European bison (
Bison bonasus), also known as wisent
(/ˈviːzənt/ or /ˈwiːzənt/) or the European wood bison, is a
Eurasian species of bison. It is one of two extant species of bison,
alongside the American bison. Three subspecies existed in the recent
past, but only one survives today. The species is, theoretically,
descended from a hybrid, a cross between a female aurochs, the extinct
wild ancestor of modern cattle, and a male
Steppe bison; the possible
hybrid is referred to informally as the Higgs bison.
Alternatively, the Pleistocene woodland bison has been suggested as
the ancestor to the species.
European bison were hunted to extinction in the wild in the early 20th
century, with the last wild animals of the B. b. bonasus subspecies
being shot in the
Białowieża Forest (on the Belarus-Poland border)
in 1921, and the last of B. b. caucasus in the northwestern Caucasus
in 1927. B. b. hungarorum was hunted to extinction in the
mid-1800s. The Białowieża or lowland
European bison was kept alive
in captivity, and has since been reintroduced into several countries
in Europe. They are now forest-dwelling. The species has had few
recent predators besides humans, with only scattered reports from the
19th century of wolf and bear predation.
European bison were first
scientifically described by
Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Some later
descriptions treat the
European bison as conspecific with the American
bison. It is not to be confused with the aurochs, the extinct ancestor
of domestic cattle.
In 1996, the
International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature classified
European bison as an endangered species. Its status has since been
changed to being a vulnerable species. In the past, especially during
the Middle Ages, it was commonly killed for its hide and to produce
Bison is the national animal of Poland.
4 Genetic history
5 Differences from American bison
6 Behaviour and biology
6.1 Social structure and territorial behaviours
7.2 Numbers and distribution
8 See also
10 External links
In the Wisentgehege
Springe Game Park near Springe, Hanover, Germany
European bison is the heaviest surviving wild land animal in
Europe; a typical
European bison is about 2.1 to 3.5 m (6.9 to
11.5 ft) long, not counting a tail of 30 to 80 cm (12 to
31 in) long, and 1.6 to 1.95 m (5.2 to 6.4 ft) tall. At
birth, calves are quite small, weighing between 15 and 35 kg (33
and 77 lb). In the free-ranging population of the Białowieża
Forest of Belarus and Poland, body masses among adults (aged 6 and
over) are 634 kg (1,398 lb) on average in the cases of
males, with a range of 400 to 920 kg (880 to 2,030 lb), and
of 424 kg (935 lb) among females, with a range of 300 to
540 kg (660 to 1,190 lb). An occasional big bull
European bison can weigh up to 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) or
On average, it is slightly lighter in body mass and yet taller at the
shoulder than the
American bison (
Bison bison). Compared to the
American species, the wisent has shorter hair on the neck, head, and
forequarters, but longer tail and horns.
The modern English word wisent was borrowed in the 19th century from
modern German Wisent [ˈviːzɛnt], itself from Old High German
wisunt, wisant, related to
Old English wesend, weosend, and Old Norse
Old English cognate disappeared as the bison's range
shrank away from English-speaking areas by the Late Middle
The English word bison was borrowed around 1611 from Latin bisōn
(pl. bisontes), itself from Germanic. The root *wis-, also found in
weasel, originally referred to the animal's musk.
The word bonasus was first mentioned by
Aristotle in the 4th century
BC when he precisely described the animal, calling it βόνασος
(bonasos) in Greek. He also noted that the
Paeonians called it
Bisons depicted at cave of Altamira
A specimen of the now-extinct Caucasian subspecies, 1889
Adult females with calves
European bison's skeleton
European bison (left) and
American bison (right)
Historically, the lowland European bison's range encompassed most of
the lowlands of northern Europe, extending from the
Massif Central to
Volga River and the Caucasus. It may have once lived in the
Asiatic part of what is now the Russian Federation. The European bison
is known in southern Sweden only between 9500 and 8700 BP, and in
Denmark similarly is documented only from the Pre-Boreal. It is
not recorded from the
British Isles nor from
Italy or the Iberian
Peninsula. A possible ancestor, the extinct steppe bison, B.
priscus, is known from across
Eurasia and North America, last
occurring 7,000 BC, and is depicted in the
Cave of Altamira
Cave of Altamira and
Lascaux. Another possible ancestor, the Pleistocene woodland bison, B.
schoetensaki, was last present 36,000 BC. Cave paintings appear to
distinguish between B. bonasus and B. priscus.
