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Chamaesyce Esula Euphorbia Rhizanthium and see below

Diversity

c. 2008 species

Synonyms

Chamaesyce Elaeophorbia Endadenium Monadenium Synadenium Pedilanthus

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
as a small tree: Euphorbia
Euphorbia
dendroides

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). "Euphorbia" is sometimes used in ordinary English to collectively refer to all members of Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
(in deference to the type genus), not just to members of the genus.[1] Some euphorbias are commercially widely available, such as poinsettias at Christmas. Some are commonly cultivated as ornamentals, or collected and highly valued for the aesthetic appearance of their unique floral structures, such as the crown of thorns plant ( Euphorbia
Euphorbia
milii). Euphorbias from the deserts of Southern Africa
Africa
and Madagascar
Madagascar
have evolved physical characteristics and forms similar to cacti of North and South America, so they (along with various other kinds of plants) are often incorrectly referred to as cacti.[2] Some are used as ornamentals in landscaping, because of beautiful or striking overall forms, and drought and heat tolerance.[3][4] Euphorbias range from tiny annual plants to large and long-lived trees.[4] The genus has over[3] or about 2,000 members,[5] making it one of the largest genera of flowering plants.[6][7] It also has one of the largest ranges of chromosome counts, along with Rumex
Rumex
and Senecio.[6] Euphorbia antiquorum
Euphorbia antiquorum
is the type species for the genus Euphorbia.[8] It was first described by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in 1753 in Species Plantarum. The plants share the feature of having a poisonous, milky, white, latex-like sap, and unusual and unique floral structures.[3] The genus may be described by properties of its members' gene sequences, or by the shape and form (morphology) of its heads of flowers. When viewed as a whole, the head of flowers looks like a single flower (a pseudanthium).[3] It has a unique kind of pseudanthium, called a cyathium, where each flower in the head is reduced to its barest essential part needed for sexual reproduction.[3] The individual flowers are either male or female, with the male flowers reduced to only the stamen, and the females to the pistil.[3] These flowers have no sepals, petals, or other parts that are typical of flowers in other kinds of plants.[3] Structures supporting the flower head and beneath have evolved to attract pollinators with nectar, and with shapes and colors that function the way petals and other flower parts do in other flowers. It is the only genus of plants that has all three kinds of photosynthesis, CAM, C3, and C4.[3] The genus can be found all over the world.[3] The forms range from annual plants laying on the ground, to well-developed tall trees.[3] In deserts in Madagascar
Madagascar
and southern Africa, convergent evolution has led to cactus-like forms where the plants occupy the same ecological niche as cacti do in deserts of North and South America.[3] The genus is primarily found in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and the Americas, but also in temperate zones worldwide.[citation needed] Succulent
Succulent
species originate mostly from Africa, the Americas, and Madagascar.[citation needed] A wide range[citation needed] of insular species can be found.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Misidentification as cacti 2 Etymology 3 Description

3.1 Inflorescence and fruit 3.2 Xerophytes and succulents 3.3 Irritants 3.4 Uses

4 Systematics and taxonomy

4.1 Selected species 4.2 Hybrids 4.3 Subgenera

5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Misidentification as cacti[edit]

