In mathematics education, ethnomathematics is the study of the relationship between mathematics and culture.[1] Often associated with "cultures without written expression",[2] it may also be defined as "the mathematics which is practised among identifiable cultural groups".[3] It refers to a broad cluster of ideas ranging from distinct numerical and mathematical systems to multicultural mathematics education. The goal of ethnomathematics is to contribute both to the understanding of culture and the understanding of mathematics, and mainly to lead to an appreciation of the connections between the two. Contents 1 The development and meaning of "ethnomathematics" 2 Areas 2.1 Numerals and naming systems 2.1.1 Numerals 2.1.2 Names for numbers 2.1.2.1 English 2.1.2.2 German 2.1.2.3 French 2.1.2.4 Mesopotamia 2.1.2.5 West Africa 2.1.3 Finger counting 2.2 The history of mathematics 2.2.1 Some examples and major contributors 2.3 The philosophy and cultural nature of mathematics 2.4 Political math 2.4.1 Some examples and major contributors 2.5 The mathematics of different cultures 2.5.1 Some examples and major contributors
2.5.2 Games of skill
2.5.3
2.6
2.6.1 Examples 3 Criticism 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links The development and meaning of "ethnomathematics"[edit] The term "ethnomathematics" was introduced by the Brazilian educator and mathematician Ubiratan D'Ambrosio in 1977 during a presentation for the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Since D'Ambrosio put forth the term, people - D'Ambrosio included - have struggled with its meaning ("An etymological abuse leads me to use the words, respectively, ethno and mathema for their categories of analysis and tics from (from techne)".[4]). The following is a sampling of some of the definitions of ethnomathematics proposed between 1985 and 2006: "The mathematics which is practiced among identifiable cultural groups such as national-tribe societies, labour groups, children of certain age brackets and professional classes".[5] "The mathematics implicit in each practice".[6] "The study of mathematical ideas of a non-literate culture".[7] "The codification which allows a cultural group to describe, manage and understand reality".[8] "Mathematics…is conceived as a cultural product which has developed as a result of various activities".[9] "The study and presentation of mathematical ideas of traditional peoples".[10] "Any form of cultural knowledge or social activity characteristic of a social group and/or cultural group that can be recognized by other groups such as Western anthropologists, but not necessarily by the group of origin, as mathematical knowledge or mathematical activity".[11] "The mathematics of cultural practice".[12] "The investigation of the traditions, practices and mathematical concepts of a subordinated social group".[13] "I have been using the word ethnomathematics as modes, styles, and techniques (tics) of explanation, of understanding, and of coping with the natural and cultural environment (mathema) in distinct cultural systems (ethnos)".[14] "What is the difference between ethnomathematics and the general practice of creating a mathematical model of a cultural phenomenon (e.g., the "mathematical anthropology" of Paul Kay [1971] and others)? The essential issue is the relation between intentionality and epistemological status. A single drop of water issuing from a watering can, for example, can be modeled mathematically, but we would not attribute knowledge of that mathematics to the average gardener. Estimating the increase in seeds required for an increased garden plot, on the other hand, would qualify".[15] Areas[edit]
Numerals and naming systems[edit]
Numerals[edit]
Some of the systems for representing numbers in previous and present
cultures are well known.
Anti-racist mathematics
Cultural imperialism
Culturally relevant teaching
Critical pedagogy
Ethnocomputing
Informal mathematics
Multiculturalism
Pedagogy of the Oppressed
Postmodernity
Social progressivism
Teaching for social justice
References[edit] ^ (D'Ambrosio, 1999, 146) D'Ambrosio. (1999). Literacy, Matheracy, and
Technoracy: A Trivium for Today. Mathematical Thinking and Learning
1(2), 131-153.
^ (D'Ambrosio, 1997, may paraphrases Ascher 1986)
^ (Powell and Frankenstein, 1997 quoting D'Ambrosio) Powell, Arthur
B., and Marilyn Frankenstein (eds.) (1997). Ethnomathematics:
Challenging
Further reading[edit] This section includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. (May 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Ascher, Marcia (1991). Ethnomathematics: A Multicultural View of
Mathematical Ideas Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole.
ISBN 0-412-98941-7
D'Ambrosio. (1985).
External links[edit]
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