Within mainland Europe, its range decreased as human populations
expanded and cut down forests. The last references (Oppian, Claudius
Aelianus) to the animal in the transitional Mediterranean/Continental
biogeographical region in the Balkans in the area of modern borderline
Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia and
Bulgaria date to the 3rd
century AD. Its population in
Gaul was extinct in the 8th
century AD. The species survived in the
Ardennes and the Vosges
Mountains until the 15th century. In the Early Middle Ages, the
wisent apparently still occurred in the forest steppes east of the
Urals, in the Altay Mountains, and seems to have reached Lake Baikal
in the east. The northern boundary in the Holocene was probably around
60°N in Finland.
European bison survived in a few natural forests in Europe, but their
numbers dwindled. The last
European bison in
Transylvania died in
1790. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth,
European bison in the
Białowieża Forest were legally the property of the Grand Dukes of
Lithuania until the third partition of Poland. Wild European bison
herds also existed in the forest until the mid-17th century. Polish
kings took measures to protect the bison. King Sigismund II Augustus
instituted the death penalty for poaching a
European bison in
Białowieża in the mid-16th century. In the early 19th century,
Russian czars retained old Lithuanian laws protecting the European
bison herd in Białowieża. Despite these measures and others, the
European bison population continued to decline over the following
century, with only Białowieża and Northern
surviving into the 20th century.
During World War I, occupying German troops killed 600 of the European
bison in the
Białowieża Forest for sport, meat, hides and horns.
A German scientist informed army officers that the
European bison were
facing imminent extinction, but at the very end of the war, retreating
German soldiers shot all but nine animals. The last wild
European bison in Poland was killed in 1921. The last wild European
bison in the world was killed by poachers in 1927 in the western
Caucasus. By that year, fewer than 50 remained, all held by zoos.
To help manage this captive population, Dr.
Heinz Heck began the first
studbook for a nondomesticated species, initially as a card index in
1923, leading to a full publication in 1932. Parallel efforts to
European bison have been made in Poland. Between 1920 and
1928 there were no single
European bison in the Białowieża Forest.
European bison was successfully reintroduced there in 1929 from
the animals kept in zoos with 16 animals living in Białowieża Forest
as of 1 September 1939. The first two bisons were released into nature
Białowieża Forest in 1952. By 1964 more than 100
Bison research, 22:08, 16 October 2016, Australian Centre for
Wisent is probably the descendant of hybrids originated from the
hybridization between steppe bison and aurochs.
A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal
lineages in the tribe Bovini:
Taurine cattle and zebu
American bison and yak
Banteng, gaur, and gayal
Y chromosome analysis associated wisent and American bison. An
earlier study, using amplified fragment-length polymorphism
fingerprinting, showed a close association of wisent and American
bison and probably with yak. It noted the interbreeding of Bovini
species made determining relationships problematic.
European bison can cross-breed with American bison. The products of a
German interbreeding programme were destroyed after the Second World
War. This programme was related to the impulse which created the Heck
cattle. The cross-bred individuals created at other zoos were
eliminated from breed books by the 1950s. A Russian back-breeding
programme resulted in a wild herd of hybrid animals, which presently
lives in the
Caucasian Biosphere Reserve
Caucasian Biosphere Reserve (550 animals in 1999).
Wisent-cattle hybrids also occur, similar to North America beefalo.
European bison hybridise fairly readily, but the calves
cannot be born naturally (birth is not triggered correctly by the
first-cross hybrid calf, so they must be delivered by Caesarian
section). First-generation males are infertile. In 1847, a herd of
wisent-cattle hybrids named żubroń was created by Leopold Walicki.
The animals were intended to become durable and cheap alternatives to
cattle. The experiment was continued by researchers from the Polish
Academy of Sciences until the late 1980s. Although the program
resulted in a quite successful animal that was both hardy and could be
bred in marginal grazing lands, it was eventually discontinued.
Currently, the only surviving żubroń herd consists of just a few
animals in Białowieża Forest, Poland and Belarus.
