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The Ericaceae
Ericaceae
are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the heath or heather family, found most commonly in acid and infertile growing conditions. The family is large, with c. 4250 known species spread across 124 genera,[2] making it the 14th most species-rich family of flowering plants.[3] The many well-known and economically important members of the Ericaceae
Ericaceae
include the cranberry, blueberry, huckleberry, rhododendron (including azaleas), and various common heaths and heathers (Erica, Cassiope, Daboecia, and Calluna
Calluna
for example).[4]

Contents

1 Description 2 Taxonomy

2.1 Genera

3 Distribution and ecology 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

Description[edit] The Ericaceae
Ericaceae
contain a morphologically diverse range of taxa, including herbs, dwarf shrubs, shrubs, and trees. Their leaves are usually alternate or whorled, simple and without stipules. Their flowers are hermaphrodite and show considerable variability. The petals are often fused (sympetalous) with shapes ranging from narrowly tubular to funnelform or widely urn-shaped. The corollas are usually radially symmetrical (actinomorphic) and urn-shaped, but many flowers of the genus Rhododendron
Rhododendron
are somewhat bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic).[5] Anthers open by pores. [6] Taxonomy[edit] Adanson
Adanson
used the term Vaccinia to describe a similar family, but Jussieu first used the term Ericaceae. The name comes from the type genus Erica, which appears to be derived from the Greek word ereike. The exact meaning is difficult to interpret, but some sources show it as meaning 'heather'. The name may have been used informally to refer to the plants before Linnaean times, and simply been formalised when Linnaeus
Linnaeus
described Erica
Erica
in 1753, and then again when Jussieu described the Ericaceae
Ericaceae
in 1789.[7] Historically, the Ericaceae
Ericaceae
included both subfamilies and tribes. In 1971, Stevens, who outlined the history from 1876 and in some instances 1839, recognised six subfamilies (Rhododendroideae, Ericoideae, Vaccinioideae, Pyroloideae, Monotropoideae, and Wittsteinioideae), and further subdivided four of the subfamilies into tribes, the Rhododendroideae having seven tribes (Bejarieae, Rhodoreae, Cladothamneae, Epigaeae, Phyllodoceae, and Diplarcheae).[8] Within tribe Rhodoreae, five genera were described, Rhododendron
Rhododendron
L. (including Azalea
Azalea
L. pro parte), Therorhodion Small, Ledum
Ledum
L., Tsusiophyllum Max., Menziesia J. E. Smith, that were eventually transferred into Rhododendron, along with Diplarche from the monogeneric tribe Diplarcheae.[9] In 2002, systematic research resulted in the inclusion of the formerly recognised families Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Monotropaceae, Prionotaceae, and Pyrolaceae into the Ericaceae
Ericaceae
based on a combination of molecular, morphological, anatomical, and embryological data, analysed within a phylogenetic framework.[10] The move significantly increased the morphological and geographical range found within the group. One possible classification of the resulting family includes 9 subfamilies, 126 genera, and about 4000 species:[3]

Enkianthoideae
Enkianthoideae
Kron, Judd & Anderberg (one genus, 16 species) Pyroloideae
Pyroloideae
Kosteltsky (4 genera, 40 species) Monotropoideae
Monotropoideae
Arnott (10 genera, 15 species) Arbutoideae
Arbutoideae
Niedenzu (up to six genera, about 80 species) Cassiopoideae
Cassiopoideae
Kron & Judd (one genus, 12 species) Ericoideae
Ericoideae
Link (19 genera, 1790 species) Harrimanelloideae
Harrimanelloideae
Kron & Judd (one genus, two species) Styphelioideae Sweet (35 genera, 545 species) Vaccinioideae
Vaccinioideae
Arnott (50 genera, 1580 species)

Genera[edit]

See the full list at List of Ericaceae
Ericaceae
genera.

Distribution and ecology[edit] The Ericaceae
Ericaceae
have a nearly worldwide distribution. They are absent from continental Antarctica, parts of the high Arctic, central Greenland, northern and central Australia, and much of the lowland tropics and neotropics.[3] The family is largely composed of plants that can tolerate acidic, infertile conditions. Like other stress-tolerant plants, many Ericaceae
Ericaceae
have mycorrhizal fungi to assist with extracting nutrients from infertile soils, as well as evergreen foliage to conserve absorbed nutrients.[11] This trait is not found in the Clethraceae
Clethraceae
and Cyrillaceae, the two families most closely related to the Ericaceae. Most Ericaceae
Ericaceae
(excluding the Monotropoideae, and some Styphelioideae) form a distinctive accumulation of mycorrhizae, in which fungi grow in and around the roots and provide the plant with nutrients.[12] The Pyroloideae
Pyroloideae
are mixotrophic and gain sugars from the mycorrhizae, as well as nutrients.[13] In many parts of the world, a "heath" or "heathland" is an environment characterised by an open dwarf-shrub community found on low-quality acidic soils, generally dominated by plants in the Ericaceae. A common example is Erica
Erica
tetralix. This plant family is also typical of peat bogs and blanket bogs; examples include Rhododendron
Rhododendron
groenlandicum and Kalmia polifolia. In eastern North America, members of this family often grow in association with an oak canopy, in a habitat known as an oak-heath forest.[14] In heathland, plants in the family Ericaceae
Ericaceae
serve as hostplants to the butterfly, Plebejus argus[15]. Some evidence suggests eutrophic rainwater can convert ericoid heaths with species such as Erica
Erica
tetralix to grasslands.[16] Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is particularly suspect in this regard, and may be causing measurable changes to the distribution and abundance of some ericaceous species. References[edit]

