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An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by a common religious background. Ethnoreligious communities define their ethnic identity neither by ancestral heritage nor simply by religious affiliation but often through a combination of both. An ethnoreligious group has a shared history and a cultural tradition of its own. In many cases ethnoreligious groups are ethno-cultural groups with a traditional ethnic religion; in other cases ethnoreligious groups begin as communities united by a common faith which through endogamy developed cultural and ancestral ties.[1][2] Some ethnoreligious groups' identities are reinforced by the experience of living within a larger community as a distinct minority. Ethnoreligious groups can be tied to ethnic nationalism if the ethnoreligious group possesses a historical base in a specific region.[3] In many ethnoreligious groups emphasis is placed upon religious endogamy, and the concurrent discouragement of interfaith marriages or intercourse, as a means of preserving the stability and historical longevity of the community and culture.

Contents

1 Legal concept

1.1 Australia 1.2 United Kingdom

2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

Legal concept[edit] Australia[edit] In Australian law, the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977
Anti-Discrimination Act 1977
of New South Wales defines "race" to include "ethnic, ethno-religious or national origin".[4] The reference to "ethno-religious" was added by the Anti-Discrimination (Amendment) Act 1994 (NSW).[5] John Hannaford, the NSW Attorney-General at the time, explained, "The effect of the latter amendment is to clarify that ethno-religious groups, such as Jews, Muslims and Sikhs, have access to the racial vilification and discrimination provisions of the Act.... extensions of the Anti-Discrimination Act to ethno-religious groups will not extend to discrimination on the ground of religion".[6][7] The definition of "race" in Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 (Tas) likewise includes "ethnic, ethno-religious or national origin".[8] However, unlike the NSW Act, it also prohibits discrimination on the grounds of "religious belief or affiliation" or "religious activity".[9] United Kingdom[edit] Main article: Mandla v Dowell-Lee In the United Kingdom the landmark legal case Mandla v Dowell-Lee placed a legal definition on ethnic groups with religious ties, which, in turn, has paved the way for the definition of an ethnoreligious[10] group. Both Jews[11][12][13] and Sikhs[14][15][16] were determined to be considered ethnoreligious groups under the Anti-Discrimination (Amendment) Act 1994 (see above). The Anti-Discrimination (Amendment) Act 1994 made reference to Mandla v Dowell-Lee, which defined ethnic groups as:

a long shared history, of which the group is conscious as distinguishing it from other groups, and the memory of which it keeps alive; a cultural tradition of its own, including family and social customs and manners, often but not necessarily associated with religious observance. In addition to those two essential characteristics the following characteristics are, in my opinion, relevant: either a common geographical origin, or descent from a small number of common ancestors; a common language, not necessarily peculiar to the group; a common literature peculiar to the group; a common religion different from that of neighbouring groups or from the general community surrounding it; being a minority or being an oppressed or dominant group within a larger community. For example, a conquered people (say, the inhabitants of England shortly after the Norman conquest) and their conquerors might both be ethnic groups

The significance of the case was that groups like Sikhs and Jews
Jews
could now be protected under the Race Relations Act 1976.[15] Examples[edit] The term "ethnoreligious" has been applied by at least one reliable source to each of the following groups

Ethnic fusion Ethnic religion Religious ethnicity

Closed

Druze[17] Mandaeans Yazidis[18] Zoroastrians, including Parsis[19]

Non-proselytizing

Sikh[6][7] Serer[20][21] Jews[11][12][13] Crimean Karaites[22] Samaritans[23] Amish[17]

Proselytizing

Copts[24] Mormons[25][2] Hutterites[26] Alawites[27] Mennonites[28] Waldensians[29] Shabaks

Afar people[30] Armenians[27] Assyrians[31] Balinese[32] Croats[33] Gorani[34] Greeks[1][2] Habesha[30] Hazaras[35] Hui[36] Lemba[citation needed] Mahar[37] Malays[38][39] Maratha Pashtuns[35] Rohingya Serbs[33] Uyghurs[40][41] Sri Lankan Moors Syrian Turkmens[27] Bosniaks[33] Sinhalese people Russians[1][2]