In 2016, the first whole genome sequencing data from two European
bison bulls from the Bialowieza Forest revealed that the bison and
bovine species diverged from about 1.7 to 0.85 Mya through a
speciation process involving limited gene flow. These data further
support the occurrence of more recent secondary contacts, posterior to
the divergence between
Bos primigenius primigenius and
namadicus (ca. 150,000 years ago), between the wisent and (European)
taurine cattle lineages. An independent study of mitochondrial DNA and
autosomal markers confirmed these secondary contacts (with an estimate
of up to 10% of bovine ancestry in the modern wisent genome) leading
the authors to go further in their conclusions by proposing the wisent
to be a hybrid between steppe bison and aurochs with an hybridization
event originating before 120,000 years ago. This is also consistent
with the apparent
Bos origin of the mitochondrial DNA.
Some of the authors however support the hypothesis that similarity of
wisent and cattle (Bos) mitochondrial genomes is result of incomplete
lineage sorting during divergence of
Bison from their common
ancestors rather than further post-speciation gene flow (ancient
Bos and Bison). But they agree that limited gene
Bos primigenius taurus could account for the affiliation
between wisent and cattle nuclear genomes (in contrast to
Alternatively, genome sequencing completed on the Pleistocene woodland
bison (B. schoetensaki), and published in 2017, posit that genetic
similarities between the Pleistocene woodland bison and the wisent
suggest that B. schoetensaki was the ancestor of the European
Differences from American bison
Although superficially similar, a number of physical and behavioural
differences are seen between the
European bison and the American
European bison has 14 pairs of ribs, while the American
bison has 15. Adult
European bison are (on average) taller than
American bison, and have longer legs.
European bison tend to
browse more, and graze less than their American relatives, due to
their necks being set differently. Compared to the American bison, the
nose of the
European bison is set further forward than the forehead
when the neck is in a neutral position.
The body of the
European bison is less hairy, though its tail is
hairier than that of the American species. The horns of the European
bison point forward through the plane of their faces, making them more
adept at fighting through the interlocking of horns in the same manner
as domestic cattle, unlike the American bison, which favours
European bison are less tameable than the American ones,
and breed with domestic cattle less readily.
Behaviour and biology
Social structure and territorial behaviours
Bison usually live in small herds of about 10 animals; the image shows
a herd in a nursery in the Altai Mountains.
European bison is a herd animal, which lives in both mixed and
solely male groups. Mixed groups consist of adult females, calves,
young aged 2–3 years, and young adult bulls. The average herd size
is dependent on environmental factors, though on average, they number
eight to 13 animals per herd. Herds consisting solely of bulls are
smaller than mixed ones, containing two individuals on average.
European bison herds are not family units. Different herds frequently
interact, combine, and quickly split after exchanging individuals.
Territory held by bulls is correlated by age, with young bulls aged
between five and six tending to form larger home ranges than older
European bison does not defend territory, and herd ranges
tend to greatly overlap. Core areas of territory are usually sited
near meadows and water sources.
A cow bison nursing calf
The rutting season occurs from August through to October. Bulls aged
4–6 years, though sexually mature, are prevented from mating by
older bulls. Cows usually have a gestation period of 264 days, and
typically give birth to one calf at a time.
On average, male calves weigh 27.6 kg (60.8 lb) at birth,
and females 24.4 kg (53.8 lb). Body size in males increases
proportionately to the age of 6 years. While females have a higher
increase in body mass in their first year, their growth rate is
comparatively slower than that of males by the age of 3–5. Bulls
reach sexual maturity at the age of two, while cows do so in their
A calf of European bison
European bison have lived as long as 30 years in captivity,
although in the wild their lifespans are shorter. Productive breeding
years are between four and 20 years of age in females, and only
between six and 12 years of age in males.
European bison feed predominantly on grasses, although they also
browse on shoots and leaves; in summer, an adult male can consume
32 kg of food in a day.
European bison in the Białowieża
Forest in Poland have traditionally been fed hay in the winter for
centuries, and vast herds may gather around this diet supplement.
European bison need to drink every day, and in winter can be seen
breaking ice with their heavy hooves. Despite their usual slow
European bison are surprisingly agile and can clear
3-m-wide streams or 2-m-high fences from a standing start.
