English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language. This includes the structure of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences, right up to the structure of whole texts. There are historical, social, cultural and regional variations of English. Divergences from the grammar described here occur in some dialects of English. This article describes a generalized present-day Standard English, the form of speech and writing found in types of public discourse including broadcasting, education, entertainment, government, and news including both formal and informal speech. There are differences in grammar between the standard forms of British, American, and Australian English, although these are minor compared with the differences in vocabulary and pronunciation. Modern English has largely abandoned the inflectional case system of Indo-European in favor of analytic constructions. The personal pronouns of Modern English retain morphological case more strongly than any other word class (a remnant of the more extensive case system of Old English). For other pronouns, and all nouns, adjectives, and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, and by the "Saxon genitive" (-'s). Eight "word classes" or "parts of speech" are commonly distinguished in English: nouns, determiners, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions. Nouns form the largest English word class, with verbs being the second largest word class. Unlike many Indo-European languages, English nouns do not have grammatical gender (although many nouns refer specifically to male or female persons or animals).
1 Word classes and phrases
1.2 Determiners 1.3 Pronouns
1.3.1 Personal pronouns 1.3.2 Demonstrative and interrogative pronouns 1.3.3 Relative pronouns 1.3.4 There as pronoun 1.3.5 Other pronouns
1.5.1 Comparison 1.5.2 Adjective phrases
1.6.1 Adverb phrases
1.7 Prepositions 1.8 Conjunctions 1.9 Case 1.10 Declension
2 Negation 3 Clause and sentence structure
3.1 Word order 3.2 Questions 3.3 Dependent clauses 3.4 Other uses of inversion 3.5 Imperatives 3.6 Elliptical constructions
4 History of English grammars 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Bibliography
8 External links
Word classes and phrases
Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs form open classes – word
classes that readily accept new members, such as the noun celebutante
(a celebrity who frequents the fashion circles), similar relatively
new words. The others are considered to be closed classes. For
example, it is rare for a new pronoun to enter the language.
Determiners, traditionally classified along with adjectives, have not
always been regarded as a separate part of speech.
another word class, but these are not described here as they do not
form part of the clause and sentence structure of the language.
English words are not generally marked for word class. It is not
usually possible to tell from the form of a word which class it
belongs to except, to some extent, in the case of words with
inflectional endings or derivational suffixes. On the other hand, most
words belong to more than one word class. For example, run can serve
as either a verb or a noun (these are regarded as two different
lexemes). Lexemes may be inflected to express different grammatical
categories. The lexeme run has the forms runs, ran, runny, runner, and
Determiner + Pre-modifiers + NOUN + Postmodifiers/Complement
In this structure:
the determiner may be an article (the, a[n]) or other equivalent word, as described in the following section. In many contexts it is required for a noun phrase to include some determiner. pre-modifiers include adjectives and some adjective phrases (such as red, really lovely), and noun adjuncts (such as college in the phrase the college student). Adjectival modifiers usually come before noun adjuncts. a complement or postmodifier may be a prepositional phrase (... of London), a relative clause (like ...which we saw yesterday), certain adjective or participial phrases (... sitting on the beach), or a dependent clause or infinitive phrase appropriate to the noun (like ... that the world is round after a noun such as fact or statement, or ... to travel widely after a noun such as desire).
An example of a noun phrase that includes all of the above-mentioned elements is that rather attractive young college student to whom you were talking. Here that is the determiner, rather attractive and young are adjectival pre-modifiers, college is a noun adjunct, student is the noun serving as the head of the phrase, and to whom you were talking is a post-modifier (a relative clause in this case). Notice the order of the pre-modifiers; the determiner that must come first and the noun adjunct college must come after the adjectival modifiers. Coordinating conjunctions such as and, or, and but can be used at various levels in noun phrases, as in John, Paul, and Mary; the matching green coat and hat; a dangerous but exciting ride; a person sitting down or standing up. See § Conjunctions below for more explanation. Noun phrases can also be placed in apposition (where two consecutive phrases refer to the same thing), as in that president, Abraham Lincoln, ... (where that president and Abraham Lincoln are in apposition). In some contexts the same can be expressed by a prepositional phrase, as in the twin curses of famine and pestilence (meaning "the twin curses" that are "famine and pestilence"). Particular forms of noun phrases include:
phrases formed by the determiner the with an adjective, as in the homeless, the English (these are plural phrases referring to homeless people or English people in general); phrases with a pronoun rather than a noun as the head (see below); phrases consisting just of a possessive; infinitive and gerund phrases, in certain positions; certain clauses, such as that clauses and relative clauses like what he said, in certain positions.
