venture lasted until a dispute over fishing and hunting rights led to a raid
by the American warship USS ''Lexington''
in 1831, when United States Navy
commander Silas Duncan
declared the dissolution of the island's government.
Buenos Aires attempted to retain influence over the settlement by installing a garrison, but a mutiny in 1832 was followed the next year by the arrival of British forces who reasserted Britain's rule
. The Argentine Confederation
(headed by Buenos Aires Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas
) protested against Britain's actions, and Argentine governments have continued since then to register official protests against Britain. The British troops departed after completing their mission, leaving the area without formal government. Vernet's deputy, the Scotsman Matthew Brisbane
, returned to the islands that year to restore the business, but his efforts ended after, amid unrest at Port Louis, gaucho Antonio Rivero
led a group of dissatisfied individuals to murder Brisbane and the settlement's senior leaders; survivors hid in a cave on a nearby island until the British returned and restored order. In 1840, the Falklands became a Crown colony
and Scottish settlers subsequently established an official pastoral community. Four years later, nearly everyone relocated to Port Jackson, considered a better location for government, and merchant Samuel Lafone
began a venture to encourage British colonisation.
, as Port Jackson was soon renamed, officially became the seat of government in 1845. Early in its history, Stanley had a negative reputation due to cargo-shipping losses; only in emergencies would ships rounding Cape Horn
stop at the port. Nevertheless, the Falklands' geographic location proved ideal for ship repairs and the "Wrecking Trade", the business of selling and buying shipwrecks and their cargoes. Aside from this trade, commercial interest in the archipelago was minimal due to the low-value hides of the feral cattle roaming the pastures. Economic growth began only after the Falkland Islands Company
, which bought out Lafone's failing enterprise in 1851, successfully introduced Cheviot sheep
for wool farming, spurring other farms to follow suit.
The high cost of importing materials, combined with the shortage of labour and consequent high wages, meant the ship repair trade became uncompetitive. After 1870, it declined as the replacement of sail ships by steamship
s was accelerated by the low cost of coal in South America; by 1914, with the opening of the Panama Canal
, the trade effectively ended. In 1881, the Falkland Islands became financially independent of Britain. For more than a century, the Falkland Islands Company dominated the trade and employment of the archipelago; in addition, it owned most housing in Stanley, which greatly benefited from the wool trade with the UK.
In the first half of the 20th century, the Falklands served an important role in Britain's territorial claims to subantarctic
islands and a section of Antarctica. The Falklands governed these territories as the Falkland Islands Dependencies
starting in 1908, and retained them until their dissolution in 1985. The Falklands also played a minor role in the two world wars as a military base aiding control of the South Atlantic. In the First World War Battle of the Falkland Islands
in December 1914, a Royal Navy fleet defeated an Imperial German
squadron. In the Second World War
, following the December 1939 Battle of the River Plate
, the battle-damaged HMS ''Exeter''
steamed to the Falklands for repairs. In 1942, a battalion en route to India was redeployed to the Falklands as a garrison amid fears of a Japanese seizure of the archipelago. After the war ended, the Falklands economy was affected by declining wool prices and the political uncertainty resulting from the revived sovereignty dispute between the United Kingdom and Argentina.
Simmering tensions between the UK and Argentina increased during the second half of the century, when Argentine President Juan Perón
asserted sovereignty over the archipelago. The sovereignty dispute intensified during the 1960s, shortly after the United Nations passed a resolution on decolonisation
which Argentina interpreted as favourable to its position. In 1965, the UN General Assembly passed Resolution 2065
, calling for both states to conduct bilateral negotiations to reach a peaceful settlement of the dispute. From 1966 until 1968, the UK confidentially discussed with Argentina the transfer of the Falklands, assuming its judgement would be accepted by the islanders. An agreement on trade ties between the archipelago and the mainland was reached in 1971 and, consequently, Argentina built a temporary airfield at Stanley in 1972. Nonetheless, Falklander dissent, as expressed by their strong lobby in the UK Parliament
, and tensions between the UK and Argentina effectively limited sovereignty negotiations until 1977.