Bison in the Białowieża Forest, 1955
The protection of the
European bison has a long history; between the
15th and 18th centuries, those in the Forest of Białowieża were
protected and their diet supplemented. Efforts to restore this
species to the wild began in 1929, with the establishment of the Bison
Restitution Centre at Białowieża, Poland. Subsequently, in
Bison Breeding Centre was established within the
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve.
The modern herds are managed as two separate lines – one consisting
Bison bonasus bonasus (all descended from only seven animals)
and one consisting of all 12 ancestors, including the one B. b.
caucasicus bull. The latter is generally not considered a separate
subspecies because they contain DNA from both B. b. bonasus and B. b.
caucasicius, although some scientists classify them as a new
subspecies, B. b. montanus. Only a limited amount of inbreeding
depression from the population bottleneck has been found, having a
small effect on skeletal growth in cows and a small rise in calf
mortality. Genetic variability continues to shrink. From five initial
bulls, all current
European bison bulls have one of only two remaining
European bison reserve in Spain, where an introduction programme in
Castile and Leon
Castile and Leon is in place.
Beginning in 1951,
European bison have been reintroduced into the
wild, including some areas where they were never found wild.
Free-ranging herds are currently found in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus,
Ukraine, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Latvia, Kyrgyzstan, and
Germany, and in forest preserves in the Western Caucasus.
Białowieża Forest, an ancient woodland that straddles the border
between Poland and Belarus, is now home to 800 wild bison. Herds
have also been introduced in Moldova (2005),
Bulgaria (2012) and Czech Republic (2014).
Numbers and distribution
European bison at Wildpark Pforzheim in Germany
The total worldwide population is around 4,663 (including 2,701
free-ranging) and has been increasing. Some local populations are
Belarus: 1428 animals in 2016.
Caucasus: Around 500 animals, population slowly increasing[citation
Czech Republic: 75 animals in 2015.
Denmark: Two herds were established in the summer of 2012, as part of
conservation of the species. First, 14 animals were released near the
town of Randers, and later, eight animals on Bornholm.[citation
France: One herd was established in 2005 in the Alps near the village
of Thorenc (close to the city of Grasse), as part of conservation of
the species. In 2015, it contained around 50 animals.
Germany: A herd of eight wisents was released into nature in April
2013 at the
Rothaarsteig natural reserve near
Bad Berleburg (North
Rhine-Westphalia). As of May 2015, 13 free-roaming wisents lived
Lithuania: 214 free-ranging animals as of 2017.
Netherlands: Kraansvlak herd established in 2007 with three wisents,
and expanded to six in 2008; the Maashorst herd established in
2016 with 11 wisents; and the
Veluwe herd established in 2016 with
a small herd. numbers in the end of 2017 are: Kraansvlak
22,Maashorst 15 and the veluwe 5 what brings the total population to
Poland: 1,434 animals as of 2014, out of which 1,212 are in free-range
herds, and 522 belong to the wild population in the Białowieża
Forest. Compared to 2013, the total population increased by 4.1%,
while the free-ranging population increased by 6.5%. The data for
31 December 2016 showed 1,698 animals living in Poland of which 1,455
are in free-range herds.
Romania: Almost 100 animals, population slowly increasing[citation
Russia: Around 461, population stable and increasing
Slovakia: A bison reserve was established in
1958. The reserve has a maximum capacity of 13 animals but has
bred around 180 animals for various zoos. There is also a wild
breeding herd of 16 animals (2013) in
Poloniny National Park
Poloniny National Park with
Spain: Two herds in northern
Spain were established in 2010.
Ukraine: A population of around 240 animals, population is unstable
and decreasing.
Bison sparring in Russia
Since 1983, a small reintroduced population lives in the Altai
Mountains. This population suffers from inbreeding depression and
needs the introduction of unrelated animals for "blood refreshment".