Main article: Gender in English
A system of grammatical gender, whereby every noun was treated as
either masculine, feminine or neuter, existed in Old English, but fell
out of use during the
Masculine Feminine Gender neutral
man woman adult
boy girl child
husband wife spouse
actor actress -
rooster hen chicken
Many nouns that mention people's roles and jobs can refer to either a masculine or a feminine subject, for instance "cousin", "teenager", "teacher", "doctor", "student", "friend", and "colleague".
Jane is my friend. She is a dentist. Paul is my cousin. He is a dentist.
Often the gender distinction for these neutral nouns is established by inserting the words "male" or "female".
Sam is a female doctor. No, he is not my boyfriend; he is just a male friend. I have three female cousins and two male cousins.
Rarely, nouns illustrating things with no gender are referred to with a gendered pronoun to convey familiarity. It is also standard to use the gender-neutral pronoun (it).
I love my car. She (the car) is my greatest passion. France is popular with her (France's) neighbors at the moment. I travelled from England to New York on the Queen Elizabeth; she (the Queen Elizabeth) is a great ship.
Determiners Main articles: English determiners and English articles English determiners constitute a relatively small class of words. They include the articles the, a[n], certain demonstrative and interrogative words such as this, that, and which, possessives such as my and whose (the role of determiner can also be played by noun possessive forms such as John's and the girl's), various quantifying words like all, some, many, various, and numerals (one, two, etc.). There are also many phrases (such as a couple of) that can play the role of determiners. Determiners are used in the formation of noun phrases (see above). Many words that serve as determiners can also be used as pronouns (this, that, many, etc.) Determiners can be used in certain combinations, such as all the water and the many problems. In many contexts, it is required for a noun phrase to be completed with an article or some other determiner. It is not grammatical to say just cat sat on table; one must say my cat sat on the table. The most common situations in which a complete noun phrase can be formed without a determiner are when it refers generally to a whole class or concept (as in dogs are dangerous and beauty is subjective) and when it is a name (Jane, Spain, etc.) This is discussed in more detail at English articles and Zero article in English. Pronouns Pronouns are a relatively small, closed class of words that function in the place of nouns or noun phrases. They include personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns, and some others, mainly indefinite pronouns. Personal pronouns Main article: English personal pronouns The personal pronouns of modern standard English, and the corresponding possessive forms, are as follows:
1st pers. sing. I me myself my mine
2nd pers. sing./pl. you you yourself/yourselves your yours
3rd pers. sing. she, he, they, it her, him, them, it herself, himself, themself, itself her, his, their, its hers, his, theirs, its
1st pers. pl. we us ourselves our ours
3rd pers. pl. they them themselves their theirs
The second-person forms such as you are used with both singular and
plural reference. In the Southern United States, y'all (you all) is
used as a plural form, and various other phrases such as you guys are
used in other places. An archaic set of second-person pronouns used
for singular reference is thou, thee, thyself, thy, thine, which are
still used in religious services and can be seen in older works, such
as Shakespeare's - in such texts, the you set of pronouns are used for
plural reference, or with singular reference as a formal V-form. You
can also be used as an indefinite pronoun, referring to a person in
general (see generic you) compared to the more formal alternative, one
(reflexive oneself, possessive one's).
The third-person singular forms are differentiated according to the
sex of the referent. For example, she is used to refer to a female
person, sometimes a female animal, and sometimes an object to which
female characteristics are attributed, such as a ship or a country. A
male person, and sometimes a male animal, is referred to using he. In
other cases it can be used. (See Gender in English.) The word it can
also be used as a dummy subject, in sentences like It is going to be
sunny this afternoon.
The third-person plural forms such as they are sometimes used with
singular reference, as a gender-neutral pronoun, as in each employee
should ensure they tidy their desk. Despite its long history, this
usage is sometimes considered ungrammatical. (See singular they.)
The possessive determiners such as my are used as determiners together
with nouns, as in my old man, some of his friends. The second
possessive forms like mine are used when they do not qualify a noun:
as pronouns, as in mine is bigger than yours, and as predicates, as in
this one is mine. Note also the construction a friend of mine (meaning
"someone who is my friend"). See
prepositional phrases: proud of him, angry at the screen, keen on breeding toads; infinitive phrases: anxious to solve the problem, easy to pick up; content clauses, i.e. that clauses and certain others: certain that he was right, unsure where they are; after comparatives, phrases or clauses with than: better than you, smaller than I had imagined.