Christian Arabs[42] Goan Catholics Irish Catholics[1][2] Ulster Protestants Antiochian Greek Christians Maronites[43] Syriac Orthodox Hyderabadi Muslims Mangalorean Catholics Kashmiri Hindus Saint Thomas Christians Lingayat

See also[edit]

Religious assimilation Folk religion Religious segregation Symbolic ethnicity

References[edit]

^ a b c d Yang and Ebaugh, p.369: "Andrew Greeley (1971) identified three types of relationships in the United States: some religious people who do not hold an ethnic identity; some people who have an ethnic identity but are not religious; and cases in which religion and ethnicity are intertwined. Phillip Hammond and Kee Warner (1993), following Harold J. Abramson (1973), further explicated the “intertwining relationships” into a typology. First is “ethnic fusion,” where religion is the foundation of ethnicity, or, ethnicity equals religion, such as in the case of the Amish
Amish
and Jews. The second pattern is that of “ethnic religion,” where religion is one of several foundations of ethnicity. The Greek or Russian Orthodox and the Dutch Reformed are examples of this type. In this pattern, ethnic identification can be claimed without claiming the religious identification but the reverse is rare. The third form, “religious ethnicity,” occurs where an ethnic group is linked to a religious tradition that is shared by other ethnic groups. The Irish, Italian, and Polish Catholics are such cases. In this pattern, religious identification can be claimed without claiming ethnic identification. Hammond and Warner also suggest that the relationship of religion and ethnicity is strongest in “ethnic fusion” and least strong in “religious ethnicity.” Recently, some scholars have argued that even Jews’ religion and culture (ethnicity) can be distinguished from each other and are separable (Chervyakov, Gitelman, and Shapiro 1997; Gans 1994)." ^ a b c d e Hammond and Warner, p.59: "1. Religion
Religion
is the major foundation of ethnicity, examples include the Amish, Hutterites, Jews, and Mormons. Ethnicity in this pattern, so to speak, equals religion, and if the religious identity is denied, so is the ethnic identity. [Footnote: In actuality, of course, there can be exceptions, as the labels "jack Mormon," "banned Amish," or "cultural Jew" suggest.] Let us call this pattern "ethnic fusion." 2. Religion
Religion
may be one of several foundations of ethnicity, the others commonly being language and territorial origin; examples are the Greek or Russian Orthodox and the Dutch Reformed. Ethnicity in this pattern extends beyond religion in the sense that ethnic identification can be claimed without claiming the religious identification, but the reverse is rare. Let us call this pattern "ethnic religion." 3. An ethnic group may be linked to a religious tradition, but other ethnic groups will be linked to it, too. Examples include Irish, Italian, and Polish Catholics; Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish Lutherans. Religion
Religion
in this pattern extends beyond ethnicity, reversing the previous pattern, and religious identification can be claimed without claiming the ethnic identification. Let us call this pattern "religious ethnicity"" ^ http://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/84714/1/zef_dp72.pdf ^ " Anti-Discrimination Act 1977
Anti-Discrimination Act 1977
Section 4".  ^ Cunneen, Chris; David Fraser; Stephen Tomsen (1997). Faces of hate: hate crime in Australia. Hawkins Press. p. 223. ISBN 1-876067-05-5. Retrieved 2010-02-14.  ^ a b "Anti-Discrimination (Amendment) Bill: Second Reading". Parliament of New South Wales. 2007-05-12. Retrieved 14 February 2010.  ^ a b Gareth Griffith (February 2006). Sedition, Incitement and Vilification: Issues in the Current Debate (PDF). NSW Parliamentary Library Research Service. p. 52. ISBN 0-7313-1792-0. Retrieved 14 February 2010.  ^ "ANTI-DISCRIMINATION ACT 1998 – SECT 3". Tasmanian Consolidated Acts. AustLII. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2010.  ^ "ANTI-DISCRIMINATION ACT 1998 – SECT 16". Tasmanian Consolidated Acts. AustLII. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2010.  ^ policypaperdraft. Policy.hu. Retrieved on 2010-12-23. ^ a b "Are Jews
Jews
