Erzurum (Armenian: Կարին, Karin) is a city in eastern Anatolia
(Asian Turkey). It is the largest city in and eponymous capital of
Erzurum Province. It is situated 1757 meters (5766 feet)
above sea level.
Erzurum had a population of 361,235 in the 2000
census, increasing to 367,250 by 2010.
As Ancient Theodosiopolis in
Armenia (or "in Cappadocia"), the former
bishopric remains a Latin Catholic titular see.
The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its
coat-of-arms, a motif that was a common symbol throughout
the Balkans in the medieval period.
Erzurum has some of the finest winter sports facilities in
hosted the 2011 Winter Universiade.
1 Name and etymology
2.1 Early history
2.2 Middle Ages
2.3 Modern history
3 Ecclesiastical history
3.1 Council of Theodosiopolis (593)
3.2 Latin titular see
8.2 International events hosted
8.3 Frank Lenz disappearance
10 Notable natives
11 Twin towns and sister cities
12 See also
13 Notes and references
14 Further reading
15 Sources and external links
Name and etymology
The city was originally known in Armenian as Karno K'aghak' (Armenian:
Կարնո քաղաք), meaning city of Karin, to distinguish it from
the district of Karin (Կարին). After the
Arab conquest of
Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā (which was
adopted from the original Armenian name).
During Roman times,
Erzurum was named Theodosiopolis (Latin:
Theodosiopolis, Greek: Θεοδοσιούπολις), or – in
Armenia or – in Cappadocia to distinguish is from several namesakes.
It got its present name after its conquest by the
Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
A neighboring commercial city named Artsn (Arcn, Artze, Arzan;
Armenian: Արծն) was heavily sacked by the
Seljuk Turks in
1048–49. Its Armenian, Syrian, and other
moved to Theodosiopolis, which they began calling "Artsn Rum" (meaning
Arzan of the Rûm, i.e., Romans) to distinguish it from their former
residence. After the
Arab conquest of Armenia, the city
was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā (which was adopted from the
original Armenian name Karno K'aghak' (Armenian: Կարնո
քաղաք), meaning "Karin City", to distinguish it from the district
of Karin (Կարին). Some older sources derive the name Erzurum
from the Arabic Arḍ-ar-Rūm (Arabic: ارض الروم) 'land of
In the words of Parvaneh Pourshariati / Encyclopædia Iranica:
In fact, the powerful noble family of the
their genealogy to the Iranian Kārin Pahlav family of the Arsacid
period, and specifically to one Pērōzmat (only attested by Movsēs
Xorenacʿi, p. 219). The Armenian Kārins, the Kamsarakan, remained a
powerful dynastic family in the region, directly involved in the
history of the Byzantines and the Sasanians, and in Armenian political
sphere up to the 14th century, carrying the surname of Pahlavuni, in
commemoration of their origins. They lent their name to important
localities, so that ancient Theodosiopolis was named Kārin, before
the name was changed to
Erzurum in later centuries.
Erzurum Province § History
The surroundings of
Erzurum at the Urartian period presumably belonged
to Diauehi. Later,
Erzurum existed under the Armenian name of
Karin. During the reigns of the
Artaxiad and Arsacid kings of Armenia,
Karin served as the capital of the eponymous canton of Karin, in the
province Bardzr Hayk' (Upper Armenia). After the partition of
Armenia between the
Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire and
Sassanid Persia in
387 AD, the city passed into the hands of the Romans. They
fortified the city and renamed it Theodosiopolis, after Emperor
Theodosius I. As the chief military stronghold along the eastern
border of the empire, Theodosiopolis held a highly important strategic
location and was fiercely contested in wars between the Byzantines and
Persians. Emperors Anastasius I and
Justinian I both refortified the
city and built new defenses during their reigns.
The Seljuk era
Çifte Minareli Medrese
Çifte Minareli Medrese (Twin
Minaret Madrasa) is the
symbol of the city and appears on its coat of arms.