^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.  ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.  ^ a b c Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). "Ericaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 29 December 2014. ^ Kron, Kathleen A.; Powell, E. Ann & Luteyn, J.L. (2002). " Phylogenetic
Phylogenetic
relationships within the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae) based on sequence data from MATK and nuclear ribosomal ITS regions, with comments on the placement of Satyria". American Journal of Botany. 89 (2): 327–336. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.2.327. PMID 21669741.  ^ Watson, L. & Dallwitz, M.J. (19 August 2014). " Ericaceae
Ericaceae
Juss". The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Retrieved 30 December 2014.  ^ http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/phylo_eric.htm ^ Jussieu, A.-L. de (1789). Genera plantarum ordines naturales disposita. Paris: Herissant & Barrois. pp. 159–160.  ^ Stevens (1971). ^ Craven, L.A. (April 2011). "Diplarche and Menziesia transferred to Rhododendron
Rhododendron
(Ericaceae)". Blumea. 56 (1): 33–35. doi:10.3767/000651911X568594.  ^ Kron, K.A.; Judd, W.S.; Stevens, P.F.; Crayn, D.M.; Anderberg, A.A.; Gadek, P.A.; Quinn, C.J. & Luteyn, J.L. (2002). "Phylogenetic Classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and Morphological Evidence". The Botanical Review. 68 (3): 335–423. doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2002)068[0335:pcoema]2.0.co;2.  ^ Keddy, P.A. (2007). Plants and Vegetation: Origins, Processes, Consequences. Cambridge University Press.  ^ Cairney, J.W.G.; Meharg, A.A. (2003). "Ericoid mycorrhiza: a partnership that exploits harsh edaphic conditions". European Journal of Soil
Soil
Science. 54 (4): 735–740. doi:10.1046/j.1351-0754.2003.0555.x.  ^ Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zhou, J. & Peng, H. (2010). "Phylogeny of Pyroleae (Ericaceae): implications for character evolution". Journal of plant research. 124 (3): 325–337. doi:10.1007/s10265-010-0376-8. PMID 20862511.  ^ "The Natural Communities of Virginia Classification of Ecological Community Groups (Version 2.6)". Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. July 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2014.  ^ Thomas, C. D. (1985-08-01). "Specializations and polyphagy of Plebejus argus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in North Wales". Ecological Entomology. 10 (3): 325–340. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1985.tb00729.x. ISSN 1365-2311.  ^ Keddy, P.A. (2010). Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press. pp. 103–104. 

Bibliography[edit]

Stevens, P.F. (1971). "A classification of the Ericaceae: subfamilies and tribes". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 64 (1): 1–53. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1971.tb02133.x.  Cafferty, Steve & Jarvis, Charles E. (November 2002). "Typification of Linnaean Plant
Plant
Names in Ericaceae". Taxon. 51 (4): 751–753. doi:10.2307/1555030. JSTOR 10.2307/1555030.  Stevens, P.F.; Luteyn, J.; Oliver, E.G.H.; Bell, T.L.; Brown, E.A.; Crowden, R.K.; George, A.S.; Jordan, G.J.; Ladd, P.; Lemson, K.; McLean, C.B.; Menadue, Y.; Pate, J.S.; Stace, H.M. & Weiller, C.M. (2004). "Ericaceae". In Kubitzki, K. The families and genera of vascular plants, Vol. 6. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 145–194. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ericaceae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Ericaceae

Ericaceae
Ericaceae
at The Plant
Plant
List Ericaceae, Epacridaceae, Empetraceae, Monotropaceae, and Pyrolaceae at The Families of Flowering Plants (DELTA) Ericaceae
Ericaceae
at the Encyclopedia of Life Ericaceae
Ericaceae
at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website Ericaceae
Ericaceae
at the online Flora of North America Ericaceae
Ericaceae
at the online Flora of China Ericaceae
Ericaceae
at the online Flora of Pakistan Ericaceae
Ericaceae
at the online Flora of Chile Epacridaceae at the online Flora of New Zealand Epacridaceae at the online Flora of Western Australia Ericaceae
Ericaceae
at Ericaceae.org Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A.; et al. (Dec 2010). "Factsheet – Ericaceae". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), through its Division of Plant
Plant
Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved 14 May 2013.  Neotropical Blueberries at the New York Botanical Garden

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q975872 EoL: 4269 EPPO: 1ERIF FloraBase: 23412 FNA: 10316 FoC: 10316 Fossilworks: 55506 GBIF: 2505 GRIN: 419 iNaturalist: 133387 IPNI: 30451803-2 ITIS: 23463 NCBI: 4345 Tropicos: 42000146 VASCAN: 129 Watson & Dallwitz: eric

.