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Erzurum
Erzurum
(Armenian: Կարին, Karin)[1] is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey). It is the largest city in and eponymous capital of Erzurum
Erzurum
Province. It is situated 1757 meters (5766 feet) above sea level. Erzurum
Erzurum
had a population of 361,235 in the 2000 census, increasing to 367,250 by 2010. As Ancient Theodosiopolis in Armenia
Armenia
(or "in Cappadocia"), the former bishopric remains a Latin Catholic titular see. The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its coat-of-arms, a motif that was a common symbol throughout Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Balkans in the medieval period. Erzurum
Erzurum
has some of the finest winter sports facilities in Turkey
Turkey
and hosted the 2011 Winter Universiade.

Contents

1 Name and etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Modern history

3 Ecclesiastical history

3.1 Council of Theodosiopolis (593) 3.2 Latin titular see

4 Economy 5 Tourism 6 Transport 7 Cuisine 8 Sports

8.1 Venues 8.2 International events hosted 8.3 Frank Lenz disappearance

9 Climate 10 Notable natives 11 Twin towns and sister cities 12 See also 13 Notes and references 14 Further reading 15 Sources and external links

Name and etymology The city was originally known in Armenian as Karno K'aghak' (Armenian: Կարնո քաղաք), meaning city of Karin, to distinguish it from the district of Karin (Կարին).[2] After the Arab
Arab
conquest of Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā (which was adopted from the original Armenian name).[2] During Roman times, Erzurum
Erzurum
was named Theodosiopolis (Latin: Theodosiopolis, Greek: Θεοδοσιούπολις), or – in Armenia
Armenia
or – in Cappadocia to distinguish is from several namesakes. It got its present name after its conquest by the Seljuks following the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
in 1071.[2] A neighboring commercial city named Artsn (Arcn, Artze, Arzan; Armenian: Արծն) was heavily sacked by the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
in 1048–49.[2][3] Its Armenian, Syrian, and other Christian
Christian
inhabitants moved to Theodosiopolis, which they began calling "Artsn Rum" (meaning Arzan of the Rûm, i.e., Romans) to distinguish it from their former residence.[4][5][6][2] After the Arab
Arab
conquest of Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā (which was adopted from the original Armenian name Karno K'aghak' (Armenian: Կարնո քաղաք), meaning "Karin City", to distinguish it from the district of Karin (Կարին).[2] Some older sources derive the name Erzurum from the Arabic Arḍ-ar-Rūm (Arabic: ارض الروم‎) 'land of the Rûm'.[4][7] In the words of Parvaneh Pourshariati / Encyclopædia Iranica:[8]

In fact, the powerful noble family of the Kamsarakan in Armenia
Armenia
traced their genealogy to the Iranian Kārin Pahlav family of the Arsacid period, and specifically to one Pērōzmat (only attested by Movsēs Xorenacʿi, p. 219). The Armenian Kārins, the Kamsarakan, remained a powerful dynastic family in the region, directly involved in the history of the Byzantines and the Sasanians, and in Armenian political sphere up to the 14th century, carrying the surname of Pahlavuni, in commemoration of their origins. They lent their name to important localities, so that ancient Theodosiopolis was named Kārin, before the name was changed to Erzurum
Erzurum
in later centuries.

History Further information: Erzurum Province
Erzurum Province
§ History Early history The surroundings of Erzurum
Erzurum
at the Urartian period presumably belonged to Diauehi.[9] Later, Erzurum
Erzurum
existed under the Armenian name of Karin. During the reigns of the Artaxiad
Artaxiad
and Arsacid kings of Armenia, Karin served as the capital of the eponymous canton of Karin, in the province Bardzr Hayk' (Upper Armenia).[10] After the partition of Armenia
Armenia
between the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
and Sassanid Persia
Sassanid Persia
in 387 AD, the city passed into the hands of the Romans. They fortified the city and renamed it Theodosiopolis, after Emperor Theodosius I.[11] As the chief military stronghold along the eastern border of the empire, Theodosiopolis held a highly important strategic location and was fiercely contested in wars between the Byzantines and Persians. Emperors Anastasius I and Justinian I
Justinian I
both refortified the city and built new defenses during their reigns.[12] Middle Ages

The Seljuk era Çifte Minareli Medrese
Çifte Minareli Medrese
(Twin Minaret
Minaret
Madrasa) is the symbol of the city and appears on its coat of arms.