"A Prospect of Erzeron the Capital of Armenia" from Joseph Pitton de
Tournefort's 1717 book Relation d'un voyage du Levant
Seljuk stone carving on the
Yakutiye Medrese, 13th century
Theodosiopolis was conquered by the
Umayyad general Abdallah ibn Abd
al-Malik in 700/701. It became the capital of the emirate of
Ḳālīḳalā and was used as a base for raids into Byzantine
territory. Though only an island of
Arab power within Christian
Armenian-populated territory, the native population was generally a
reliable client of the Caliph's governors. As the power of the
Caliphate declined, and the resurgence of
Byzantium began, the local
Armenian leaders preferred the city to be under the control of
powerless Muslim emirs rather than powerful Byzantine emperors.
In 931, and again in 949, Byzantine forces led by Theophilos
Kourkouas, grandfather of the future emperor John I Tzimiskes,
captured Theodosiopolis. Its
Arab population was expelled and the city
was resettled by Greeks and Armenians. Emperor
Basil II rebuilt
the city and its defenses in 1018 with the help of the local Armenian
population. In 1071, after the decisive battle at Manzikert, the
Seljuk Turks took possession of Theodosiopolis. The
rulers of an
Anatolian beylik (principality) centered in Erzurum, who
ruled from 1071 to 1202. Melike Mama Hatun, sister of Nâsırüddin
Muhammed, was the ruler between 1191 and 1200.
Theodosiopolis repelled many attacks and military campaigns by the
Seljuks and Georgians (the latter knew the city as Karnu-Kalaki) until
1201 when the city and the province was conquered by the Seljuk sultan
Süleymanshah II. Erzen-
Erzurum fell to the Mongol siege in 1242, and
the city was looted and devastated. After the fall of the Sultanate of
Rum in early 14th century, it became an administrative province of the
Ilkhanate, and later on the city was under Empire of Trebizond
occupation for a while around the 1310s. Then became part of the
Çoban beylik, Black Sheep Turkmen, empire of
Timur Lenk and White
Sheep Turkmen. It subsequently passed to Safavid Persia, until the
Selim I in 1514 conquered it through the Battle of
Chaldiran. During the
Ottoman Empire reign, the city served as the
main base of Ottoman military power in the region.
It served as the capital of the eyalet of Erzurum. Early in the
seventeenth century, the province was threatened by
Safavid Persia and
a revolt by the province governor Abaza Mehmed Pasha. This revolt was
Jelali Revolts (the uprising of the provincial
musketeers called the Jelali), backed by
Iran and lasted until 1628.
In 1733, the Iranian
Nader Shah took
Erzurum during the
Ottoman–Persian War (1730–35), but if returned into Ottoman
possession following his death in 1747.
In 1821, during the last major Ottoman-Persian War, the
crushingly defeated at
Erzurum despite a numerical superiority by the
Iranian Qajars at the Battle of
Erzurum (1821). In 1829 the city
was captured by the Russian Empire, but was returned to the Ottoman
Empire under the Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne), in September of the
same year. During the
Crimean war Russian forces approached Erzurum,
but did not attack it because of insufficient forces and the
continuing Russian siege of Kars. The city was unsuccessfully attacked
Erzurum (1877)) by a
Russian army in the Russo-Turkish War
of 1877–78. However, in February 1878, the Russians took Erzurum
without resistance, but it was again returned to the Ottoman Empire,
this time under the Treaty of San Stefano. There were massacres of the
city's Armenian citizens during the Hamidian massacres
(1894–1896). The city was the location of one of the key
battles in the
Caucasus Campaign of
World War I
World War I between the armies of
the Ottoman and Russian Empires. This resulted in the capture of
Erzurum by Russian forces under the command of
Grand Duke Nicholas
Grand Duke Nicholas and
Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich
Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich on February 16, 1916.
Erzurum reverted to
Ottoman control after the signing of the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in
March 1918. In 1919, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, one of the key founders
of the modern Turkish Republic, resigned from the Ottoman Army in
Erzurum and was declared an "Honorary Native" and freeman of the city,
which issued him his first citizenship registration and certificate
(Nüfus Cuzdanı) of the new Turkish Republic. The
Erzurum Congress of
1919 was one of the starting points of the Turkish War of
Independence. Erzurum, known as "The Rock" in
NATO code, served as
NATO's southeastern-most air force post during the Cold War.
Theodosiopolis was important enough in the Late
Roman province of
Armenia Tertia to become a bishopric, which the Annuario Pontificio
lists as suffragan of the Archdiocese of Comachus, but in Notitiae
Episcopatuum from the seventh and early tenth centuries, its (later?)