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
milii

Among laypersons, Euphorbia
Euphorbia
species are among the most commonly confused plant taxa with cacti, especially the stem succulents.[9] Euphorbias secrete a sticky, milky-white fluid with latex, but cacti do not.[9] Individual flowers of euphorbias are usually tiny and nondescript (although structures around the individual flowers may not be), without petals and sepals, unlike cacti, which often have fantastically showy flowers.[9] Euphorbias from desert habitats with growth forms similar to cacti have thorns, which are different from the spines of cacti.[9] Etymology[edit] The common name "spurge" derives from the Middle English/Old French espurge ("to purge"), due to the use of the plant's sap as a purgative. The botanical name Euphorbia
Euphorbia
derives from Euphorbos, the Greek physician of king Juba II
Juba II
of Numidia
Numidia
(52–50 BC – 23 AD), who married the daughter of Anthony and Cleopatra.[10] Juba was a prolific writer on various subjects, including natural history. Euphorbos wrote that one of the cactus-like euphorbias (now called Euphorbia
Euphorbia
obtusifolia ssp. regis-jubae) was used as a powerful laxative.[10] In 12 BC, Juba named this plant after his physician Euphorbos, as Augustus Caesar
Augustus Caesar
had dedicated a statue to the brother of Euphorbos, Antonius Musa, who was the personal physician of Augustus.[10] In 1753, botanist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
assigned the name Euphorbia
Euphorbia
to the entire genus in the physician's honor.[11] Description[edit] The plants are annual or perennial herbs, woody shrubs, or trees with a caustic, poisonous milky latex. The roots are fine or thick and fleshy or tuberous. Many species are more or less succulent, thorny, or unarmed. The main stem and mostly also the side arms of the succulent species are thick and fleshy, 15–91 cm (6–36 in) tall. The deciduous[citation needed] leaves may be opposite, alternate, or in whorls. In succulent species, the leaves are mostly small and short-lived. The stipules are mostly small, partly transformed into spines or glands, or missing. Inflorescence and fruit[edit]

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
false-flower

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Like all members of the family Euphorbiaceae, spurges have unisexual flowers. In Euphorbia, flowers occur in a head, called the cyathium (plural cyathia). Each male or female flower in the cyathium head has only its essential sexual part, in males the stamen, and in females the pistil. The flowers do not have sepals, petals, or nectar to attract pollinators, although other nonflower parts of the plant have an appearance and nectar glands with similar roles. Euphorbias are the only plants known to have this kind of flower head.[12] Nectar
Nectar
glands and nectar that attract pollinators are held in the involucre, a cuplike part below and supporting the cyathium head. (The "involucre" in the Euphorbia
Euphorbia
genus is not to be confused with the "involucre" in Asteraceae family members, which is a collection of bracts called (phyllaries), which surround and encase the unopened flower head, then support the receptacle under it after the flower head opens.) The involucre is above and supported by bract-like modified leaf structures (usually in pairs)[citation needed] called cyathophylls', or cyathial leaves. The cyathophyll often has a superficial appearance of being petals of a flower. Euphorbia
Euphorbia
flowers are tiny, and the variation attracting different pollinators (and the human eye), with different forms and colors occurs, in the cyathium, involucre, cyathophyll, or additional parts such as glands that attached to these. The collection of many flowers may be shaped and arranged to appear collectively as a single individual flower, sometimes called a pseudanthium in the Asteraceae, and also in Euphorbia. The majority of species are monoecious (bearing male and female flowers on the same plant), although some are dioecious with male and female flowers occurring on different plants. It is not unusual for the central cyathia of a cyme to be purely male, and for lateral cyathia to carry both sexes. Sometimes, young plants or those growing under unfavorable conditions are male only, and only produce female flowers in the cyathia with maturity or as growing conditions improve.[citation needed] The female flowers reduced to a single pistil usually split into three parts, often with two stigmas at each tip.[citation needed] Male flowers often have anthers in twos.[citation needed] Nectar
Nectar
glands usually occur in fives,[13] may be as few as one,[13] and may be fused into a "U" shape.[12] The cyathophylls often occur in twos, are leaf-like, and may be showy and brightly coloured and attractive to pollinators, or be reduced to barely visible tiny scales.[citation needed] The fruits are three- or rarely two-compartment capsules, sometimes fleshy, but almost always ripening to a woody container that then splits open, sometimes explosively. The seeds are four-angled, oval, or spherical, and some species have a caruncle.[citation needed] Xerophytes and succulents[edit] In the genus Euphorbia, succulence in the species has often evolved divergently and to differing degrees. Sometimes, it is difficult to decide, and is a question of interpretation, whether or not a species is really succulent or "only" xerophytic. In some cases, especially with geophytes, plants closely related to the succulents are normal herbs. About 850 species are succulent in the strictest sense. If one includes slightly succulent and xerophytic species, this figure rises to about 1000, representing about 45% of all Euphorbia
Euphorbia
species. Irritants[edit] The milky sap of spurges (called "latex") evolved as a deterrent to herbivores. It is white, and transparent when dry, except in E. abdelkuri, where it is yellow. The pressurized sap seeps from the slightest wound and congeals after a few minutes in air. The skin-irritating and caustic effects are largely caused by varying amounts of diterpenes. Triterpenes such as betulin and corresponding esters are other major components of the latex.[14] In contact with mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth), the latex can produce extremely painful inflammation. Therefore, spurges should be handled with caution and kept away from children and pets. Latex
Latex
on skin should be washed off immediately and thoroughly. Congealed latex is insoluble in water, but can be removed with an emulsifier such as milk or soap. A physician should be consulted if inflammation occurs, as severe eye damage including permanent blindness may result from exposure to the sap.[15] When large succulent spurges in a greenhouse are cut, vapours can cause irritation to the eyes and throat several metres away. Precautions, including sufficient ventilation, are required. Uses[edit]