Concerned at the expense of maintaining the Falkland Islands in an era of budget cuts, the UK again considered transferring sovereignty to Argentina in the early Thatcher government
Substantive sovereignty talks again ended by 1981, and the dispute escalated with passing time. In April 1982, the Falklands War
began when Argentine military forces invaded the Falklands
and other British territories in the South Atlantic
, briefly occupying them
until a UK expeditionary force
retook the territories in June. After the war, the United Kingdom expanded its military presence, building RAF Mount Pleasant
and increasing the size of its garrison. The war also left some 117 minefields containing nearly 20,000 mines of various types, including anti-vehicle and anti-personnel mines.
Due to the large number of deminer
casualties, initial attempts to clear the mines ceased in 1983.
Demining operations recommenced in 2009 and were completed in October 2020.
Based on Lord Shackleton
's recommendations, the Falklands diversified from a sheep-based monoculture into an economy of tourism and, with the establishment of the Falklands Exclusive Economic Zone
, fisheries. The road network was also made more extensive, and the construction of RAF Mount Pleasant allowed access to long haul
flights. Oil exploration also began, with indications of possible commercially exploitable deposits in the Falklands basin. Landmine clearance work restarted in 2009, in accordance with the UK's obligations under the Ottawa Treaty
, and Sapper Hill
Corral was cleared of mines in 2012, allowing access to an important historical landmark for the first time in 30 years. Argentina and the UK re-established diplomatic relations in 1990; relations have since deteriorated as neither has agreed on the terms of future sovereignty discussions. Disputes between the governments have led "some analysts o
predict a growing conflict of interest between Argentina and Great Britain ... because of the recent expansion of the fishing industry in the waters surrounding the Falklands".
The Falkland Islands are a self-governing British Overseas Territory
. Under the 2009 Constitution
, the islands have full internal self-government; the UK is responsible for foreign affairs, retaining the power "to protect UK interests and to ensure the overall good governance
of the territory".
The Monarch of the United Kingdom
is the head of state
, and executive authority
is exercised on the monarch's behalf by the governor
, who appoints the islands' chief executive
on the advice of members of the Legislative Assembly
Both the governor and the chief executive serve as the head of government
Governor Nigel Phillips
was appointed in September 2017 and Chief Executive Barry Rowland
was appointed in October 2016. The UK minister responsible for the Falkland Islands since 2019, Christopher Pincher
, administers British foreign policy regarding the islands.
The governor acts on the advice of the islands' Executive Council
, composed of the chief executive, the Director of Finance
and three elected members of the Legislative Assembly (with the governor as chairman).
The Legislative Assembly, a unicameral legislature
, consists of the chief executive, the director of finance and eight members (five from Stanley and three from Camp
) elected to four-year terms by universal suffrage
All politicians in the Falkland Islands are independent
; no political parties exist on the islands. Since the 2013 general election
, members of the Legislative Assembly have received a salary and are expected to work full-time and give up all previously held jobs or business interests.
As a territory of the United Kingdom, the Falklands were part of the overseas countries and territories
of the European Union
. The islands' judicial system, overseen by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office
, is largely based on English law
, and the constitution binds the territory to the principles of the European Convention on Human Rights
Residents have the right of appeal to the European Court of Human Rights
and the Privy Council
. Law enforcement is the responsibility of the Royal Falkland Islands Police
(RFIP), and military defence
of the islands is provided by the United Kingdom. A British military garrison is stationed on the islands, and the Falkland Islands government funds an additional company
-sized light infantry Falkland Islands Defence Force
The Falklands claim an exclusive economic zone
(EEZ) extending from its coastal baselines, based on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
; this zone overlaps with the EEZ of Argentina.
The United Kingdom and Argentina both assert sovereignty over the Falkland Islands. The UK bases its position on its continuous administration of the islands since 1833 and the islanders' "right to self-determination as set out in the UN Charter
". Argentina claims that, when it achieved independence
in 1816, it acquired the Falklands from Spain.
The incident of 1833
is particularly contentious; Argentina considers it proof of "Britain's usurpation" whereas the UK discounts it as a mere reassertion of its claim.
In 2009, the British prime minister, Gordon Brown
, had a meeting with the Argentine president, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
, and said that there would be no further talks over the sovereignty of the Falklands. In March 2013, the Falkland Islands held a referendum
on its political status: 99.8% of votes cast favoured remaining a British overseas territory. Argentina does not recognise the Falkland Islanders as a partner in negotiations.