a Religious Group or an Ethnic Group?" (PDF). Institute for Curriculum Services. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  ^ a b Ethnic minorities in English law – Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved on 2010-12-23. ^ a b Edgar Litt (1961). "Jewish Ethno-Religious Involvement and Political Liberalism". Social Forces. 39 (4): 328–332. doi:10.2307/2573430. JSTOR 2573430.  ^ Immigrant Sub-National Ethnicity: Bengali-Hindus and Punjabi-Sikhs in the San Francisco Bay Area. Allacademic.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-23. ^ a b http://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Mandla.pdf ^ Ethno-Religious Strife Closes Bridge of Hope Center – Gospel for Asia. Gfa.org (2008-08-05). Retrieved on 2010-12-23. ^ a b Simon Harrison (2006). Fracturing Resemblances: Identity and Mimetic Conflict in Melanesia and the West. Berghahn Books. pp. 121–. ISBN 978-1-57181-680-1.  ^ Ethno-Religious Communities Identity markers: "The Yazidism is a unique phenomenon, one of the most illustrative examples of ethno-religious identity, which is based on a religion exclusively specific for the Yazidis
Yazidis
and called Sharfadin by them." - Victoria Arakelova (Yerevan State University) ^ Paul R. Ehrlich; Anne H. Ehrlich (30 June 2008). The Dominant Animal: Human Evolution and the Environment. Island Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-1-59726-096-1.  ^ Villalón, Leonardo A., Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal: Disciples and Citizens in Fatick, p. 62, Cambridge University Press (2006), ISBN 9780521032322 [1] ^ Diedrich Westermann, Edwin William Smith, Cyril Daryll Forde, International African Institute, International Institute of African Languages and Cultures, Project Muse, JSTOR
JSTOR
(Organization), "Africa: journal of the International African Institute, Volume 63", pp 86-96, 270-1, Edinburgh University Press for the International African Institute, 1993 ^ Minahan 2002, p. 914 ^ Ireton 2003 ^ Minahan 2002, p. 467 ^ "Part I - Mormons
Mormons
as an Ethno-Religious Group - University Publishing Online". ebooks.cambridge.org. Retrieved 2016-01-24.  ^ Janzen, Rod; Stanton, Max (2010-09-01). The Hutterites in North America. JHU Press. ISBN 9780801899256.  ^ a b c Thomas 2006 ^ Thiessen, Janis Lee (2013-06-17). Manufacturing Mennonites: Work and Religion
Religion
in Post-War Manitoba. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9781442660595.  ^ Minahan 2002, p. 2030 ^ a b Desplat, Patrick; Østebø, Terje (2013-04-18). Muslim Ethiopia: The Christian Legacy, Identity Politics, and Islamic Reformism. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137322081.  ^ Minahan 2002, p. 209 ^ Nothaft, C. Philipp E. (2014-05-23). Between Harmony and Discrimination: Negotiating Religious Identities within Majority-Minority Relationships in Bali and Lombok. BRILL. ISBN 9789004271494.  ^ a b c Marty, Martin E. (1997). Religion, Ethnicity, and Self-Identity: Nations in Turmoil. University Press of New England. ISBN 0-87451-815-6. [...] the three ethnoreligious groups that have played the roles of the protagonists in the bloody tragedy that has unfolded in the former Yugoslavia: the Christian Orthodox Serbs, the Roman Catholic Croats, and the Muslim Slavs of Bosnia.  ^ Zemon, Rubin. "The development of identities among the Muslim population in the Balkans in an era of globalization and Europeanization: Cases of Torbeshi, Gorani and Pomaci".  ^ a b Punjani, Shahid (August 2002). "How Ethno-Religious Identity Influences the Living Conditions of Hazara and Pashtun Refugees in Peshawar, Pakistan" (PDF). MIT.  ^ Minahan 2002, p. 744 ^ Ponna Wignaraja; Akmal Hussain, eds. (1989). The Challenge in South Asia: Development, Democracy and Regional Cooperation. United Nations University Press. p. 278.  ^ Timothy P. Barnar (2004). Contesting Malayness: Malay identity across boundaries. Singapore: Singapore University press. p. 7. ISBN 9971-69-279-1.  ^ Frith, T. (September 1, 2000). "Ethno-Religious Identity and Urban Malays in Malaysia" (fee required). Asian Ethnicity. Routledge. 1 (2): 117–129. doi:10.1080/713611705. Retrieved 2008-02-23.  ^ Mahesh Ranjan Debata (2007). China's Minorities: Ethnic-religious Separatism in Xinjiang. Pentagon Press. p. 56.  ^ Jack Barbalet, Adam Possamai, Bryan S. Turner, eds. (2013). Religion and the State: A Comparative Sociology. Anthem Press. p. 134. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ James Peoples, Garrick Bailey (2008). Cengage Advantage Books: Humanity: An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. Cengage Learning. p. 391. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Minahan 2002, p. 1194

