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The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
( Canis
Canis
simensis) is a canid native to the Ethiopian Highlands. It is similar to the coyote in size and build, and is distinguished by its long and narrow skull, and its red and white fur.[5] Unlike most large canids, which are widespread, generalist feeders, the Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
is a highly specialised feeder of Afroalpine
Afroalpine
rodents with very specific habitat requirements.[6] It is one of the world's rarest canids, and Africa's most endangered carnivore.[7] The species' current range is limited to seven isolated mountain ranges at altitudes of 3,000–4,500 m, with the overall adult population estimated at 360–440 individuals in 2011, more than half of them in the Bale Mountains.[2] The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
is listed as endangered by the IUCN, on account of its small numbers and fragmented range. Threats include increasing pressure from expanding human populations, resulting in habitat degradation through overgrazing, and disease transference and interbreeding from free-ranging dogs. Its conservation is headed by Oxford University's Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme, which seeks to protect wolves through vaccination and community outreach programs.[2]

Contents

1 Naming

1.1 Indigenous names

2 Historical account 3 Taxonomy and evolution

3.1 Subspecies

4 Description 5 Behaviour

5.1 Social and territorial behaviours 5.2 Reproduction and development 5.3 Hunting behaviours

6 Ecology

6.1 Habitat 6.2 Diet

7 Range and populations 8 Threats

8.1 Disease 8.2 Habitat
Habitat
loss 8.3 Population fragmentation 8.4 Encroachment within protected areas 8.5 Overgrazing 8.6 Human persecution and disturbance 8.7 Hybridisation with dogs 8.8 Competition with African wolves

9 Conservation 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Naming[edit] Alternative English names for the Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
include Abyssinian wolf, Simien fox, Simien jackal, Ethiopian jackal, red fox, red jackal,[8] Abyssinian dog[9] and cuberow.[10] Indigenous names[edit]

Indigenous names for Canis
Canis
simensis[8][11]

Linguistic group or area Indigenous name Literal translation

Amharic ቀይ ቀበሮ (Ky kebero) ዋልጌ (Walgie) Red jackal Trickster

Oromo Jeedala fardaa Arouayé Horse's jackal[a] Reddish

Historical account[edit] The earliest written reference to the species comes from Solinus's Collectanea rerum memorabilium from the third century AD:[7][12][b]

Rüppell's depiction of the species (1835).

Original Translation

Lupos Ethiopia mittit, cervice iubatos et tanto varios ut nullum eis colorem dicunt abesse. Ethiopicis lupis proprium est, quod in saliendo ita nisus habent alitis, ut non magis proficient cursu quam meatu. Homines tamen numquam impetunt. Bruma comati sunt, aestate nudi. Ethiopes eos vocant theas. Ethiopia produces wolves with manes, so diversely coloured, men say, that no hue is lacking. A characteristic of Ethiopian wolves is that they leap so high that they seem to have wings, going further than they would by running. They never attack men, however. In winter, they grow long hair; in summer, they are hairless. The Ethiopians call them theas.

Mounted specimen (1902), one of the first post-1835 specimens to reach Europe

The species was first scientifically described in 1835 by Eduard Rüppell,[14] who provided a skull for the British Museum.[10][15] European writers traveling in Ethiopia during the mid-19th century (then called Abyssinia) wrote that the animal's skin was never worn by natives, as it was popularly believed that the wearer would die should any wolf hairs enter an open wound,[16] while Charles Darwin hypothesised that the species gave rise to greyhounds.[17][c] Since then, it was scarcely heard of in Europe up until the early 20th century, when several skins were shipped to England by Major Percy Horace Gordon Powell-Cotton during his travels in Abyssinia.[10][15] The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
was recognised as requiring protection in 1938, and received it in 1974. The first in-depth studies on the species occurred in the 1980s with the onset of the American-sponsored Bale Mountains Research Project. Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
populations in the Bale Mountains National Park were negatively affected by the political unrest of the Ethiopian Civil War, though the critical state of the species was revealed during the early 1990s after a combination of shooting and a severe rabies epidemic decimated most packs studied in the Web Valley and Sanetti Plateau. In response, the IUCN
IUCN
reclassified the species from endangered to critically endangered in 1994. The IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group advocated a three-front strategy of education, wolf population monitoring, and rabies control in domestic dogs. The establishment of the Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme in Bale soon followed in 1995 by Oxford University, in conjunction with the Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority (EWCA).[7] Soon after, a further wolf population was discovered in the Central Highlands. Elsewhere, information on Ethiopian wolves remained scarce; although first described in 1835 as living in the Simien Mountains, the paucity of information stemming from that area indicated that the species was likely declining there, while reports from the Gojjam plateau were a century out of date. Wolves were recorded in the Arsi Mountains since the early 20th century, and in the Bale Mountains
Bale Mountains
in the late 1950s. The status of the Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
was reassessed in the late 1990s, following improvements in travel conditions into northern Ethiopia. The surveys taken revealed local extinctions in Mount Choqa, Gojjam, and in every northern Afroalpine
Afroalpine
region where agriculture is well developed and human pressure acute. This revelation stressed the importance of the Bale Mountains
Bale Mountains
wolf populations for the species' long-term survival, as well as the need to protect other surviving populations. A decade after the rabies outbreak, the Bale populations had fully recovered to pre-epizootic levels, prompting the species' downlisting to endangered in 2004, though it still remains the world's rarest canid, and Africa's most endangered carnivore.[7] Taxonomy and evolution[edit]

Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
skull: Despite its close relation to the grey wolf, convergent evolution has resulted in a skull similar in shape to that of jackals and the South American maned wolf.[19]

Phylogenetic tree
Phylogenetic tree
of the extant wolf-like canids

Caninae 3.5 Ma

3.0

2.7

1.9

1.6

1.3

1.1

Dog
Dog

Gray wolf
Gray wolf

Himalayan wolf
Himalayan wolf

Coyote
Coyote

African golden wolf
African golden wolf

Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf

Golden jackal
Golden jackal

Dhole
Dhole

African wild dog
African wild dog

2.6

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal

Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal

Phylogenetic relationships between the extant wolf-like clade of canids based on nuclear DNA sequence data taken from the cell nucleus,[20][21] except for the Himalayan wolf, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.[21][22] Timing in millions of years.[21]

Although fossil records exist of wolf-like canids from Late Pleistocene Eurasia, no fossil records are known for the Ethiopian wolf. In 1994, a mitochondrial DNA analysis showed a closer relationship to the gray wolf and the coyote than to other African canids, and C. simensis may be an evolutionary relic of a gray wolf-like ancestor's past invasion of northern Africa from Eurasia.[23]

See further: Canis
Canis
evolution

Due to the high density of rodents in their new Afroalpine
Afroalpine
habitat, the ancestors of the Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
gradually developed into specialised rodent hunters. This specialisation is reflected in the animal's skull morphology, with its very elongated head, long jaw, and widely spaced teeth. During this period, the species likely attained its highest abundance, and had a relatively continuous distribution. This changed about 15,000 years ago with the onset of the current interglacial, which caused the species' Afroalpine
Afroalpine
habitat to fragment, thus isolating Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
populations from each other.[6] The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
is one of five Canis
Canis
species present in Africa, and is readily distinguishable from jackals by its larger size, relatively longer legs, distinct reddish coat, and white markings. John Edward Gray and Glover Morrill Allen originally classified the species under a separate genus, Simenia,[24] and Oscar Neumann considered it to be "only an exaggerated fox".[25] Juliet Clutton-Brock refuted the separate genus in favour of placing the species in the genus Canis, upon noting cranial similarities with the side-striped jackal.[26] In 2015, a study of mitochondrial genome sequences and whole genome nuclear sequences of African and Eurasian canids indicated that extant wolf-like canids have colonised Africa from Eurasia
Eurasia
at least five times throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, which is consistent with fossil evidence suggesting that much of African canid fauna diversity resulted from the immigration of Eurasian ancestors, likely coincident with Plio-Pleistocene climatic oscillations between arid and humid conditions. According to a phylogeny derived from nuclear sequences, the Eurasian golden jackal ( Canis
Canis
aureus) diverged from the wolf/coyote lineage 1.9 million years ago, and with mitochondrial genome sequences indicating the Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
diverged from this lineage slightly prior to that.[27]:S1 Further studies on RAD sequences found instances of Ethiopian wolves hybridizing with African golden wolves.[28] Subspecies[edit] As of 2005[update],[1] two subspecies are recognised by MSW3.

Subspecies Trinomial authority Description Range Synonyms

Northern Ethiopian wolf C. s. simensis (Nominate subspecies)

Rüppell, 1840

Northwest Rift Valley: Simien Mountains, Mount Guna, Guassa Menz, north and south Wollo
Wollo
highlands C. s. crinensis (Erlanger & Neumann, 1900) C. s. semiensis (Heuglin, 1862) C. s. simensis (Gray, 1869) C. s. walgi (Heuglin, 1862)

Southern Ethiopian wolf C. s. citernii

de Beaux, 1922 This canid was initially classed as a distinct subspecies on account of its bright red coat, though this characteristic is unreliable as a taxonomic distinction. However, its nasal bones are consistently longer than those of the nominate subspecies.[5] Southeast Rift Valley: Arsi and Bale Mountains

Description[edit]