In the long term, authorities hope to establish a population of about
1,000 animals in the area. One of the northernmost current populations
European bison lives in the
Vologodskaya Oblast in the Northern
Dvina River valley at about 60°N. It survives without supplementary
winter feeding. Another Russian population lives in the forests around
Desna River on the border between
Russia and Ukraine. The
north-easternmost population lives in
Pleistocene Park south of
Chersky in Siberia, a project to recreate the steppe ecosystem which
began to be altered 10,000 years ago. Five wisents were introduced on
24 April 2011. The wisents were brought to the park from the
Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve
Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve near Moscow. Winter temperatures
often drop below -50 °C. Four of the five bison have
subsequently died due to problems acclimatizing to the low winter
In June 2012, one male and six females were moved to the Danish island
of Bornholm. The plan is to release these animals into the wild after
five years of adjusting to the island's environment. The plan is that
the bison will aid biodiversity by naturally maintaining open
In 2011, three bison were introduced into Alladale Wilderness Reserve
in Scotland. Plans to move more into the reserve were made, but the
project failed due to not being "well thought through". In April
European bison (one male, five females, and two calves)
were released into the wild in the
Bad Berleburg region of
Germany, after 850 years of absence since the species became
extinct in that region.
Plans are being made to reintroduce two herds in Germany and in
the Netherlands in
Oostvaardersplassen Nature Reserve in Flevoland
as well as the Veluwe. In 2007, a bison pilot project in a fenced area
was begun in
Zuid-Kennemerland National Park
Zuid-Kennemerland National Park in the Netherlands.
Because of their limited genetic pool, they are considered highly
vulnerable to illnesses such as foot-and-mouth disease. In March 2016,
a herd was released in the Maashorst Nature Reserve in North Brabant.
Zoos in 30 countries also have quite a few bison involved in
Society for the Protection of the European Bison
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Brasília Zoo may be the species oldest". correiobraziliense.com.br.
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^ "В Беларуси подсчитали количество
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This article incorporates text from the
ARKive fact-file "European
bison" under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License and the GFDL.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Wikispecies has information related to European bison
European bison media at
Bison entry from Walker's Mammals of the World
The Extinction Website – Caucasian
European bison (
The Extinction Website – Carpathian
European bison (
BBC NEWS Reversal fortunes
I. Parnikoza, V. Boreiko, V. Sesin, M. Kaliuzhna History, current
state and perspectives of conservation of
European bison in Ukraine //
Bison Conservation Newsletter Vol 2 (2009) pp: 5-16
Species fact sheet on LHNet database
"Wisent online" from Browsk Forest District in Białowieża National
National Geographic - Rewilding Europe Brings Back the Continent’s
Largest Land Animal
Extant Artiodactyla species
Pronghorn (A. americana)
Okapi (O. johnstoni)
Northern giraffe (G. camelopardalis)
Southern giraffe (G. giraffa)
Reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata)
Masai giraffe (G. tippelskirchi)
Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer (M. anhuiensis)
Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer (M. berezovskii)
Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer (M. chrysogaster)
Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer (M. cupreus)
Black musk deer
Black musk deer (M. fuscus)
Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster)
Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer (M. moschiferus)
Water chevrotain (H. aquaticus)
Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain (M. indica)
Yellow-striped chevrotain (M. kathygre)
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain (M. meminna)