Detail of poinsettia flowers and immature fruits

An old Euphorbia
Euphorbia
hybrid

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
obesa

Several spurges are grown as garden plants, among them poinsettia (E. pulcherrima) and the succulent E. trigona. E. pekinensis (Chinese: 大戟; pinyin: dàjǐ) is used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is regarded as one of the 50 fundamental herbs. Several Euphorbia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), like the spurge hawk-moths (Hyles euphorbiae and Hyles tithymali), as well as the giant leopard moth. Ingenol mebutate, a drug used to treat actinic keratosis, is a diterpenoid found in Euphorbia
Euphorbia
peplus. Euphorbias are often used as hedging plants in many parts of Africa.[16] Systematics and taxonomy[edit] Euphorbia
Euphorbia
corresponds to what was its own former subtribe, the Euphorbiinae.[citation needed] It has over 2000 species.[3] Morphological description using the presence of a cyathium (see section above) is consistent with nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data in testing of about 10% of its members. This testing supports inclusion of formerly other genera as being best placed in this single genus, including Chamaesyce, Monadenium, Pedilanthus, and poinsettia (E. pulcherrima). Genetic tests have shown that similar flower head structures or forms within the genus, might not mean close ancestry within the genus. The genetic data show that within the genus, convergent evolution of inflorescence structures may be from ancestral subunits that are not related. So using morphology within the genus becomes problematic for further subgeneric grouping. As stated on the Euphorbia
Euphorbia
Planetary Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Inventory project webpage[3] -

Previous morphologically based delimitations of subgenera or sections within the genus should not be taken at face value. The genus is in fact rife with striking examples of morphological convergence in cyathial and vegetative features, which justifies a global approach to studying the genus to obtain a proper phylogenetic understanding of the whole group.... The bottom line is that a number of clades have been placed inside or outside of Euphorbia
Euphorbia
at different times... few of the subgeneric circumscriptions hold up under DNA sequence analysis.

According to a 2002 publication on studies of DNA sequence data,[17][18][19] most of the smaller "satellite genera" around the huge genus Euphorbia
Euphorbia
nest deep within the latter. Consequently, these taxa, namely the never generally accepted genus Chamaesyce, as well as the smaller genera Cubanthus,[20] Elaeophorbia, Endadenium, Monadenium, Synadenium, and Pedilanthus
Pedilanthus
were transferred to Euphorbia. The entire subtribe Euphorbiinae
Euphorbiinae
now consists solely of the genus Euphorbia. Selected species[edit] See List of Euphorbia species for complete list.