Painting (1926) by Louis Agassiz Fuertes

The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
is similar in size and build to North America's coyote; it is larger than the golden, black-backed, and side-striped jackals, and has relatively longer legs. Its skull is very flat, with a long facial region accounting for 58% of the skull's total length. The ears are broad, pointed, and directed forward. The teeth, particularly the premolars, are small and widely spaced. The canine teeth measure 14–22 mm in length, while the carnassials are relatively small. The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
has eight mammae, of which only six are functional. The front paws have five toes, including a dewclaw, while the hind paws have four. As is typical in the genus Canis, males are larger than females, having 20% greater body mass. Adults measure 841–1,012 mm (33.1–39.8 in) in body length, and 530–620 mm (21–24 in) in height. Adult males weigh 14.2–19.3 kg (31–43 lb), while females weigh 11.2–14.15 kg (24.7–31.2 lb).[5] The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
has short guard hairs and thick underfur, which provides protection at temperatures as low as −15 °C. Its overall colour is ochre to rusty red, with dense whitish to pale ginger underfur. The fur of the throat, chest and underparts is white, with a distinct white band occurring around the sides of the neck. There is a sharp boundary between the red coat and white marks. The ears are thickly furred on the edges, though naked on the inside. The naked borders of the lips, the gums and palate are black. The lips, a small spot on the cheeks and an ascending crescent below the eyes are white. The thickly furred tail is white underneath, and has a black tip, though, unlike most other canids, there is no dark patch marking the supracaudal gland. It moults during the wet season (August–October), and there is no evident seasonal variation in coat colour, though the contrast between the red coat and white markings increases with age and social rank. Females tend to have paler coats than males. During the breeding season, the female's coat turns yellow, becomes woolier, and the tail turns brownish, losing much of its hair.[5] Animals resulting from Ethiopian wolf-dog hybridisation tend to be more heavily built than pure wolves, and have shorter muzzles and different coat patterns.[29] Behaviour[edit]

Southern Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
in the Bale Mountains

Social and territorial behaviours[edit] The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
is a social animal, which lives in family groups containing up to 20 individuals older than one year, though packs of six wolves are more common. Packs are formed by dispersing males and a few females, which with the exception of the breeding female, are reproductively suppressed. Each pack has a well-established hierarchy, with dominance and subordination displays being common. Upon dying, a breeding female can be replaced by a resident daughter, though this increases the risk of inbreeding. Such a risk is sometimes circumvented by multiple paternity and extra-pack matings. The dispersal of wolves from their packs is largely restricted by the scarcity of unoccupied habitat.[30] These packs live in communal territories, which encompass 6 km2 (2.3 sq mi) of land on average. In areas with little food, the species lives in pairs, sometimes accompanied by pups, and defends larger territories averaging 13.4 km2 (5.2 sq mi). In the absence of disease, Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
territories are largely stable, but packs can expand whenever the opportunity arises, such as when another pack disappears. The size of each territory correlates with the abundance of rodents, the number of wolves in a pack, and the survival of pups. Ethiopian wolves rest together in the open at night, and congregate for greetings and border patrols at dawn, noon, and evening. They may shelter from rain under overhanging rocks and behind boulders. The species never sleeps in dens, and only uses them for nursing pups. When patrolling their territories, Ethiopian wolves regularly scent-mark,[31] and interact aggressively and vocally with other packs. Such confrontations typically end with the retreat of the smaller group.[30] Reproduction and development[edit] The mating season usually takes place between August and November. Courtship
Courtship
involves the breeding male following the female closely. The breeding female only accepts the advances of the breeding male, or males from other packs. The gestation period is 60–62 days, with pups being born between October and December.[32] Pups are born toothless and with their eyes closed, and are covered in a charcoal-grey coat with a buff patch on the chest and abdomen. Litters consist of two to six pups, which emerge from their den after three weeks, when the dark coat is gradually replaced with the adult colouration. By the age of five weeks, the pups feed on a combination of milk and solid food, and become completely weaned off milk at the age of 10 weeks to six months.[5] All members of the pack contribute to protecting and feeding the pups, with subordinate females sometimes assisting the dominant female by suckling them. Full growth and sexual maturity are attained at the age of two years.[32] Cooperative breeding and pseudopregnancy have been observed in Ethiopian wolves.[33] Most females disperse from their natal pack at about two years of age, and some become "floaters" that may successfully immigrate into existing packs. Breeding pairs are most often unrelated to each other, suggesting that female-biased dispersal reduces inbreeding.[34] Inbreeding
Inbreeding
is ordinarily avoided because it leads to a reduction in progeny fitness (inbreeding depression) due largely to the homozygous expression of deleterious recessive alleles.[35] Hunting behaviours[edit]

Southern Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
feeding, Bale Mountains.