Java mouse-deer (T. javanicus)
Lesser mouse-deer (T. kanchil)
Greater mouse-deer (T. napu)
Philippine mouse-deer (T. nigricans)
Vietnam mouse-deer (T. versicolor)
Williamson's mouse-deer (T. williamsoni)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Indian muntjac (M. muntjak)
Reeves's muntjac (M. reevesi)
Hairy-fronted muntjac (M. crinifrons)
Fea's muntjac (M. feae)
Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac (M. atherodes)
Roosevelt's muntjac (M. rooseveltorum)
Gongshan muntjac (M. gongshanensis)
Giant muntjac (M. vuquangensis)
Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac (M. truongsonensis)
Leaf muntjac (M. putaoensis)
Sumatran muntjac (M. montanus)
Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac (M. puhoatensis)
Tufted deer (E. cephalophus)
Fallow deer (D. dama)
Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer (D. mesopotamica)
Chital (A. axis)
Barasingha (R. duvaucelii)
Eld's deer (P. eldii)
Père David's deer
Père David's deer (E. davidianus)
Hog deer (H. porcinus)
Calamian deer (H. calamianensis)
Bawean deer (H. kuhlii)
Sambar deer (R. unicolor)
Rusa deer (R. timorensis)
Philippine sambar (R. mariannus)
Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)
Red deer (C. elaphus)
Elk (C. canadensis)
Thorold's deer (C. albirostris)
Sika deer (C. nippon)
Moose (A. alces)
Water deer (H. inermis)
Roe deer (C. capreolus)
Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus)
Reindeer (R. tarandus)
Taruca (H. antisensis)
South Andean deer
South Andean deer (H. bisulcus)
Red brocket (M. americana)
Small red brocket
Small red brocket (M. bororo)
Merida brocket (M. bricenii)
Dwarf brocket (M. chunyi)
Gray brocket (M. gouazoubira)
Pygmy brocket (M. nana)
Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket (M. nemorivaga)
Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket (M. pandora)
Little red brocket
Little red brocket (M. rufina)
Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket (M. temama)
Pampas deer (O. bezoarticus)
Marsh deer (B. dichotomus)
Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles)
Southern pudú (P. pudu)
White-tailed deer (O. virginianus)
Mule deer (O. hemionus)
Abbott's duiker (C. spadix)
Aders's duiker (C. adersi)
Bay duiker (C. dorsalis)
Black duiker (C. niger)
Black-fronted duiker (C. nigrifrons)
Brooke's duiker (C. brookei)
Harvey's duiker (C. harveyi)
Jentink's duiker (C. jentinki)
Ogilby's duiker (C. ogilbyi)
Peters's duiker (C. callipygus)
Red-flanked duiker (C. rufilatus)
Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker (C. natalensis)
Ruwenzori duiker (C. rubidis)
Weyns's duiker (C. weynsi)
White-bellied duiker (C. leucogaster)
White-legged duiker (C. crusalbum)
Yellow-backed duiker (C. Sylvicultor)
Zebra duiker (C. zebra)
Blue duiker (P. monticola)
Maxwell's duiker (P. maxwellii)
Walter's duiker (P. walteri)
Common duiker (S. grimmia)
Roan antelope (H. equinus)
Sable antelope (H. niger)
East African oryx
East African oryx (O. beisa)
Scimitar oryx (O. dammah)
Gemsbok (O. gazella)
Arabian oryx (O. leucoryx)
Addax (A. nasomaculatus)
Upemba lechwe (K. anselli)
Waterbuck (K. ellipsiprymnus)
Kob (K. kob)
Lechwe (K. leche)
Nile lechwe (K. megaceros)
Puku (K. vardonii)
Southern reedbuck (R. arundinum)
Mountain reedbuck (R. fulvorufula)
Bohor reedbuck (R. redunca)
Impala (A. melampus)
Grey rhebok (P. capreolus)
Hirola (B. hunteri)
Topi (D. korrigum)
Common tsessebe (D. lunatus)
Bontebok (D. pygargus)
Bangweulu tsessebe (D. superstes)
Hartebeest (A. buselaphus)
Red hartebeest (A. caama)
Lichtenstein's hartebeest (A. lichtensteinii)
Black wildebeest (C. gnou)
Blue wildebeest (C. taurinus)
Tibetan antelope (P. hodgsonii)
Large subfamily listed below
Large subfamily listed below
Large subfamily listed below
Bovidae (subfamily Caprinae)
Barbary sheep (A. lervia)
Takin (B. taxicolor)
Wild goat (C. aegagrus)
Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus)
West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur (C. caucasia)
East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur (C. cylindricornis)
Markhor (C. falconeri)
Alpine ibex (C. ibex)
Nubian ibex (C. nubiana)
Spanish ibex (C. pyrenaica)
Siberian ibex (C. sibirica)