"A Prospect of Erzeron the Capital of Armenia" from Joseph Pitton de Tournefort's 1717 book Relation d'un voyage du Levant

Seljuk stone carving on the Yakutiye
Yakutiye
Medrese, 13th century

Theodosiopolis was conquered by the Umayyad
Umayyad
general Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik in 700/701. It became the capital of the emirate of Ḳālīḳalā and was used as a base for raids into Byzantine territory. Though only an island of Arab
Arab
power within Christian Armenian-populated territory, the native population was generally a reliable client of the Caliph's governors. As the power of the Caliphate
Caliphate
declined, and the resurgence of Byzantium
Byzantium
began, the local Armenian leaders preferred the city to be under the control of powerless Muslim emirs rather than powerful Byzantine emperors.[13] In 931, and again in 949, Byzantine forces led by Theophilos Kourkouas, grandfather of the future emperor John I Tzimiskes, captured Theodosiopolis. Its Arab
Arab
population was expelled and the city was resettled by Greeks and Armenians.[14] Emperor Basil II
Basil II
rebuilt the city and its defenses in 1018 with the help of the local Armenian population.[15] In 1071, after the decisive battle at Manzikert, the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
took possession of Theodosiopolis. The Saltukids
Saltukids
were rulers of an Anatolian beylik
Anatolian beylik
(principality) centered in Erzurum, who ruled from 1071 to 1202. Melike Mama Hatun, sister of Nâsırüddin Muhammed, was the ruler between 1191 and 1200. Theodosiopolis repelled many attacks and military campaigns by the Seljuks and Georgians (the latter knew the city as Karnu-Kalaki) until 1201 when the city and the province was conquered by the Seljuk sultan Süleymanshah II. Erzen- Erzurum
Erzurum
fell to the Mongol siege in 1242, and the city was looted and devastated. After the fall of the Sultanate of Rum in early 14th century, it became an administrative province of the Ilkhanate, and later on the city was under Empire of Trebizond occupation for a while around the 1310s.[16] Then became part of the Çoban beylik, Black Sheep Turkmen, empire of Timur Lenk
Timur Lenk
and White Sheep Turkmen. It subsequently passed to Safavid Persia, until the Ottomans under Selim I
Selim I
in 1514 conquered it through the Battle of Chaldiran. During the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
reign, the city served as the main base of Ottoman military power in the region. It served as the capital of the eyalet of Erzurum. Early in the seventeenth century, the province was threatened by Safavid Persia
Safavid Persia
and a revolt by the province governor Abaza Mehmed Pasha. This revolt was combined with Jelali Revolts
Jelali Revolts
(the uprising of the provincial musketeers called the Jelali), backed by Iran
Iran
and lasted until 1628. In 1733, the Iranian Nader Shah
Nader Shah
took Erzurum
Erzurum
during the Ottoman–Persian War (1730–35),[17] but if returned into Ottoman possession following his death in 1747. Modern history In 1821, during the last major Ottoman-Persian War, the Ottomans were crushingly defeated at Erzurum
Erzurum
despite a numerical superiority by the Iranian Qajars at the Battle of Erzurum
Erzurum
(1821).[18] In 1829 the city was captured by the Russian Empire, but was returned to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne), in September of the same year. During the Crimean war
Crimean war
Russian forces approached Erzurum, but did not attack it because of insufficient forces and the continuing Russian siege of Kars. The city was unsuccessfully attacked (Battle of Erzurum
Erzurum
(1877)) by a Russian army
Russian army
in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. However, in February 1878, the Russians took Erzurum without resistance, but it was again returned to the Ottoman Empire, this time under the Treaty of San Stefano. There were massacres of the city's Armenian citizens during the Hamidian massacres (1894–1896).[19][20] The city was the location of one of the key battles in the Caucasus Campaign
Caucasus Campaign
of World War I
World War I
between the armies of the Ottoman and Russian Empires. This resulted in the capture of Erzurum
Erzurum
by Russian forces under the command of Grand Duke Nicholas
Grand Duke Nicholas
and Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich
Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich
on February 16, 1916. Erzurum
Erzurum
reverted to Ottoman control after the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
in March 1918. In 1919, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, one of the key founders of the modern Turkish Republic, resigned from the Ottoman Army in Erzurum
Erzurum
and was declared an "Honorary Native" and freeman of the city, which issued him his first citizenship registration and certificate (Nüfus Cuzdanı) of the new Turkish Republic. The Erzurum Congress
Erzurum Congress
of 1919 was one of the starting points of the Turkish War of Independence.[21] Erzurum, known as "The Rock" in NATO
NATO
code, served as NATO's southeastern-most air force post during the Cold War. Ecclesiastical history Theodosiopolis was important enough in the Late Roman province
Roman province
of Armenia Tertia
Armenia Tertia
to become a bishopric, which the Annuario Pontificio lists as suffragan of the Archdiocese of Comachus, but in Notitiae Episcopatuum from the seventh and early tenth centuries, its (later?) Metropolitan is the Archdiocese of Caesarea in Cappadocia.[22] In either case, it was in the sway of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Its historically recorded Suffragan
Suffragan
Bishops were :