Metropolitan is the Archdiocese of Caesarea in Cappadocia. In
either case, it was in the sway of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
Its historically recorded
Suffragan Bishops were :
Petrus I, intervening at the council of 448 convoked by Patriarch
Flavian of Constantinople
Flavian of Constantinople in his see to condemn Archimandrite Eutyches
as a heretic for his extreme opposition to Nestorianism
Manasse intervened at the
Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon in 451
Petrus II participated in the 533 dispute in Constantinople between
'orthodoxy' and Monophysitism
Council of Theodosiopolis (593)
After the long Byzantine-Sasanian War of 572-591, Byzantine rule was
extended to all western parts of Armenia, and emperor Maurice
(582-602) decided to strengthen political control over the region by
Chalcedonian fraction of the Armenian Church. In 593,
regional council of western Armenian bishops met in Theodosiopolis,
proclaimed allegiance to the
Chalcedonian Definition and elected John
(Yovhannes, or Hovhannes) of Bagaran as new Catholicos of Chalcedonian
Latin titular see
The diocese was nominally restored no later then the 18th century as
Titular bishopric of Theodosiopolis (Latin) / Teodosiopoli
(Curiate Italian; in 1926 renamed as Teodosiopoli di Cappadocia, in
1929 renamed as Teodosiopoli di Armenia), in 1933 also renamed as
Titular Episcopal See of Theodosiopolis in
Armenia in Latin) /
It is vacant since decades, having has the following incumbents, of
the fitting Episcopal (lowest) rank with archiepiscopal
Titular Archbishop: Carlo De Ciocchis (1762.09.10 – death
1762.12.20), as emeritate and 'promotion', formerly Bishop of Sulmona
(Italy) (1752.01.24 – 1762.09.10), Bishop of Valva (Italy)
(1752.01.24 – 1762.09.10)
Franciscus Antonius Fracchia (?Italian) (1778.09.26 – death
1795.10.21), no actual prelature
Athanasius Saraff (1795.05.19 – death 1815.03.19), no actual
Titular Archbishop: Krikor Eugene Baghinanti (1815.06.11 – death
1832), no actual prelature
Giovanni Nepomuceno Glavina (1895.12.02 – 1896.12.03) on emeritate,
as former Bishop of Poreč i Pula (Croatia) (1878.09.13 –
1882.07.03), Bishop of Koper (Slovenia) (1882.07.03 – 1895.12.02),
Bishop of Trieste (Italy) (1882.07.03 – 1895.12.02); later promoted
Titular Archbishop of
Pelusium (1896.12.03 – death 1899.11)
Titular Archbishop: Vincenzo di Giovanni (1897.04.01 – 1901.03.22),
Bishop-Prelate of Territorial Prelature of Santa Lucia del Mela
(Italy) (1896.10.21 – 1901.03.04); later on emeritate as Titular
Pessinus (1901.03.22 – 1903.07.20)
Remigio Guido Barbieri,
Benedictine Order (O.S.B.) (born Italy)
(1901.07.29 – death 1910.04.15) as
Apostolic Vicar of Gibraltar
(Gibraltar) (1901.07.29 – 1910.04.15)
Wilhelm Atanazy Kloske (born Germany) (1910.12.29 – death
Auxiliary Bishop of Archdiocese of Gniezno (Poland)
(1910.12.29 – 1925.05.12)
Joseph Hu Jo-shan (胡若山),
Lazarists (C.M.) (1926.07.30 –
1946.04.11) as only
Apostolic Vicar of Taizhou 台州 (China)
(1926.07.30 – 1946.04.11), next (see) promoted and restyled as first
Suffragan Bishop of Linhai 臨海 (China) (1946.04.11 – 1962.08.28)
Domenico Della Vedova (1950.04.12 – death 1951.02.24) as emeritate,
formerly Bishop of Tivoli (Italy) (1933.02.04 – 1950.04.12)
Salesians (S.D.B. (1951.04.26 – 1957.05.30) as
Auxiliary Bishop of Archdiocese of Gniezno (Gnesen, Poland)
(1951.04.26 – 1957.05.30); later Metropolitan Archbishop of Poznań
(Posen, Poland) (1957.05.30 – 1977.08.20)
Horacio Arturo Gómez Dávila (1958.06.13 – 1964.02.22), first as
Auxiliary Bishop of Archdiocese of Córdoba (Argentina) (1958.06.13
– 1960.02.13), next as
Coadjutor Bishop of La Rioja (Argentina)
(1960.02.13 – succession 1964.02.22); next Bishop of La Rioja
(succeeding 1964.02.22 – 1968.07.03), emeritate as Titular Bishop of
Ruspæ (1968.07.03 – 1974.09.15).