Bibliography[edit]

Sean Ireton (2003). "The Samaritans
Samaritans
– A Jewish Sect in Israel: Strategies for Survival of an Ethno-religious Minority in the Twenty First Century". Anthrobase. Retrieved 2009-12-30.  Barry, David M. (2012), "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND ETHNICITY: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE", Popular Perceptions of the Relationship Between Religious and Ethnic Identities: A Comparative Study of Ethnodoxy in Contemporary Russia and Beyond, Western Michigan University, pp. 6–19  Levey, Geoffrey Brahm. "Toward a Theory of Disproportionate American Jewish Liberalism" (PDF).  Fox, Jonathan (2002). "Defining Religion's Role in Society". Ethnoreligious Conflict in the Late Twentieth Century: A General Theory. Lexington Books. pp. 11–30. ISBN 978-0-7391-0418-7.  Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32384-4.  Thomas, Martin (October 2006). "Crisis management in colonial states: Intelligence and counter-insurgency in Morocco and Syria after the First World War". Intelligence & National Security. 21 (5).  J. Alan Winter (March 1996). "Symbolic Ethnicity or Religion
Religion
Among Jews
Jews
in the United States: A Test of Gansian Hypotheses". Review of Religious Research. 37 (3).  Yang, F. and Ebaugh, H. R. (2001), Religion
Religion
and Ethnicity Among New Immigrants: The Impact of Majority/Minority Status in Home and Host Countries. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40: 367–378. doi:10.1111/0021-8294.00063 Phillip E. Hammond and Kee Warner, Religion
Religion
and Ethnicity in Late-Twentieth-Century America, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social, Vol. 527, Religion
Religion
in the Nineties (May, 1993), pp. 55–66

External links[edit] Media related to Ethnoreligious groups at Wikimedia Commons

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Ethnicity

Related concepts

Clan Ethnic group

Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group

Indigenous peoples Ingroups and outgroups Meta-ethnicity Metroethnicity Minority group Monoethnicity Nation Nationality Panethnicity Polyethnicity Population Race Symbolic ethnicity Tribe

Ethnology

Anthropology Ethnic studies Ethnoarchaeology Ethnobiology

Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology

Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography

Autoethnography Clinical Critical Cyber- Netnography Online Person-centered Salvage Transidioethnography Video

Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy

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Asia

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Identity and ethnogenesis

Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic flag Ethnic option Ethnic origin Ethnic religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mythomoteur Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat

Multiethnic society

Consociationalism Diaspora politics Dominant minority Ethnic democracy Ethnic enclave Ethnic interest group Ethnic majority Ethnic media Ethnic pornography Ethnic theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

Ethnic bioweapon Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnic nationalism Ethnic nepotism Ethnic penalty Ethnic slur Ethnic stereotype Ethnic violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist mo

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