Petrus I, intervening at the council of 448 convoked by Patriarch Flavian of Constantinople
Flavian of Constantinople
in his see to condemn Archimandrite Eutyches as a heretic for his extreme opposition to Nestorianism Manasse intervened at the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451 Petrus II participated in the 533 dispute in Constantinople between 'orthodoxy' and Monophysitism

Council of Theodosiopolis (593) After the long Byzantine-Sasanian War of 572-591, Byzantine rule was extended to all western parts of Armenia, and emperor Maurice (582-602) decided to strengthen political control over the region by supporting pro- Chalcedonian fraction of the Armenian Church. In 593, regional council of western Armenian bishops met in Theodosiopolis, proclaimed allegiance to the Chalcedonian Definition and elected John (Yovhannes, or Hovhannes) of Bagaran as new Catholicos of Chalcedonian Armenians.[23] Latin titular see The diocese was nominally restored no later then the 18th century as Latin Titular bishopric
Titular bishopric
of Theodosiopolis (Latin) / Teodosiopoli (Curiate Italian; in 1926 renamed as Teodosiopoli di Cappadocia, in 1929 renamed as Teodosiopoli di Armenia), in 1933 also renamed as Titular Episcopal See of Theodosiopolis in Armenia
Armenia
in Latin) / Theodosiopolitan(us) in Armenia
Armenia
(Latin). It is vacant since decades, having has the following incumbents, of the fitting Episcopal (lowest) rank with archiepiscopal exceptions :