Euphorbia albomarginata
Euphorbia albomarginata
– rattlesnake weed, white-margined sandmat Euphorbia amygdaloides
Euphorbia amygdaloides
– wood spurge Euphorbia antisyphilitica
Euphorbia antisyphilitica
– candelilla Euphorbia
Euphorbia
backeri Euphorbia balsamifera
Euphorbia balsamifera
– sweet tabaiba (Canary Islands)[21] Euphorbia
Euphorbia
bulbispina Euphorbia canariensis
Euphorbia canariensis
– cardón (Canary Islands)[22] Euphorbia caput-medusae
Euphorbia caput-medusae
- Medusa's head (South Africa) Euphorbia ceratocarpa
Euphorbia ceratocarpa
(Sicily and southern Italy) Euphorbia characias
Euphorbia characias
- Mediterranean spurge Euphorbia cotinifolia
Euphorbia cotinifolia
- copper tree Euphorbia cyparissias
Euphorbia cyparissias
– cypress spurge Euphorbia
Euphorbia
decidua Euphorbia dendroides
Euphorbia dendroides
- tree spurge Euphorbia epithymoides
Euphorbia epithymoides
– cushion spurge Euphorbia esula
Euphorbia esula
– leafy spurge Euphorbia
Euphorbia
franckiana Euphorbia fulgens
Euphorbia fulgens
– scarlet plume Euphorbia
Euphorbia
grandicornis – Euphorbia
Euphorbia
with large horn Euphorbia grantii
Euphorbia grantii
– African milk bush Euphorbia
Euphorbia
gregersenii Euphorbia
Euphorbia
griffithii Euphorbia helioscopia
Euphorbia helioscopia
– sun spurge Euphorbia heterophylla
Euphorbia heterophylla
– painted euphorbia, desert poinsettia, fireplant, paint leaf, kaliko Euphorbia
Euphorbia
hirta Euphorbia horrida
Euphorbia horrida
- African milk barrel Euphorbia ingens
Euphorbia ingens
- candelabra tree Euphorbia
Euphorbia
labatii Euphorbia lactea
Euphorbia lactea
– mottled spurge, frilled fan, elkhorn Euphorbia lathyris
Euphorbia lathyris
– caper spurge, paper spurge, gopher spurge, gopher plant, mole plant Euphorbia leuconeura
Euphorbia leuconeura
Madagascar
Madagascar
jewel Euphorbia maculata
Euphorbia maculata
– spotted spurge, prostrate spurge Euphorbia marginata
Euphorbia marginata
– snow on the mountain Euphorbia
Euphorbia
mammillaris Euphorbia
Euphorbia
maritae Euphorbia milii
Euphorbia milii
– crown-of-thorns, Christ plant Euphorbia myrsinites
Euphorbia myrsinites
– myrtle spurge, creeping spurge, donkey tail Euphorbia
Euphorbia
obesa Euphorbia paralias
Euphorbia paralias
– sea spurge Euphorbia pekinensis
Euphorbia pekinensis
- Peking spurge Euphorbia peplis
Euphorbia peplis
– purple spurge Euphorbia peplus
Euphorbia peplus
– petty spurge Euphorbia polychroma
Euphorbia polychroma
- bonfire Euphorbia psammogeton – sand spurge Euphorbia pulcherrima
Euphorbia pulcherrima
– poinsettia, Mexican flame leaf, Christmas star, winter rose, noche buena, lalupatae, pascua, Atatürk çiçeği (Turkish) Euphorbia
Euphorbia
purpurea Euphorbia resinifera
Euphorbia resinifera
– resin spurge Euphorbia rigida
Euphorbia rigida
– gopher spurge, upright myrtle spurge Euphorbia serrata
Euphorbia serrata
– serrated spurge, sawtooth spurge Euphorbia tirucalli
Euphorbia tirucalli
– Indian tree spurge, milk bush, pencil tree, firestick Euphorbia tithymaloides
Euphorbia tithymaloides
– devil's backbone, redbird cactus, cimora misha (Peru) Euphorbia trigona
Euphorbia trigona
– African milk tree, cathedral cactus, Abyssinian euphorbia Euphorbia
Euphorbia
virosa

Hybrids[edit] Euphorbia
Euphorbia
has been extensively hybridised for garden use, with many cultivars available commercially. Moreover some hybrid plants have been found growing in the wild, for instance E. × martini Rouy,[23] a cross of E. amygdaloides × E. characias subsp. characias, found in southern France. Subgenera[edit]