Unlike most social carnivores, the Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
tends to forage and feed on small prey alone. It is most active during the day, the time when rodents are themselves most active, though they have been observed to hunt in groups when targeting mountain nyala calves.[36] Major Percy-Cotton described the hunting behaviour of Ethiopian wolves as thus:

... they are most amusing to watch, when hunting. The rats, which are brown, with short tails, live in big colonies and dart from burrow to burrow, while the cuberow stands motionless till one of them shows, when he makes a pounce for it. If he is unsuccessful, he seems to lose his temper, and starts digging violently; but this is only lost labour, as the ground is honeycombed with holes, and every rat is yards away before he has thrown up a pawful.[37]

The technique described above is commonly used in hunting big-headed African mole-rats, with the level of effort varying from scratching lightly at the hole to totally destroying a set of burrows, leaving metre-high earth mounds. Wolves in Bale have been observed to forage among cattle herds, a tactic thought to aid in ambushing rodents out of their holes by using the cattle to hide their presence.[5] Ethiopian wolves have also been observed forming temporary associations with troops of grazing geladas.[38] Solitary wolves hunt for rodents in the midst of the monkeys, ignoring juvenile monkeys, though these are similar in size to some of their prey. The monkeys, in turn, tolerate and largely ignore the wolves, although they take flight if they observe feral dogs, which sometimes prey on them. Within the troops, the wolves enjoy much higher success in capturing rodents than usual, perhaps because the monkeys' activities flush out the rodents, or because the presence of numerous larger animals makes it harder for rodents to spot a threat.[39] Ecology[edit] Habitat[edit]

Northern Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
in the Simien Mountains

The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
is restricted to isolated pockets of Afroalpine grasslands and heathlands inhabited by Afroalpine
Afroalpine
rodents. Its ideal habitat extends from above the tree line around 3,200 to 4,500 m, with some wolves inhabiting the Bale Mountains
Bale Mountains
being present in montane grasslands at 3,000 m. Although specimens were collected in Gojjam
Gojjam
and northwestern Shoa at 2,500 m in the early 20th century, no recent records exist of the species occurring below 3,000 m. In modern times, subsistence agriculture, which extends up to 3,700 m, has largely restricted the species to the highest peaks.[40]

Big-headed mole rat
Big-headed mole rat
(Tachyoryctes macrocephalus), one of the Ethiopian wolf's primary prey animals

The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
uses all Afroalpine
Afroalpine
habitats, but has a preference for open areas containing short herbaceous and grassland communities inhabited by rodents, which are most abundant along flat or gently sloping areas with poor drainage and deep soils. Prime wolf habitat in the Bale Mountains
Bale Mountains
consists of short Alchemilla
Alchemilla
herbs and grasses, with low vegetation cover. Other favourable habitats consist of tussock grasslands, high-altitude scrubs rich in Helichrysum, and short grasslands growing in shallow soils. In its northern range, the wolf's habitat is composed of plant communities characterised by a matrix of Festuca
Festuca
tussocks, Euryops
Euryops
bushes, and giant lobelias, all of which are favoured by the wolf's rodent prey. Although marginal in importance, the ericaceous moorlands at 3,200-3,600 m in Simien may provide a refuge for wolves in highly disturbed areas.[40] Diet[edit] In the Bale Mountains, the Ethiopian wolf's primary prey are big-headed African mole-rats, though it also feeds on grass rats, black-clawed brush-furred rats, and highland hares. Other secondary prey species include vlei rats, yellow-spotted brush-furred rats, and occasionally goslings and eggs. Ethiopian wolves have twice been observed to feed on rock hyraxes and mountain nyala calves. In areas where the big-headed African mole-rat is absent, the smaller East African mole-rat is targeted. In the Simien Mountains, the Ethiopian wolf preys on Abyssinian grass rats. Undigested sedge leaves have occasionally been found in Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
stomachs. The sedge possibly is ingested for roughage or for parasite control. The species may scavenge on carcasses, but is usually displaced by dogs and African golden wolves. It typically poses no threat to livestock, with farmers often leaving herds in wolf-inhabited areas unattended.[5] Range and populations[edit] Six current Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
populations are known. North of the Rift Valley, the species occurs in the Simien Mountains
Simien Mountains
in Gondar, in the northern and southern Wollo
Wollo
highlands, and in Guassa Menz in north Shoa. It has recently become extinct in Gosh Meda in north Shoa and Mount Guna, and has not been reported in Mount Choqa
Mount Choqa
for several decades. Southeast of the Rift Valley, it occurs in the Arsi and Bale Mountains.[41]

Summary of current status of Canis
Canis
simensis[42]

Area Habitat Population size estimates Status Importance Threats Conservation

Simien Mountains, North Gondar Patches connected by corridors, totalling 273 km² 102 (as of 2010) Stable? The second-largest population, the most genetically diverse, is a tourist attraction. Human disturbance, road traffic, extensive agriculture, habitat degradation, Helichrysum
Helichrysum
encroachment into rodent habitat, disease, and competition/predation by golden wolves The entire range is within the Simien Mountains
Simien Mountains
National Park, and has been monitored regularly since 2003.

Mt. Guna, South Gondar An isolated patch, estimated at less than 20 km2 by 2004 As of 2011, no sightings have been made, despite intensive monitoring during two field visits. Extinct

Small population, habitat loss, isolation, and possible competition with abundant golden wolf populations An ORDA Biodiversity Conservation Project is active in the area, in conjunction with woreda and kebele governments, and supported by the Guna Highland Water enterprise.