Titular Archbishop: Carlo De Ciocchis (1762.09.10 – death 1762.12.20), as emeritate and 'promotion', formerly Bishop of Sulmona (Italy) (1752.01.24 – 1762.09.10), Bishop of Valva (Italy) (1752.01.24 – 1762.09.10) Franciscus Antonius Fracchia (?Italian) (1778.09.26 – death 1795.10.21), no actual prelature Athanasius Saraff (1795.05.19 – death 1815.03.19), no actual prelature Titular Archbishop: Krikor Eugene Baghinanti (1815.06.11 – death 1832), no actual prelature Giovanni Nepomuceno Glavina (1895.12.02 – 1896.12.03) on emeritate, as former Bishop of Poreč i Pula (Croatia) (1878.09.13 – 1882.07.03), Bishop of Koper (Slovenia) (1882.07.03 – 1895.12.02), Bishop of Trieste (Italy) (1882.07.03 – 1895.12.02); later promoted Titular Archbishop
Titular Archbishop
of Pelusium
Pelusium
(1896.12.03 – death 1899.11) Titular Archbishop: Vincenzo di Giovanni (1897.04.01 – 1901.03.22), while Bishop-Prelate
Bishop-Prelate
of Territorial Prelature of Santa Lucia del Mela (Italy) (1896.10.21 – 1901.03.04); later on emeritate as Titular Archbishop of Pessinus
Pessinus
(1901.03.22 – 1903.07.20) Remigio Guido Barbieri, Benedictine Order
Benedictine Order
(O.S.B.) (born Italy) (1901.07.29 – death 1910.04.15) as Apostolic Vicar
Apostolic Vicar
of Gibraltar (Gibraltar) (1901.07.29 – 1910.04.15) Wilhelm Atanazy Kloske (born Germany) (1910.12.29 – death 1925.05.12) as Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
of Archdiocese of Gniezno (Poland) (1910.12.29 – 1925.05.12) Joseph Hu Jo-shan (胡若山), Lazarists
Lazarists
(C.M.) (1926.07.30 – 1946.04.11) as only Apostolic Vicar
Apostolic Vicar
of Taizhou 台州 (China) (1926.07.30 – 1946.04.11), next (see) promoted and restyled as first Suffragan
Suffragan
Bishop of Linhai 臨海 (China) (1946.04.11 – 1962.08.28) Domenico Della Vedova (1950.04.12 – death 1951.02.24) as emeritate, formerly Bishop of Tivoli (Italy) (1933.02.04 – 1950.04.12) Antoni Baraniak, Salesians
Salesians
(S.D.B. (1951.04.26 – 1957.05.30) as Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
of Archdiocese of Gniezno (Gnesen, Poland) (1951.04.26 – 1957.05.30); later Metropolitan Archbishop of Poznań (Posen, Poland) (1957.05.30 – 1977.08.20) Horacio Arturo Gómez Dávila (1958.06.13 – 1964.02.22), first as Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
of Archdiocese of Córdoba (Argentina) (1958.06.13 – 1960.02.13), next as Coadjutor Bishop
Coadjutor Bishop
of La Rioja (Argentina) (1960.02.13 – succession 1964.02.22); next Bishop of La Rioja (succeeding 1964.02.22 – 1968.07.03), emeritate as Titular Bishop of Ruspæ (1968.07.03 – 1974.09.15).

Economy Further information: Erzurum
Erzurum
Province

Erzurum
Erzurum
Cumhuriyet Avenue

One of the largest source of income and economic activity in the city has been Atatürk University. Established in 1950, it is one of the largest universities in Turkey, having more than forty-thousand students. Tourism also provides a portion of the province's revenues. The city is a popular destination in Turkey
Turkey
for winter sports at the nearby Palandöken Mountain. Erzurum
Erzurum
is notable for the small-scale production of objects crafted from Oltu
Oltu
stone: most are sold as souvenirs and include prayer beads, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings and hairclips. For now, Erzurum
Erzurum
is the ending point of the South Caucasus Pipeline, also called the Baku-Tbilisi- Erzurum
Erzurum
(BTE) pipeline. Erzurum
Erzurum
will also be the starting point of the planned Nabucco pipeline
Nabucco pipeline
which will carry natural gas from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
basin to the European Union
European Union
member states. The intergovernmental agreement between Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Austria to build the Nabucco pipeline
Nabucco pipeline
was signed by five Prime Ministers on 13 July 2009 in Ankara.[24][25] The European Union
European Union
was represented at the ceremony by the President of the European Commission Jose Manuel Barroso
Jose Manuel Barroso
and the Commissioner for Energy Andris Piebalgs, while the United States was represented by the Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy Richard Morningstar
Richard Morningstar
and the Ranking Member of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Foreign Relations Senator Richard Lugar.[26][27]

Tourism

Palandöken in August 2009, as seen from downtown Erzurum.