Simplified diagram of relations in subtribe Euphorbiinae

The genus Euphorbia
Euphorbia
is one of the largest and most complex genera of flowering plants, and several botanists have made unsuccessful attempts to subdivide the genus into numerous smaller genera. According to the recent phylogenetic studies,[17][18][19] Euphorbia can be divided into four subgenera, each containing several not yet sufficiently studied sections and groups. Of these, Esula is the most basal. Chamaesyce
Chamaesyce
and Euphorbia
Euphorbia
are probably sister taxa, but very closely related to Rhizanthium. Extensive xeromorph adaptations in all probability evolved several times; it is not known if the common ancestor of the cactus-like Rhizanthium and Euphorbia
Euphorbia
lineages was xeromorphic—in which case a more normal morphology would have re-evolved namely in Chamaesyce—or whether extensive xeromorphism is entirely polyphyletic even to the level of the subgenera.

Esula

Wood Spurge Euphorbia
Euphorbia
amygdaloides

Cypress Spurge Euphorbia
Euphorbia
cyparissias

Leafy Spurge Euphorbia
Euphorbia
esula

Myrtle Spurge Euphorbia
Euphorbia
myrsinites

Rhizanthium

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
ferox

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
flanaganii

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
meloformis ssp. valida

Euphorbia obesa
Euphorbia obesa
ssp. symmetrica

Chamaesyce

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
celastroides

Painted euphorbia Euphorbia
Euphorbia
heterophylla

Poinsettia Euphorbia
Euphorbia
pulcherrima

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
rivae

Euphorbia

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
actinoclada

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
attastoma var. attastoma

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
confinalis ssp. rhodesica

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
lupulina

Euphorbia
Euphorbia
neriifolia

References[edit]

^ Euphorbia, Merriam Webster Dictionary ^ Cacti
Cacti
or Not? Many plants look like cacti but are not, CactiGuide.com ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Project Page Introduction, Euphorbia Planetary Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Inventory project, [1] ^ a b Plant
Plant
Guide, Genus: Spurge - Euphorbia, Fine Gardening ^ "WCSP". World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families. Retrieved 2011-04-16.  ^ a b Stebbins, G. L.; Hoogland, R. D. (1976). "Species diversity, ecology and evolution in a primitive Angiosperm genus:Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae)". Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 125 (3): 139. doi:10.1007/BF00986147.  ^ Euphorbia
Euphorbia
Botany Lesson, Garden Web ^ Carter, S. (2002). "Euphorbia". In Urs Eggli. Dicotyledons. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent
Succulent
Plants. 5. Springer. p. 102. ISBN 978-3-540-41966-2.  ^ a b c d What's the Difference Between Cacti
Cacti
and Succulents?, About.com ^ a b c Dale, Nancy (1986). Flowering Plants of the Santa Monica Mountains. California Native Plant
Plant
Society. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-88496-239-7.  ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1753). "Euphorbia". Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
(1st ed.). p. 450.  ^ a b About the genus Euphorbia, Euphorbia
Euphorbia
Planetary Biodiversity Inventory project, [2] ^ a b Euphorbia
Euphorbia
"Flowers," an introduction to the amazing Cyathia, Geoff Stein, 4-22-2011, Dave's Garden, [3] ^ Research into Euphorbia
Euphorbia
latex and irritant ingredients. Collected by Dr. Richard J. Hodgkiss. Retrieved November 2, 2013. ^ Eke, Tom; Al-Husainy, Sahar; Raynor, Mathew K. (2000). "The spectrum of ocular inflammation caused by Euphorbia
Euphorbia
plant sap" (PDF). Arch Ophthalmol. 118 (1): 13–16. doi:10.1001/archopht.118.1.13. PMID 10636407.  ^ Adamson, J. (2011). Born Free: The Full Story. Pan Macmillan. p. 23. ISBN 9780330536745. Retrieved 2014-10-06.  ^ a b Steinmann, Victor W.; Porter, J. Mark (2002). "Phylogenetic relationships in Euphorbieae
Euphorbieae
(Euphorbiaceae) based on ITS and ndhF sequence data". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 89 (4): 453–490. JSTOR 3298591.  ^ a b Steinmann, Victor W. (2003). "The submersion of Pedilanthus
Pedilanthus
into Euphorbia
Euphorbia
(Euphorbiaceae)" (PDF). Acta Botanica Mexicana. 65: 45–50. [permanent dead link] ^ a b Bruyns, Peter V.; Mapaya, Ruvimbo J.; Hedderson, Terrence J. (2006). "A new subgeneric classification for Euphorbia
Euphorbia
(Euphorbiaceae) in southern Africa
Africa
based on ITS and psbA-trnH sequence data". Taxon. 55 (2): 397–420. doi:10.2307/25065587.  ^ Steinmann, Víctor W.; Ee, Benjamin van; Berry, Paul E.; Gutiérrez, Jorge (2007). "The systematic position of Cubanthus
Cubanthus
and other shrubby endemic species of Euphorbia
Euphorbia
(Euphorbiaceae) in Cuba". Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid. 64 (2): 123–133. doi:10.3989/ajbm.2007.v64.i2.167.  ^ E. balsamifera. Flora de Canarias. ^ E. canariensis. Flora de Canarias. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families (WCSP): Euphorbia
Euphorbia
× martini Rouy, Ill. Pl. Eur. 13: 107 (1900)". Retrieved 26 February 2018. 