Erzurum Cumhuriyet Avenue
One of the largest source of income and economic activity in the city
has been Atatürk University. Established in 1950, it is one of the
largest universities in Turkey, having more than forty-thousand
students. Tourism also provides a portion of the province's revenues.
The city is a popular destination in
Turkey for winter sports at the
nearby Palandöken Mountain.
Erzurum is notable for the small-scale production of objects crafted
Oltu stone: most are sold as souvenirs and include prayer beads,
bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings and hairclips.
Erzurum is the ending point of the South Caucasus Pipeline,
also called the Baku-Tbilisi-
Erzurum (BTE) pipeline.
Erzurum will also
be the starting point of the planned
Nabucco pipeline which will carry
natural gas from the
Caspian Sea basin to the
European Union member
states. The intergovernmental agreement between Turkey, Romania,
Bulgaria, Hungary and Austria to build the
Nabucco pipeline was signed
by five Prime Ministers on 13 July 2009 in Ankara. The
European Union was represented at the ceremony by the President of the
Jose Manuel Barroso
Jose Manuel Barroso and the Commissioner for
Energy Andris Piebalgs, while the United States was represented by the
Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy
Richard Morningstar and the Ranking
Member of the
United States Senate
United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
Senator Richard Lugar.
Palandöken in August 2009, as seen from downtown Erzurum.
Little of medieval
Erzurum survives beyond scattered individual
buildings such as the citadel fortress, and the 13th century Çifte
Minareli Medrese (the "Twin Minaret" madrasa). Visitors may also wish
to visit the Çobandede Bridge, which dates back to late 13th
Six kilometres to the south of the center of
Erzurum is an important
skiing center on the
Palandöken Mountain range. There are several ski
runs; the south ski run is 8 km long, while the north ski run is
intended for advanced skiers. The summit of Mt. Palandöken, which is
called Büyük Ejder (Great Dragon), is at an altitude of
3188 metres. It can be reached with a chair lift which rises to
an altitude of 3100 metres.
Nine kilometres to the west of Erzurum, in the village of Gezköy,
stands the ruined Monastery of Saint Minas of Kes.
The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities.
Erzurum is also the main railroad endpoint for the Eastern Anatolia
Erzurum Airport, also used by the Turkish Air Force, has the
second longest runway in Turkey.
One specialty of Erzurum's cuisine is Cağ Kebab. Although this kebab
variety is of recent introduction outside its native region, it is
rapidly attaining widespread popularity around Turkey.
Kadayıf Dolması is an exquisite dessert made with walnut.
Other regional foodstuffs include Su böreği (wet pastry), ekşili
dolma (sour stuffed vegetables), kesme çorbası (soup), ayran aşı
yayla çorbası (nomads soup), çiriş, şalgam dolması (stuffed
turnip), yumurta pilavı (egg pilaf), and kadayıf dolması
2011 Winter Universiade
2011 Winter Universiade opening in Kazım Karabekir Stadium.
The K-95 /left) and K-125 (right) ski jumping towers at
Kazım Karabekir Stadium
Erzurum Ice Hockey Arena
GSIM Yenişehir Ice Hockey Hall
Milli Piyango Curling Arena
Kiremitliktepe Ski Jump
International events hosted
Erzurum has hosted the following international winter sports events:
11th World Ice Hockey U18 Championships-Division III – Group B
Tournament – March 9–15, 2009
12th World Ice Hockey U18 Championships-Division III – Group A
Tournament – March 8–14, 2010
25th Winter Universiade – January 27 – February 6, 2011
World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship – April 23 – 29, 2012
European Curling Championships – Group C Tournament – October
11th IIHF World Championship Division III – April 15 – 21, 2012
The city's football club Erzurumspor, which during 1998–2001 played
in the Turkish Super League, was forced to relegate to the TFF Third
League due to financial problems.