The Falkland Islands have a land area of and a coastline estimated at . The archipelago consists of two main islands, West Falkland and East Falkland, and 776 smaller islands. The islands are predominantly mountainous and hilly, with the major exception being the depressed plains of Lafonia
(a peninsula forming the southern part of East Falkland). The Falklands consists of continental crust
fragments resulting from the break-up of Gondwana
and the opening of the South Atlantic that began 130 million years ago. The islands are located in the South Atlantic Ocean
, on the Patagonian Shelf
, about east of Patagonia in southern Argentina.
The Falklands' approximate location is latitude – and longitude – . The archipelago's two main islands are separated by the Falkland Sound
, and its deep coastal indentations form natural harbour
s. East Falkland houses Stanley (the capital and largest settlement), the UK military base at RAF Mount Pleasant, and the archipelago's highest point: Mount Usborne
, at . Outside of these significant settlements is the area colloquially known as "Camp", which is derived from the Spanish term for countryside (''Campo'').
The climate of the islands
is cold, windy and humid maritime
. Variability of daily weather is typical throughout the archipelago. Rainfall is common over half of the year, averaging in Stanley, and sporadic light snowfall occurs nearly all year. The temperature has historically stayed between in Stanley, with mean monthly temperatures varying from early in the year to in July. Strong westerly winds
and cloudy skies are common. Although numerous storms are recorded each month, conditions are normally calm.
The Falkland Islands are biogeographically
part of the Antarctic zone
, with strong connections to the flora and fauna of Patagonia in mainland South America.
Land birds make up most of the Falklands' avifauna
; 63 species breed on the islands, including 16 endemic
species. There is also abundant arthropod
diversity on the islands. The Falklands' flora consists of 163 native vascular species
. The islands' only native terrestrial mammal, the warrah
, was hunted to extinction by European settlers.
The islands are frequented by marine mammal
s, such as the southern elephant seal
and the South American fur seal
, and various types of cetacea
ns; offshore islands house the rare striated caracara
. There are also five different penguin species and a few of the largest albatross
colonies on the planet.
Endemic fish around the islands are primarily from the genus ''Galaxias
''. The Falklands are treeless and have a wind-resistant vegetation predominantly composed of a variety of dwarf shrubs
Virtually the entire land area of the islands is used as pasture for sheep.
Introduced species include reindeer
, hares, rabbits, Patagonian foxes
, brown rat
s and cats. Several of these species have harmed native flora and fauna, so the government has tried to contain, remove or exterminate foxes, rabbits and rats. Endemic land animals have been the most affected by introduced species, and several bird species have been extirpated from the larger islands. The extent of human impact
on the Falklands is unclear, since there is little long-term data on habitat change.
The economy of the Falkland Islands is ranked the largest out of 229 in the world by GDP
), but ranks worldwide by GDP (PPP) per capita
. The unemployment rate was 1% in 2016, and inflation
was calculated at 1.4% in 2014.
Based on 2010 data, the islands have a high Human Development Index
of 0.874 and a moderate Gini coefficient
for income inequality
of 34.17. The local currency is the Falkland Islands pound
, which is pegged
to the British pound sterling
was advanced by ship resupplying
and sheep farming for high-quality wool
. The main sheep breeds in the Falkland Islands are Polwarth
. During the 1980s, although ranch under-investment and the use of synthetic fibre
s damaged the sheep-farming sector, the government secured a major revenue stream by the establishment of an exclusive economic zone
and the sale of fishing licences to "anybody wishing to fish within this zone". Since the end of the Falklands War in 1982, the islands' economic activity has increasingly focused on oil field exploration
The port settlement of Stanley has regained the islands' economic focus, with an increase in population as workers migrate from Camp. Fear of dependence on fishing licences and threats from overfishing
, illegal fishing
and fish market price fluctuations
have increased interest in oil drilling
as an alternative source of revenue; exploration efforts have yet to find "exploitable reserves". Development projects in education and sports have been funded by the Falklands government, without aid from the United Kingdom.
The primary sector of the economy
accounts for most of the Falkland Islands' gross domestic product, with the fishing industry alone contributing between 50% and 60% of annual GDP; agriculture also contributes significantly to GDP and employs about a tenth of the population. A little over a quarter of the workforce serves the Falkland Islands government, making it the archipelago's largest employer.