Little of medieval Erzurum
Erzurum
survives beyond scattered individual buildings such as the citadel fortress, and the 13th century Çifte Minareli Medrese (the "Twin Minaret" madrasa). Visitors may also wish to visit the Çobandede Bridge, which dates back to late 13th century.[28] Six kilometres to the south of the center of Erzurum
Erzurum
is an important skiing center on the Palandöken Mountain
Palandöken Mountain
range. There are several ski runs; the south ski run is 8 km long, while the north ski run is intended for advanced skiers. The summit of Mt. Palandöken, which is called Büyük Ejder (Great Dragon), is at an altitude of 3188 metres. It can be reached with a chair lift which rises to an altitude of 3100 metres. Nine kilometres to the west of Erzurum, in the village of Gezköy, stands the ruined Monastery of Saint Minas of Kes. Transport The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities. Erzurum
Erzurum
is also the main railroad endpoint for the Eastern Anatolia region. Erzurum
Erzurum
Airport, also used by the Turkish Air Force, has the second longest runway in Turkey. Cuisine One specialty of Erzurum's cuisine is Cağ Kebab. Although this kebab variety is of recent introduction outside its native region, it is rapidly attaining widespread popularity around Turkey. Kadayıf Dolması is an exquisite dessert made with walnut. Other regional foodstuffs include Su böreği (wet pastry), ekşili dolma (sour stuffed vegetables), kesme çorbası (soup), ayran aşı yayla çorbası (nomads soup), çiriş, şalgam dolması (stuffed turnip), yumurta pilavı (egg pilaf), and kadayıf dolması[28] Sports Venues

2011 Winter Universiade
2011 Winter Universiade
opening in Kazım Karabekir Stadium.

The K-95 /left) and K-125 (right) ski jumping towers at Kiremitliktepe.

Kazım Karabekir Stadium Erzurum
Erzurum
Ice Hockey Arena GSIM Yenişehir Ice Hockey Hall Milli Piyango Curling Arena Kiremitliktepe Ski Jump

International events hosted Erzurum
Erzurum
has hosted the following international winter sports events:

11th World Ice Hockey U18 Championships-Division III – Group B Tournament – March 9–15, 2009 12th World Ice Hockey U18 Championships-Division III – Group A Tournament – March 8–14, 2010 25th Winter Universiade – January 27 – February 6, 2011 World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship – April 23 – 29, 2012 European Curling Championships – Group C Tournament – October 5–10, 2012 11th IIHF World Championship Division III – April 15 – 21, 2012

The city's football club Erzurumspor, which during 1998–2001 played in the Turkish Super League, was forced to relegate to the TFF Third League due to financial problems. Erzurum's football venue, the Cemal Gürsel
Cemal Gürsel
Stadium, has a seating capacity for 21,900 spectators. To be able to carry out the competitions of the Winter Universiade, a ski jumping ramp, an ice hockey arena and a curling hall were built in Erzurum. Frank Lenz disappearance In May 1894 American bicyclist Frank Lenz disappeared outside the city on the final leg of his quest to circumnavigate the globe on a bike.[29] Climate Erzurum
Erzurum
has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with cold, snowy winters and warm, dry summers with cool nights. The average maximum daily temperature during August is around 27 °C (81 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 36.5 °C (97.7 °F), on 31 July 2000. However, the average minimum daily temperature during January is around −15 °C (5 °F); temperatures fall below −30 °C (−22 °F) most years. The lowest recorded temperature is −37.2 °C (−35.0 °F), on 28 December 2002.

Climate data for Erzurum
Erzurum
(1960–2012 normals)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 7.9 (46.2) 9.6 (49.3) 21.4 (70.5) 26.5 (79.7) 29.1 (84.4) 31.0 (87.8) 35.6 (96.1) 36.5 (97.7) 33.3 (91.9) 27.0 (80.6) 17.8 (64) 14.0 (57.2) 36.5 (97.7)

Average high °C (°F) −4.0 (24.8) −2.5 (27.5) 2.8 (37) 11.2 (52.2) 16.9 (62.4) 21.8 (71.2) 26.7 (80.1) 27.2 (81) 22.8 (73) 15.3 (59.5) 6.7 (44.1) −1.0 (30.2) 11.99 (53.58)