North Wollo
Wollo
Highlands Patchily distributed in an area of 140 km2 19-23 (as of 2000) Possibly declining, otherwise stable, as of 1998

Isolation, habitat degradation, human-wildlife conflict, and road encroachment The Frankfurt Zoological Society
Frankfurt Zoological Society
and its associates are working to create the Abuna Yoseph Community Conservation Area, which is to encompass about a third of the wolf's range in North Wollo.

South Wollo
Wollo
highlands Patches connected by corridors, totalling 243 km2 16-19 (as of 2000) Stable? After Simien, the second-largest area north of the Rift Valley Overgrazing, ploughing, persecution, and local negative attitudes The local ericaceous forests and grasslands are under the protection of the Borena Saiynt Regional Park from agriculture as low as 3,200 m. The EWCP and the FZS have been involved in educational programs and wolf monitoring in the Denkoro area.

Guassa Menz, North Shoa A single patch of 112 km2 As of 2010, an estimated 40% have been missing since a canine distemper outbreak was detected in local dogs. Although diminishing from disease, the population is healthy and stable. A core population with ideal habitat, it is increasingly a tourist attraction. Human disturbance, rabies, Helichrysum
Helichrysum
encroachment into rodent habitat, and road traffic The wolf's range is protected by community resource management, and the Guassa Community Conservation Area. Educational campaigns are undertaken in schools near wolf ranges.

Arsi Mountains, Bale 870 km2 54 wolves in 9 packs, as of 2007-2010 Probably declining The third-largest population, in the second-largest Afroalpine
Afroalpine
area in Ethiopia Habitat
Habitat
degradation, expanding agriculture, and road traffic Protected within the Arsi Mountains Regional Park

Bale Mountains, Bale 1,141 km2 About 250 adults and subadults Declining, but stable in long term The largest population, with the highest density of prey Disease (rabies and distemper) and agricultural expansion Most of the species' habitat occurs within the Bale Mountains
Bale Mountains
National Park.

Threats[edit] The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
has been considered rare since it was first recorded scientifically. The species likely has always been confined to Afroalpine
Afroalpine
habitats, so was never widespread. In historical times, all of the Ethiopian wolf's threats are both directly and indirectly human-induced, as the wolf's highland habitat, with its high annual rainfall and rich fertile soils, is ideal for agricultural activities. Its proximate threats include habitat loss and fragmentation (subsistence agriculture, overgrazing, road construction, and livestock farming), diseases (primarily rabies and canine distemper), conflict with humans (poisoning, persecution, and road kills), and hybridisation with dogs.[43] Disease[edit] Rabies
Rabies
outbreaks, stemming from infected dogs, have killed many Ethiopian wolves over the 1990s and 2000s. Two well-documented outbreaks in Bale, one in 1991 and another in 2008-2009, resulted in the die-off or disappearance of 75% of known animals. Both incidents prompted reactive vaccinations in 2003 and 2008-2009, respectively. Canine distemper
Canine distemper
is not necessarily fatal to wolves, though a recent increase in infection has occurred, with outbreaks of canine distemper having been detected in 2005-2006 in Bale and in 2010 across subpopulations.[44] Habitat
Habitat
loss[edit] During the 1990s, wolf populations in Gosh Meda and Guguftu became extinct. In both cases, the extent of Afroalpine
Afroalpine
habitat above the limit of agriculture had been reduced to less than 20 km2. The EWCP team confirmed the extinction of a wolf population in Mt. Guna in 2011, whose numbers had been in single figures for several years. Habitat
Habitat
loss in the Ethiopian highlands is directly linked to agricultural expansion into Afroalpine
Afroalpine
areas. In the northern highlands, human density is the among the highest in Africa, with 300 people per km2 in some localities, with almost all areas below 3,700 m having been converted into barley fields. Suitable areas of land below this limit are under some level of protection, such as Guassa- Menz and the Denkoro Reserve, or within the southern highlands, such as the Arsi and Bale Mountains. The most vulnerable wolf populations to habitat loss are those within relatively low-lying Afroalpine
Afroalpine
ranges, such as those in Aboi Gara and Delanta in North Wollo.[45] Population fragmentation[edit] Some Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
populations, particularly those in North Wollo, show signs of high fragmentation, which is likely to increase with current rates of human expansion. The dangers posed by fragmentation include increased contact with humans, dogs, and livestock, and further risk of isolation and inbreeding in wolf populations. Although no evidence of inbreeding depression or reduced fitness exists, the extremely small wolf population sizes, particularly those north of the Rift Valley, raise concerns among conservationists. Elsewhere, the Bale populations are fairly continuous, while those in Simien can still interbreed through habitat corridors.[46] Encroachment within protected areas[edit] In the Simien Mountains
Simien Mountains
National Park, human and livestock populations are increasing by 2% annually, with further road construction allowing easy access to peasants into wolf home ranges; 3,171 people in 582 households were found to be living in the park and 1,477 outside the park in October 2005. Although the area of the park has since been expanded, further settlement stopped, and grazing restricted, effective enforcement may take years. As of 2011, about 30,000 people live in 30 villages around and two within the park, including 4,650 cereal farmers, herders, woodcutters, and many others. In Bale there are numerous villages in and around the area, comprising over 8,500 households with more than 12,500 dogs. In 2007, the estimate of households within wolf habitat numbered 1,756. Because of the high number of dogs, the risk of infection in local wolf populations is high. Furthermore, intentional and unintentional brush fires are frequent in the ericaceous moorlands wolves inhabit.[47] Overgrazing[edit]