Further reading[edit]

Buddensiek, Volker (2005): Succulent
Succulent
Euphorbia
Euphorbia
plus (CD-ROM). Volker Buddensiek Verlag. Carter, Susan (1982): New Succulent
Succulent
Spiny Euphorbias from East Africa Carter, Susan & Eggli, Urs (1997): The CITES Checklist of Succulent
Succulent
Euphorbia
Euphorbia
Taxa
Taxa
(Euphorbiaceae) Carter, Susan & Smith, A. L. (1988): Flora of Tropical
Tropical
East Africa, Euphorbiaceae Noltee, Frans (2001): Succulents in the wild and in cultivation, Part 2 Euphorbia
Euphorbia
to Juttadinteria (CD-ROM) Eggli, Urs (ed.) (2002): Sukkulentenlexikon (Vol. 2: Zweikeimblättrige Pflanzen (Dicotyledonen)). Eugen Ulmer Verlag. Gómez-Valcárcel, M.; Fuentes-Páez, G. (2016). "Euphorbia grandicornis Sap Keratouveitis: A Case Report". Case Reports in Ophthalmology. Karger Open access. 7 (1): 125–129. doi:10.1159/000444438.  Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexicopublisher=Texas Tech University Press. Lubbock. ISBN 0-89672-614-2.  Pritchard, Albert (2003): Introduction to the Euphorbiaceae ISBN 978-88-900511-4-2. Schwartz, Herman (ed.) (1983): The Euphorbia
Euphorbia
Journal Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California, USA Singh, Meena (1994): Succulent
Succulent
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
of India. Mrs. Meena Singh, A-162 Sector 40, NOIDA, New Delhi, India. Turner, Roger (1995): Euphorbias—A Gardeners' Guide. Batsford, England. Aditya Soumen (2010, April) A revision of geophytic euphorbia species from India. Euphorbia
Euphorbia
World journal. Vol.6-No.1, ISSN 1746-5397 Pritchard albert[2010] "Monadenium" cactus & co. ISBN 978-88-95018-02-7

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Euphorbia.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Euphorbia

 "Euphorbia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9 (11th ed.). 1911.  International Euphorbia
Euphorbia
Society Euphorbia Succulent
Succulent
Euphorbias A selection of important / new literature The Euphorbia
Euphorbia
Family ITIS IPNI Flora Zambesiaca: Euphorbia (in French) Institut de l’Information Scientifique et Technique

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q146567 APDB: 190670 EoL: 20197 EPPO: 1EPHG FloraBase: 21691 FoC: 112355 Fossilworks: 319873 GBIF: 3063749 GRIN: 4515 iNaturalist: 51822 IPNI: 15393-1 ITIS: 28032 NCBI: 3990 PLANTS: EUPHO Tropicos: 40007100 VASCAN:

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