Daily mean °C (°F) −9.4 (15.1) −8.1 (17.4) −2.3 (27.9) 5.4 (41.7) 10.6 (51.1) 14.9 (58.8) 19.3 (66.7) 19.3 (66.7) 14.5 (58.1) 8.0 (46.4) 0.6 (33.1) −6.0 (21.2) 5.57 (42.02)

Average low °C (°F) −14.5 (5.9) −13.2 (8.2) −7.1 (19.2) 0.0 (32) 4.0 (39.2) 7.0 (44.6) 10.9 (51.6) 10.6 (51.1) 5.9 (42.6) 1.4 (34.5) −4.4 (24.1) −10.7 (12.7) −0.84 (30.48)

Record low °C (°F) −41.0 (−41.8) −39.0 (−38.2) −40.0 (−40) −22.4 (−8.3) −7.1 (19.2) −5.6 (21.9) −1.8 (28.8) −1.1 (30) −6.8 (19.8) −15.0 (5) −34.3 (−29.7) −37.2 (−35) −41 (−41.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 19.8 (0.78) 23.0 (0.906) 32.2 (1.268) 55.8 (2.197) 67.8 (2.669) 45.5 (1.791) 26.2 (1.031) 17.0 (0.669) 20.6 (0.811) 44.7 (1.76) 32.1 (1.264) 21.4 (0.843) 406.1 (15.989)

Average precipitation days 11.6 11.4 12.8 14.8 16.7 11.1 6.8 5.5 4.9 10.1 9.5 11.5 126.7

Average snowy days 12 12 12 5 1 0 0 0 0 1 6 12 61

Average relative humidity (%) 79 78 76 67 62 58 52 48 49 64 74 80 65.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 93.0 109.2 151.9 180.0 241.8 303.0 344.1 331.7 267.0 204.6 132.0 86.8 2,445.1

Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü[30]

Source #2: Climatebase.ru[31]

Notable natives

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The Statue of Nene Hatun, (1857 – 22 May 1955) was a Turkish folk heroine, who at her age of twenty showed bravery during the recapture of Fort Aziziye
Aziziye
in Erzurum
Erzurum
from Russian forces at the start of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

Armenians

Hakop Karnetsi, (1618–1673) Armenian historian, geographer Ghoukas Karnetsi, (1722–1799) Catholicos of All Armenians (1780–1799) Hovhannes Karnetsi, (1750–1820) Armenian poet, pedagogue Armenak Arzrouni, (1901–1963) Armenian photographer Nikita Balieff, Armenian stage performer Arshak Gafavian, Armenian military commander Johannes Avetaranian
Johannes Avetaranian
(a.k.a. Mehmet Sükrü), Seyyid (self-proclaimed descendant of the prophet Muhammed), Christian
Christian
missionary Karekin Pastermadjian, a leader of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation and an ambassador of Armenia
Armenia
to the US Vartkes Serengülian, Armenian deputy in the Ottoman parliament killed during the Armenian Genocide Kourken Yanigian, American-Armenian author, engineer who murdered two Turkish consular officials

Turks

Acun Ilıcalı Television programmer Adnan Polat, Ahiska-Turk, President of Galatasaray Arif Sağ, Turkish singer, bağlama virtuoso Cemal Gürsel, the fourth president of Turkey Fethullah Gülen, Islamic writer Huseyin Avni Ulas, Influential Politician during the early period of the Republic of Turkey İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi, Turkish and Sufi philosopher and encyclopedist Nene Hatun, female defender of Erzurum
Erzurum
during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 Orhun Ene, Turkish Basketball player Recep Akdağ, minister of health of Turkey Sair Nef'i, 17th century Turkish poet

Others

Markos Vafiadis, leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece
Communist Party of Greece
(KKE)

Twin towns and sister cities

Urmia, Iran
Iran
(since 2015)[32]