Ethiopian wolves resting alongside grazing zebu

Although wolves in Bale have learned to use cattle to conceal their presence when hunting for rodents, the level of grazing in the area can adversely affect the vegetation available for the wolves' prey. Although no declines in wolf populations related to overgrazing have occurred, high grazing intensities are known to lead to soil erosion and vegetation deterioration in Afroalpine
Afroalpine
areas such as Delanta and Simien.[48] Human persecution and disturbance[edit] Direct killings of wolves were more frequent during the Ethiopian Civil War, when firearms were more available. The extinction of wolves in Mt. Choqa was likely due to persecution. Although people living close to wolves in modern times believe that wolf populations are recovering, negative attitudes towards the species persist due to livestock predation. Wolves were largely unmolested by humans in Bale, as they were not considered threats to sheep and goats. However, they are perceived as threats to livestock elsewhere, with cases of retaliatory killings occurring in the Arsi Mountains. The Ethiopian wolf has not been recorded to be exploited for its fur, though in one case, wolf hides were used as saddle pads. It was once hunted by sportsmen, though this is now illegal. Vehicle collisions killed at least four wolves in the Sanetti Plateau
Sanetti Plateau
since 1988, while two others were left with permanent limps. Similar accidents are a risk in areas where roads cut across wolf habitats, such as in Menz and Arsi.[29] Hybridisation with dogs[edit] Incidences of Ethiopian wolf-dog hybridisation have been recorded in Bale's Web Valley. At least four hybrids were identified and sterilised in the area. Although hybridisation has not been detected elsewhere, it could pose a threat to the wolf population's genetic integrity, resulting in outbreeding depression or a reduction in fitness, though this does not appear to have taken place.[29] Competition with African wolves[edit] Encounters with African wolves are usually agonistic, with Ethiopian wolves dominating African wolves if the latter enter their territories, and vice versa. Although African wolves are inefficient rodent hunters and thus not in direct competition with Ethiopian wolves, it is likely that heavy human persecution prevents the former from attaining numbers large enough to completely displace the latter.[49] Conservation[edit]

Ethiopian wolf, depicted on a 1987 postage stamp

The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
is not listed on the CITES
CITES
appendices, though it is afforded full official protection under Ethiopia's Wildlife Conservation Regulations of 1974, Schedule VI, with the killing of a wolf carrying a two-year jail sentence.[2] The species is present in several protected areas, including three areas in South Wollo
Wollo
( Bale Mountains
Bale Mountains
National Park, Simien Mountains National Park, and Borena Saiynt Regional Park), one in north Shoa (Guassa Community Conservation Area), and one in the Arsi Mountains Regional Park. Areas of suitable wolf habitat have recently increased to 87%, as a result of boundary extensions in Simien and the creation of the Arsi Mountains Regional Park.[2] Steps taken to ensure the survival of the Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
include dog vaccination campaigns in Bale, Menz, and Simien, sterilization programs for wolf-dog hybrids in Bale, rabies vaccination of wolves in parts of Bale, community and school education programs in Bale and Wollo, contributing to the running of national parks, and population monitoring and surveying. A 10-year national action plan was formed in February 2011.[2] The species' critical situation was first publicised by the Wildlife Conservation Society in 1983, with the Bale Mountains
Bale Mountains
Research Project being established shortly after. This was followed by a detailed, four-year field study, which prompted the IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group to produce an action plan in 1997. The plan called for the education of people in wolf-inhabited areas, wolf population monitoring, and the stemming of rabies in dog populations. The Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme was formed in 1995 by Oxford University, with donours including the Born Free Foundation, Frankfurt Zoological Society, and the Wildlife Conservation Network.[2] The overall aim of the EWCP is to protect the wolf's Afroalpine habitat in Bale, and establish additional conservation areas in Menz and Wollo. The EWCP carries out education campaigns for people outside the wolf's range to improve dog husbandry and manage diseases within and around the park, as well as monitoring wolves in Bale, south and north Wollo. The program seeks to vaccinate up to 5,000 dogs a year to reduce rabies and distemper in wolf-inhabited areas.[2] In 2016, the Korean company Sooam Biotech was reported to be attempting to clone the Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
using dogs as surrogate mothers to help conserve the species.[50] Notes[edit]

^ This is in reference to the Ethiopian wolf's reported habit of following mares and cows about to give birth to feed on the afterbirth.[11] ^ Some naturalists ascribe this description to the African wild dog.[13] ^ This was later proven incorrect in 2010, when SNP studies showed that the dog's sole ancestor is the grey wolf.[18]