Walia ibex (C. walie)
Japanese serow (C. crispus)
Taiwan serow (C. swinhoei)
Sumatran serow (C. sumatraensis)
Mainland serow (C. milneedwardsii)
Red serow (C. rubidusi)
Himalayan serow (C. thar)
Nilgiri tahr (H. hylocrius)
Arabian tahr (H. jayakari)
Himalayan tahr (H. jemlahicus)
Red goral (N. baileyi)
Long-tailed goral (N. caudatus)
Himalayan goral (N. goral)
Chinese goral (N. griseus)
Mountain goat (O. americanus)
Muskox (O. moschatus)
Argali (O. ammon)
Domestic sheep (O. aries)
Bighorn sheep (O. canadensis)
Dall sheep (O. dalli)
Mouflon (O. musimon)
Snow sheep (O. nivicola)
Urial (O. orientalis)
Bharal (P. nayaur)
Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep (P. schaeferi)
Pyrenean chamois (R. pyrenaica)
Chamois (R. rupicapra)
Bovidae (subfamily Bovinae)
Four-horned antelope (T. quadricornis)
Nilgai (B. tragocamelus)
Water buffalo (B. bubalis)
Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee)
Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis)
Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi)
Tamaraw (B. mindorensis)
Banteng (B. javanicus)
Gaur (B. gaurus)
Gayal (B. frontalis)
Domestic yak (B. grunniens)
Wild yak (B. mutus)
Cattle (B. taurus)
Kouprey (B. sauveli)
Kting voar (P. spiralis)
Saola (P. nghetinhensis)
African buffalo (S. caffer)
American bison (B. bison)
European bison (B. bonasus)
Sitatunga (T. spekeii)
Nyala (T. angasii)
Kéwel (T. scriptus)
Cape bushbuck (T. sylvaticus)
Mountain nyala (T. buxtoni)
Lesser kudu (T. imberbis)
Greater kudu (T. strepsiceros)
Bongo (T. eurycerus)
Common eland (T. oryx)
Giant eland (T. derbianus)
Bovidae (subfamily Antilopinae)
Dibatag (A. clarkei)
Springbok (A. marsupialis)
Blackbuck (A. cervicapra)
Mongalla gazelle (E. albonotata)
Red-fronted gazelle (E. rufifrons)
Thomson's gazelle (E. thomsonii)
Heuglin's gazelle (E. tilonura)
Mountain gazelle (G. gazella)
Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri)
Speke's gazelle (G. spekei)
Dorcas gazelle (G. dorcas)
Chinkara (G. bennettii)
Cuvier's gazelle (G. cuvieri)
Rhim gazelle (G. leptoceros)
Goitered gazelle (G. subgutturosa)
Gerenuk (L. walleri)
Dama gazelle (N. dama)
Grant's gazelle (N. granti)
Soemmerring's gazelle (N. soemmerringii)
Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa)
Goa (P. picticaudata)
Przewalski's gazelle (P. przewalskii)
Tibetan antelope (P. hodgsonii)
Saiga antelope (S. tatarica)
Beira (D. megalotis)
Günther's dik-dik (M. guentheri)
Kirk's dik-dik (M. kirkii)
Silver dik-dik (M. piacentinii)
Salt's dik-dik (M. saltiana)
Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope (N. batesi)
Suni (N. moschatus)
Royal antelope (N. pygmaeus)
Klipspringer (O. oreotragus)
Oribi (O. ourebi)
Steenbok (R. campestris)
Cape grysbok (R. melanotis)
Sharpe's grysbok (R. sharpei)
Buru babirusa (B. babyrussa)
North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa (B. celebensis)
Togian babirusa (B. togeanensis)
Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog (H. meinertzhageni)
Desert warthog (P. aethiopicus)
Common warthog (P. africanus)
Pygmy hog (P. salvania)
Bushpig (P. larvatus)
Red river hog
Red river hog (P. porcus)
Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig (S. ahoenobarbus)
Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig (S. barbatus)
Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus)
Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig (S. cebifrons)
Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig (S. celebensis)
Flores warty pig (S. heureni)
Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig (S. oliveri)
Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig (S. philippensis)
Wild boar (S. scrofa)
Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis)
Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig (S. verrucosus)
White-lipped peccary (T. pecari)
Chacoan peccary (C. wagneri)
Collared peccary (P. tajacu)
Giant peccary (P. maximus)
Llama (L. glama)
Guanaco (L. guanicoe)
Vicuña (V. vicugna)
Alpaca (V. pacos)
Dromedary (C. dromedarius)
Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus)
Bactrian camel (C. ferus)
Whippomorpha (unranked clade)
Hippopotamus (H. amphibius)
Pygmy hippopotamus (C. liberiensis)
Fauna Europaea: 305222