See also

Theodosiopolis for Ancient namesakes

Notes and references

^ see other names ^ a b c d e f Inalcik, Halil. "Erzurum". Encyclopedia of Islam. P. Bearman et al. (eds.) Leiden: Brill, 1965, vol. ii, p. 712. ^ Garsoïan, Nina G. "Theodosioupolis". Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991, vol. 3, p. 2054. ^ a b See Joseph Laurent's extensive note in his (in French) L’Arménie entre Byzance et l’Islam depuis la conquête arabe jusqu’en 886, 1919, new edition revised and updated by Marius Canard, Lisbon: Librairie Bertrand, 1980, pp. 87–88, note 83. ^ (in German) Markwart, Joseph. Südarmenien und die Tigrisquellen nach griechischen und arabischen Geographen. Vienna: Mechitharisten-Buchdruckerei, 1930, pp. 41, 334, 339. ^ Hewsen. "Summit of the Earth", pp 42–44. ^ (in Armenian) Darbinyan, M. «Էրզրում» [Erzurum] Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1978, vol. 4, p. 93. ^ Pourshariati 2017. ^ Kemalettin Köroğlu: The Northern Border of the Urartian Kingdom. In: Altan Çilingiroğlu/G. Darbyshire (Hrsg.): Anatolian Iron Ages 5, Proceedings of the 5th Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium Van. 6.–10. August 2001. British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara
Ankara
Monograph 3 ( Ankara
Ankara
2005) 101. ^ Hewsen, Robert H. Armenia: a Historical Atlas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 103. ^ Garsoïan, Nina G. "The Foundation of Theodosiopolis-Karin" in Armenian Karin/Erzerum. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 4, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2003, pp. 63–72. ^ (in Armenian) Arakelyan, Babken N. "Հայաստանի Խոշոր Քաղաքները" ("The Great Cities of Armenia") in Հայ Ժողովրդի Պատմություն [History of the Armenian People]. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1976, vol. iii, p. 232. ^ Whittow, Mark. The Making of Byzantium, 600–1025. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996, pp. 310, 320. ^ Whittow. The Making of Byzantium, p. 322. ^ Arakelyan. "The Great Cities of Armenia", pp. 232–233. ^ Zehiroğlu, Ahmet M. ; "Trabzon Imparatorluğu 2" 2016, Trabzon, (ISBN 978-605-4567-52-2) ; pp.133–134 ^ John A Boyle. "Persia (RLE Iran
Iran
A): History and Heritage" p 43 ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle, Vol.III, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, 1140. ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N. Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of Turko-Armenian Conflict. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1999, p. 141. ^ Balakian, Peter. The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
and America's Response. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 59, 127–129. ISBN 0-06-055870-9.  ^ See Richard G. Hovannisian, "The Competition for Erzerum, 1914–1921" in Armenian Karin/Erzerum, pp. 378ff. ^ Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, p. 536, nº 80, e p. 551, nº 112 ^ Meyendorff 1989, p. 108-109, 284, 343. ^ "Europe gas pipeline deal agreed". BBC News. 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ "Turkey, EU countries sign gas pipeline deal". Today's Zaman. 2009-07-13. Archived from the original on 2009-07-18. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ "Nabucco Summits Begins". Turkish Press. 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ Ian Kelly (2009-07-13). "Signing Ceremony for the Intergovernmental Agreement on the Nabucco Pipeline" (Press release). United States Department of State. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ a b Erzurum
Erzurum
city guide, travel guide, hotel guide, tourism guide. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://erzurumguide.com/ ^ "A lens on Lenz on the South Side".  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-27. Retrieved 2011-02-01.  ^ "Climatebase.ru – Erzurum, Turkey".  ^ "Urmia, Erzurum
Erzurum
sign sisterhood agreement". 7 April 2015. 

Further reading

Published in the 19th century

Jedidiah Morse; Richard C. Morse (1823). "Erzerum". A New Universal Gazetteer (4th ed.). New Haven: S. Converse  Robert Curzon (1854). Armenia: A Year at Erzeroom and on the frontiers of Russia, Turkey, and Persia. London: John Murray.  "Erzeroom". Handbook for Travellers in Turkey
Turkey
(3rd ed.). London: J. Murray. 1854. OCLC 2145740 

Published in the 20th century

"Erzerum". The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). New York: Encyclopædia Britannica. 1910. OCLC 14782424  (in Armenian) Ter-Ghevondyan, Aram N. "Կարին-Թեոդուպոլիսը ավանդության և պատմության մեջ" [Karin-Theodosiopolis in Tradition and History]. Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri 3 (1971). Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian
Christian
divisions: The Church 450-680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press.  Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 

Published in the 21st century

Hovannisian, Richard G. (ed.) Armenian Karin/Erzerum. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 4. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2003. "Erzurum". Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2009. 