References[edit]

^ a b Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b c d e f g h Marino, J. & Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2011). "Canis simensis". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2011: e.T3748A10051312. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T3748A10051312.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018.  Database entry includes a lengthy justification of why this species is endangered ^ Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 12, edited by Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder: page 577 ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Gottelli, Dada (2 December 1994). "Canis Simensis" (PDF). Mammalian Species (485): 1. doi:10.2307/3504136. JSTOR 3504136.  ^ a b c d e f g Sillero-Zubiri, C.; Gottelli, D. (1994). "Canis simensis" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 385: 1–6.  ^ a b Gottelli, D; Marino, J; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Funk, S (2004). "The effect of the last glacial age on speciation and population genetic structure of the endangered Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
( Canis
Canis
simensis)" (PDF). Molecular Ecology. 13 (8): 2275–2286. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2004.02226.x. PMID 15245401. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-16.  ^ a b c d IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, pp. 7–8 ^ a b Sillero-Zubiri & MacDonald 1997, p. 5 & 8 ^ Johnston, Harry Hamilton (1902). The Uganda protectorate; an attempt to give some description of the physical geography, botany, zoology, anthropology, languages and history of the territories under British protection in East Central Africa, between the Congo Free State and the Rift Valley and between the first degree of south latitude and the fifth degree of north latitude. London, Hutchinson & Co. p. 368. ^ a b c Lydekker 1908, p. 462 ^ a b IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, p. 2 ^ "The Aberdeen Bestiary". University of Aberdeen. 1995. Retrieved 2012-12-05.  ^ Smith, C. H. (1839), Dogs, W.H. Lizars, Edinburgh, p. 261 ^ Rüppell 1835, p. 39 ^ a b Powell-Cotton 1902, pp. 206–207 ^ Parkyns, Mansfield
Parkyns, Mansfield
(1853). Life in Abyssinia: Being Notes Collected During Three Years' Residence and Travels in that Country. Vol. II. John Murray. pp. 12-13. ^ Darwin, Charles (1868). The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication. Vol. I. Orange Judd. p. 48. ^ Vonholdt, B. M.; Pollinger, J. P.; Lohmueller, K. E.; Han, E.; Parker, H. G.; Quignon, P.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Boyko, A. R.; Earl, D. A.; Auton, A.; Reynolds, A.; Bryc, K.; Brisbin, A.; Knowles, J. C.; Mosher, D. S.; Spady, T. C.; Elkahloun, A.; Geffen, E.; Pilot, M.; Jedrzejewski, W.; Greco, C.; Randi, E.; Bannasch, D.; Wilton, A.; Shearman, J.; Musiani, M.; Cargill, M.; Jones, P. G.; Qian, Z.; Huang, W. (2010). "Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication". Nature. 464 (7290): 898–902. doi:10.1038/nature08837. PMC 3494089 . PMID 20237475.  ^ Dalton, R. 2001. The skull morphology of the Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(Canis simensis). B.Sc.thesis. University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. ^ Lindblad-Toh, K.; Wade, C. M.; Mikkelsen, T. S.; Karlsson, E. K.; Jaffe, D. B.; Kamal, M.; Clamp, M.; Chang, J. L.; Kulbokas, E. J.; Zody, M. C.; Mauceli, E.; Xie, X.; Breen, M.; Wayne, R. K.; Ostrander, E. A.; Ponting, C. P.; Galibert, F.; Smith, D. R.; Dejong, P. J.; Kirkness, E.; Alvarez, P.; Biagi, T.; Brockman, W.; Butler, J.; Chin, C. W.; Cook, A.; Cuff, J.; Daly, M. J.; Decaprio, D.; et al. (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature. 438 (7069): 803–819. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006.  ^ a b c Koepfli, K.-P.; Pollinger, J.; Godinho, R.; Robinson, J.; Lea, A.; Hendricks, S.; Schweizer, R. M.; Thalmann, O.; Silva, P.; Fan, Z.; Yurchenko, A. A.; Dobrynin, P.; Makunin, A.; Cahill, J. A.; Shapiro, B.; Álvares, F.; Brito, J. C.; Geffen, E.; Leonard, J. A.; Helgen, K. M.; Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J.; Van Valkenburgh, B.; Wayne, R. K. (2015-08-17). "Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species". Current Biology. 25 (16): 2158–65. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.060. PMID 26234211.  ^ Werhahn, Geraldine; Senn, Helen; Kaden, Jennifer; Joshi, Jyoti; Bhattarai, Susmita; Kusi, Naresh; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; MacDonald, David W. (2017). "Phylogenetic evidence for the ancient Himalayan wolf: Towards a clarification of its taxonomic status based on genetic sampling from western Nepal". Royal Society Open Science. 4 (6): 170186. doi:10.1098/rsos.170186. PMC 5493914 . PMID 28680672.  ^ Gottelli, D.; Sillero-Zubiri, C.; Applebaum, G. D.; Roy, M. S.; Girman, D. J.; Garcia-Moreno, J.; Ostrander, E. A.; Wayne, R. K. (1994). "Molecular genetics of the most endangered canid: The Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
Canis
Canis
simensis". Molecular Ecology. 3 (4): 301–12. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.1994.tb00070.x. PMID 7921357.  ^ IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, pp. 2–3 ^ Powell-Cotton 1902, p. 459 ^ Clutton-Brock, J.; Corbet, G.G.; Hills, M. (1976). "A review of the family Canidae, with a classification by numerical methods". Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. 29: 119–199.  ^ Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M.; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A.; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A.; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C.; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Johnson, Warren E.; o'Brien, Stephen J.; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K. (2015). "Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species". Current Biology. 25 (16): 2158–65. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.060. PMID 26234211.  ^ Bahlk, S. H. (2015). Can hybridization be detected between African wolf and sympatric canids? . Master of Science Thesis. Center for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis Department of Bioscience Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Oslo, Norway ^ a b c IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, p. 32 ^ a b IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, p. 4 ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Macdonald, David W. (1998). "Scent‐marking and territorial behaviour of Ethiopian wolves Canis simensis" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 245 (3): 351–361. doi:10.1017/s0952836998007134.  ^ a b IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, pp. 4–5 ^ van Kesteren, Freya; et al. (2013). "The physiology of cooperative breeding in a rare social canid; sex, suppression and pseudopregnancy in female Ethiopian wolves" (PDF). Physiology & Behavior. 122: 39–45. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.08.016. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Randall, DA; Pollinger, JP; Wayne, RK; Tallents, LA; Johnson, PJ; Macdonald, DW (2007). " Inbreeding
Inbreeding
is reduced by female-biased dispersal and mating behavior in Ethiopian wolves". Behavioral Ecology. 18 (3): 579–89. doi:10.1093/beheco/arm010.  ^ Charlesworth D, Willis JH (2009). "The genetics of inbreeding depression". Nat. Rev. Genet. 10 (11): 783–96. doi:10.1038/nrg2664. PMID 19834483.  ^ IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, pp. 3–4 ^ Powell-Cotton 1902, p. 207 ^ Dartmouth College."Wolves are better hunters when monkeys are around: An unexpected co-existence in the Ethiopian highlands." ScienceDaily., 22 June 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150622085224.htm>. ^ Venkataraman, V. V.; Kerby, J. T.; Nguyen, N.; Ashenafi, Z. T.; Fashing, P. J. (2015-03-27). "Solitary Ethiopian wolves increase predation success on rodents when among grazing gelada monkey herds". Journal of Mammalogy. 96 (1): 129–137. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyu013.  ^ a b IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, pp. 19–20 ^ IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, p. 10 ^ IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, pp. 40–46 ^ IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, p. 22 ^ IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, pp. 22–26 ^ IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, pp. 26–27 ^ IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, pp. 27–28 ^ IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, p. 29 ^ IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group 2011, p. 30 ^ Gutema, T. M., Foraging ecology and trophic niche overlap between sympatric African wolf and Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
in the Ethiopian Highlands, The Rufford Foundation (November 2015) ^ Zastrow, Mark (8 February 2016). "Inside the cloning factory that creates 500 new animals a day". New Scientist. Retrieved 23 February 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