Erzurum's football venue, the
Cemal Gürsel Stadium, has a seating
capacity for 21,900 spectators. To be able to carry out the
competitions of the Winter Universiade, a ski jumping ramp, an ice
hockey arena and a curling hall were built in Erzurum.
Frank Lenz disappearance
In May 1894 American bicyclist Frank Lenz disappeared outside the city
on the final leg of his quest to circumnavigate the globe on a
Erzurum has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate
classification Dfb) with cold, snowy winters and warm, dry summers
with cool nights. The average maximum daily temperature during August
is around 27 °C (81 °F). The highest recorded temperature
is 36.5 °C (97.7 °F), on 31 July 2000. However, the
average minimum daily temperature during January is around
−15 °C (5 °F); temperatures fall below −30 °C
(−22 °F) most years. The lowest recorded temperature is
−37.2 °C (−35.0 °F), on 28 December 2002.
Climate data for
Erzurum (1960–2012 normals)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü
Source #2: Climatebase.ru
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
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The Statue of Nene Hatun, (1857 – 22 May 1955) was a Turkish folk
heroine, who at her age of twenty showed bravery during the recapture
Erzurum from Russian forces at the start of the
Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
Hakop Karnetsi, (1618–1673) Armenian historian, geographer
Ghoukas Karnetsi, (1722–1799) Catholicos of All Armenians
Hovhannes Karnetsi, (1750–1820) Armenian poet, pedagogue
Armenak Arzrouni, (1901–1963) Armenian photographer
Nikita Balieff, Armenian stage performer
Arshak Gafavian, Armenian military commander
Johannes Avetaranian (a.k.a. Mehmet Sükrü), Seyyid (self-proclaimed
descendant of the prophet Muhammed),
Karekin Pastermadjian, a leader of the Armenian Revolutionary
Federation and an ambassador of
Armenia to the US
Vartkes Serengülian, Armenian deputy in the Ottoman parliament killed
during the Armenian Genocide
Kourken Yanigian, American-Armenian author, engineer who murdered two
Turkish consular officials
Acun Ilıcalı Television programmer
Adnan Polat, Ahiska-Turk, President of Galatasaray
Arif Sağ, Turkish singer, bağlama virtuoso
Cemal Gürsel, the fourth president of Turkey
Fethullah Gülen, Islamic writer
Huseyin Avni Ulas, Influential Politician during the early period of
the Republic of Turkey
İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi, Turkish and Sufi philosopher and
Nene Hatun, female defender of
Erzurum during the Russo-Turkish War of
Orhun Ene, Turkish Basketball player
Recep Akdağ, minister of health of Turkey
Sair Nef'i, 17th century Turkish poet
Markos Vafiadis, leading cadre of the
Communist Party of Greece
Communist Party of Greece (KKE)
Twin towns and sister cities
Iran (since 2015)
Theodosiopolis for Ancient namesakes
Notes and references
^ see other names
^ a b c d e f Inalcik, Halil. "Erzurum". Encyclopedia of Islam. P.
Bearman et al. (eds.) Leiden: Brill, 1965, vol. ii, p. 712.
^ Garsoïan, Nina G. "Theodosioupolis". Oxford Dictionary of
Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991, vol. 3, p. 2054.
^ a b See Joseph Laurent's extensive note in his (in French)
L’Arménie entre Byzance et l’Islam depuis la conquête arabe
jusqu’en 886, 1919, new edition revised and updated by Marius
Canard, Lisbon: Librairie Bertrand, 1980, pp. 87–88, note 83.
^ (in German) Markwart, Joseph. Südarmenien und die Tigrisquellen
nach griechischen und arabischen Geographen. Vienna:
Mechitharisten-Buchdruckerei, 1930, pp. 41, 334, 339.
^ Hewsen. "Summit of the Earth", pp 42–44.
^ (in Armenian) Darbinyan, M. «Էրզրում» [Erzurum] Armenian
Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1978, vol.
4, p. 93.
^ Pourshariati 2017.
^ Kemalettin Köroğlu: The Northern Border of the Urartian Kingdom.
In: Altan Çilingiroğlu/G. Darbyshire (Hrsg.): Anatolian Iron Ages 5,
Proceedings of the 5th Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium Van. 6.–10.
August 2001. British Institute of Archaeology at
Ankara Monograph 3
Ankara 2005) 101.
^ Hewsen, Robert H. Armenia: a Historical Atlas. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 103.