Sources and external links

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Erzurum.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Erzurum.

Pourshariati, Parvaneh (2017). "KĀRIN". Encyclopaedia Iranica.  Erzurum
Erzurum
Chamber of Commerce GCatholic - former & titular see Theodosiopolis in Armenia Bilkent Üniversitesi Erzurum
Erzurum
Yerleşkesi ArchNet.org. "Erzurum". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning. Archived from the original on 2012-10-23. 

Bibliography – Ecclesiastical history

Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 441 Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Tomo I, coll. 437–438 Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 6, p. 402

v t e

Erzurum
Erzurum
in Erzurum Province
Erzurum Province
of Turkey

Districts

Aşkale Aziziye Çat Hınıs Horasan Ilıca İspir Karaçoban Karayazı Köprüköy Narman Oltu Olur Palandöken Pasinler Pazaryolu Şenkaya Tekman Tortum Uzundere Yakutiye

List of Provinces by Region

Istanbul

Istanbul

West Marmara

Balıkesir Çanakkale Edirne Kırklareli Tekirdağ

Aegean

Afyonkarahisar Aydın Denizli İzmir Kütahya Manisa Muğla Uşak

East Marmara

Bilecik Bolu Bursa Düzce Eskişehir Kocaeli Sakarya Yalova

West Anatolia

Ankara Karaman Konya

Mediterranean

Adana Antalya Burdur Hatay Isparta Kahramanmaraş Mersin Osmaniye

Central Anatolia

Aksaray Kayseri Kırıkkale Kırşehir Nevşehir Niğde Sivas Yozgat

West Black Sea

Amasya Bartın Çankırı Çorum Karabük Kastamonu Samsun Sinop Tokat Zonguldak

East Black Sea

Artvin Giresun Gümüşhane Ordu Rize Trabzon

Northeast Anatolia

Ağrı Ardahan Bayburt Erzincan Erzurum Iğdır Kars

Central East Anatolia

Bingöl Bitlis Elazığ Hakkâri Malatya Muş Tunceli Van

Southeast Anatolia

Adıyaman Batman Diyarbakır Gaziantep Kilis Mardin Siirt Şanlıurfa Şırnak

Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.

v t e

Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey

Adana Ankara Antalya Aydın Balıkesir Bursa Denizli Diyarbakır Erzurum Eskişehir Gaziantep Hatay İstanbul İzmir Kayseri Kocaeli Konya Kahramanmaraş Malatya Manisa Mardin Mersin Muğla Ordu Sakarya Samsun Şanlıurfa Tekirdağ Trabzon Van

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Turkey TÜİK's address-based calculation from December, 2013.[1]

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Istanbul

Ankara 1 Istanbul Istanbul 13,820,334 11 Kayseri Kayseri 880,255

İzmir

Bursa

2 Ankara Ankara 4,474,305 12 Eskişehir Eskişehir 670,544

3 İzmir İzmir 2,828,927 13 Gebze Kocaeli 582,352

4 Bursa Bursa 1,769,752 14 Urfa Şanlıurfa 551,511

5 Adana Adana 1,645,965 15 Denizli Denizli 540,000

6 Gaziantep Gaziantep 1,465,019 16 Samsun Samsun 523,192

7 Konya Konya 1,138,609 17 Kahramanmaraş Kahramanmaraş 458,628

8 Antalya Antalya 1,027,551 18 Adapazarı Sakarya 449,290

9 Diyarbakır Diyarbakır 906,013 19 Malatya Malatya 425,000

10 Mersin Mersin 898,813 20 Erzurum Erzurum 381,104

^ "December 2013 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by citypop

.