IUCN; SSC Canid Specialist Group (2011). Strategic Planning for Ethiopian Wolf Conservation (PDF). IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Oxford, United Kingdom.  Lydekker, Richard (1908). "The Game Animals of Africa". London, R. Ward, limited.  Powell-Cotton, P. H. G. (1902). "A sporting trip through Abyssinia : a narrative of a nine months' journey from the plains of the Hawash to the snows of Simien, with a description of the game, from elephant to ibex, and notes on the manners and customs of the natives". London : Rowland Ward.  Rüppell, Eduard (1835). "Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig" (in German). Frankfurt am Main : S. Schmerber.  Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; MacDonald, David W. (1997). The Ethiopian Wolf: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF). IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. ISBN 2-8317-0407-3.  Morell, V. 2006. Wolves of Ethiopia. National Geographic Magazine, March 2006. Williams, S. 2004. Ethiopian wolves on high. BBC Wildlife Magazine, July 2004.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canis
Canis
simensis.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Canis
Canis
simensis

Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme (EWCP) Conservation of Ethiopian wolves ( Canis
Canis
simensis) at WildCRU
WildCRU
of the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
Department of Zoology Ethiopian Wolf ( Canis
Canis
simensis) from the IUCN
IUCN
Species Survival Commission#Canid Specialist Group of the International Union for Conservation of Nature Supporting the EWCP at the Born Free Foundation Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
( Canis
Canis
simensis) at ARKive, images and videos

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q188957 ADW: Canis_simensis ARKive: canis-simensis EoL: 327993 GBIF: 5219143 iNaturalist: 42045 ITIS: 621851 IUCN: 3748 MSW: 14000779 NCBI: 325

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