^ Garsoïan, Nina G. "The Foundation of Theodosiopolis-Karin" in
Armenian Karin/Erzerum. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series:
Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 4, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian.
Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2003, pp. 63–72.
^ (in Armenian) Arakelyan, Babken N. "Հայաստանի Խոշոր
Քաղաքները" ("The Great Cities of Armenia") in Հայ
Ժողովրդի Պատմություն [History of the Armenian
People]. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1976, vol. iii, p.
^ Whittow, Mark. The Making of Byzantium, 600–1025. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1996, pp. 310, 320.
^ Whittow. The Making of Byzantium, p. 322.
^ Arakelyan. "The Great Cities of Armenia", pp. 232–233.
^ Zehiroğlu, Ahmet M. ; "Trabzon Imparatorluğu 2" 2016,
Trabzon, (ISBN 978-605-4567-52-2) ; pp.133–134
^ John A Boyle. "Persia (RLE
Iran A): History and Heritage" p 43
^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the
Modern Middle, Vol.III, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, 1140.
^ Dadrian, Vahakn N. Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of
Turko-Armenian Conflict. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers,
1999, p. 141.
^ Balakian, Peter. The Burning Tigris: The
Armenian Genocide and
America's Response. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 59, 127–129.
^ See Richard G. Hovannisian, "The Competition for Erzerum,
1914–1921" in Armenian Karin/Erzerum, pp. 378ff.
^ Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte
der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der
philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der
Wissenschaften, 1901, p. 536, nº 80, e p. 551, nº 112
^ Meyendorff 1989, p. 108-109, 284, 343.
^ "Europe gas pipeline deal agreed". BBC News. 2009-07-13. Retrieved
^ "Turkey, EU countries sign gas pipeline deal". Today's Zaman.
2009-07-13. Archived from the original on 2009-07-18. Retrieved
^ "Nabucco Summits Begins". Turkish Press. 2009-07-13. Retrieved
^ Ian Kelly (2009-07-13). "Signing Ceremony for the Intergovernmental
Agreement on the Nabucco Pipeline" (Press release). United States
Department of State. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
^ a b
Erzurum city guide, travel guide, hotel guide, tourism guide.
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://erzurumguide.com/
^ "A lens on Lenz on the South Side".
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-27. Retrieved
^ "Climatebase.ru – Erzurum, Turkey".
Erzurum sign sisterhood agreement". 7 April 2015.
Published in the 19th century
Jedidiah Morse; Richard C. Morse (1823). "Erzerum". A New Universal
Gazetteer (4th ed.). New Haven: S. Converse
Robert Curzon (1854). Armenia: A Year at Erzeroom and on the frontiers
of Russia, Turkey, and Persia. London: John Murray.
"Erzeroom". Handbook for Travellers in
Turkey (3rd ed.). London: J.
Murray. 1854. OCLC 2145740
Published in the 20th century
"Erzerum". The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). New York:
Encyclopædia Britannica. 1910. OCLC 14782424
(in Armenian) Ter-Ghevondyan, Aram N.
"Կարին-Թեոդուպոլիսը ավանդության և
պատմության մեջ" [Karin-Theodosiopolis in Tradition and
History]. Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri 3 (1971).
Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and
Christian divisions: The
Church 450-680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St.
Vladimir's Seminary Press.
Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford:
Published in the 21st century
Hovannisian, Richard G. (ed.) Armenian Karin/Erzerum. UCLA Armenian
History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 4.
Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2003.
"Erzurum". Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture.
Oxford University Press. 2009.
Sources and external links
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Erzurum.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Erzurum.
Pourshariati, Parvaneh (2017). "KĀRIN". Encyclopaedia Iranica.
Erzurum Chamber of Commerce
GCatholic - former & titular see Theodosiopolis in Armenia
ArchNet.org. "Erzurum". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of
Architecture and Planning. Archived from the original on
Bibliography – Ecclesiastical history
Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig
1931, p. 441
Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus,
Paris 1740, Tomo I, coll. 437–438
Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 6, p. 402
Erzurum Province of Turkey
List of Provinces by Region
West Black Sea
East Black Sea
Central East Anatolia
Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.
Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey
Largest cities or towns in Turkey
TÜİK's address-based calculation from December, 2013.
^ "December 2013 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical
Institute as presented by citypop