Tourism, part of the service economy, has been spurred by increased interest in Antarctic exploration
and the creation of direct air links with the United Kingdom and South America. Tourists, mostly cruise ship
passengers, are attracted by the archipelago's wildlife and environment, as well as activities such as fishing and wreck diving
; the majority find accommodation in Stanley. The islands' major exports include wool, hides, venison, fish and squid; its main imports include fuel, building material
s and clothing.
The Falkland Islands population is homogeneous
, mostly descended from Scottish
immigrants who settled in the territory after 1833. The Falkland-born population are also descended from English
and French people
and South Americans
. The 2016 census indicated that 43% of residents were born on the archipelago, with foreign-born residents assimilated into local culture. The legal term for the right of residence is "belonging to the islands".
In 1983, full British citizenship
was given to Falkland Islanders under the British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act
A significant population decline
affected the archipelago in the twentieth century, with many young islanders moving overseas in search of education, a modern lifestyle, and better job opportunities, particularly to the British city of Southampton
, which came to be known in the islands as "Stanley North". In recent years, the islands' population decline has reduced, thanks to immigrants from the United Kingdom, Saint Helena
, and Chile
. In the 2012 census, a majority of residents listed their nationality as Falkland Islander
(59 percent), followed by British
(29 percent), Saint Helenian (9.8 percent), and Chilean
A small number of Argentines
also live on the islands.
The Falkland Islands have a low population density
. According to the 2012 census, the average daily population of the Falklands was 2,932, excluding military personnel serving in the archipelago and their dependents. A 2012 report counted 1,300 uniformed personnel and 50 British Ministry of Defence
civil servants present in the Falklands.
Stanley (with 2,121 residents) is the most-populous location on the archipelago, followed by Mount Pleasant
(369 residents, primarily air-base contractors) and Camp (351 residents).
The islands' age distribution is skewed towards working age . Males outnumber females (53 to 47 percent), and this discrepancy is most prominent in the age group.
In the 2012 census, most islanders identified themselves as Christian
(66 percent), followed by those with no religious affiliation (32 percent). The remaining 2 percent identified as adherents of other religions, including the Baháʼí Faith
, and Islam
The main Christian denominations are Anglicanism
and other Protestantism
, and Roman Catholicism
[Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition volumesby J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ABC-CLIO, p. 1093.]
Education in the Falkland Islands
, which follows England's system
, is free and compulsory for residents aged between 5 and 16 years.
Primary education is available at Stanley, RAF Mount Pleasant (for children of service personnel) and a number of rural settlements. Secondary education is only available in Stanley, which offers boarding facilities
and 12 subjects to General Certificate of Secondary Education
(GCSE) level. Students aged 16 or older may study at colleges in England for their GCE Advanced Level
or vocational qualifications. The Falkland Islands government pays for older students to attend institutions of higher education, usually in the United Kingdom.
Falklands culture is based on the cultural traditions
of its British settlers but has also been influenced by Hispanic South America
. Falklanders still use some terms and place names from the former Gaucho inhabitants. The Falklands' predominant and official language is English, with the foremost dialect being British English
; nonetheless, some inhabitants also speak Spanish. According to naturalist Will Wagstaff
, "the Falkland Islands are a very social place, and stopping for a chat is a way of life".
The islands have two weekly newspapers: ''Teaberry Express'' and ''The Penguin News
'', and television and radio broadcasts generally feature programming from the United Kingdom. Wagstaff describes local cuisine as "very British in character with much use made of the homegrown vegetables, local lamb, mutton, beef, and fish". Common between meals are "home made cakes and biscuits with tea or coffee". Social activities are, according to Wagstaff, "typical of that of a small British town with a variety of clubs and organisations covering many aspects of community life".
* Index of Falkland Islands-related articles
* List of islands of the Falkland Islands
* Outline of the Falkland Islands
* Work developed and published under the auspices of the Argentine Council for International Relations (CARI).
* Printed in Bulgaria by Double T Publishers.
Falkland Islands Government
Falkland Islands Development Corporation
Falkland Islands News Network
Falkland Islands Profile (BBC)
Category:English-speaking countries and territories
Category:States and territories established in 1833
Category:Dependent territories in South America