An adjective phrase may include both modifiers before the adjective and a complement after it, as in very difficult to put away. Adjective phrases containing complements after the adjective cannot normally be used as attributive adjectives before a noun. Sometimes they are used attributively after the noun, as in a woman proud of being a midwife (where they may be converted into relative clauses: a woman who is proud of being a midwife), but it is wrong to say *a proud of being a midwife woman. Exceptions include very brief and often established phrases such as easy-to-use. (Certain complements can be moved to after the noun, leaving the adjective before the noun, as in a better man than you, a hard nut to crack.) Certain attributive adjective phrases are formed from other parts of speech, without any adjective as their head, as in a two-bedroom house, a no-jeans policy. Adverbs Adverbs perform a wide range of functions. They typically modify verbs (or verb phrases), adjectives (or adjectival phrases), or other adverbs (or adverbial phrases). However, adverbs also sometimes qualify noun phrases (only the boss; quite a lovely place), pronouns and determiners (almost all), prepositional phrases (halfway through the movie), or whole sentences, to provide contextual comment or indicate an attitude (Frankly, I don't believe you). They can also indicate a relationship between clauses or sentences (He died, and consequently I inherited the estate). Many English adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding the ending -ly, as in hopefully, widely, theoretically (for details of spelling and etymology, see -ly). Certain words can be used as both adjectives and adverbs, such as fast, straight, and hard; these are flat adverbs. In earlier usage more flat adverbs were accepted in formal usage; many of these survive in idioms and colloquially. (That's just plain ugly.) Some adjectives can also be used as flat adverbs when they actually describe the subject. (The streaker ran naked, not **The streaker ran nakedly.) The adverb corresponding to the adjective good is well (note that bad forms the regular badly, although ill is occasionally used in some phrases). There are also many adverbs that are not derived from adjectives, including adverbs of time, of frequency, of place, of degree and with other meanings. Some suffixes that are commonly used to form adverbs from nouns are -ward[s] (as in homeward[s]) and -wise (as in lengthwise). Most adverbs form comparatives and superlatives by modification with more and most: often, more often, most often; smoothly, more smoothly, most smoothly (see also comparison of adjectives, above). However, a few adverbs retain irregular inflection for comparative and superlative forms: much, more, most; a little, less, least; well, better, best; badly, worse, worst; far, further (farther), furthest (farthest); or follow the regular adjectival inflection: fast, faster, fastest; soon, sooner, soonest; etc. Adverbs indicating the manner of an action are generally placed after the verb and its objects (We considered the proposal carefully), although other positions are often possible (We carefully considered the proposal). Many adverbs of frequency, degree, certainty, etc. (such as often, always, almost, probably, and various others such as just) tend to be placed before the verb (they usually have chips), although if there is an auxiliary or other "special verb" (see § Verbs above), then the normal position for such adverbs is after that special verb (or after the first of them, if there is more than one): I have just finished the crossword; She can usually manage a pint; We are never late; You might possibly have been unconscious. Adverbs that provide a connection with previous information (such as next, then, however), and those that provide the context (such as time or place) for a sentence, are typically placed at the start of the sentence: Yesterday we went on a shopping expedition. A special type of adverb is the adverbial particle used to form phrasal verbs (such as up in pick up, on in get on, etc.) If such a verb also has an object, then the particle may precede or follow the object, although it will normally follow the object if the object is a pronoun (pick the pen up or pick up the pen, but pick it up). Adverb phrases An adverb phrase is a phrase that acts as an adverb within a sentence. An adverb phrase may have an adverb as its head, together with any modifiers (other adverbs or adverb phrases) and complements, analogously to the adjective phrases described above. For example: very sleepily; all too suddenly; oddly enough; perhaps shockingly for us. Another very common type of adverb phrase is the prepositional phrase, which consists of a preposition and its object: in the pool; after two years; for the sake of harmony. Prepositions Prepositions form a closed word class, although there are also certain phrases that serve as prepositions, such as in front of. A single preposition may have a variety of meanings, often including temporal, spatial and abstract. Many words that are prepositions can also serve as adverbs. Examples of common English prepositions (including phrasal instances) are of, in, on, over, under, to, from, with, in front of, behind, opposite, by, before, after, during, through, in spite of or despite, between, among, etc. A preposition is usually used with a noun phrase as its complement. A preposition together with its complement is called a prepositional phrase. Examples are in England, under the table, after six pleasant weeks, between the land and the sea. A prepositional phrase can be used as a complement or post-modifier of a noun in a noun phrase, as in the man in the car, the start of the fight; as a complement of a verb or adjective, as in deal with the problem, proud of oneself; or generally as an adverb phrase (see above). English allows the use of "stranded" prepositions. This can occur in interrogative and relative clauses, where the interrogative or relative pronoun that is the preposition's complement is moved to the start (fronted), leaving the preposition in place. This kind of structure is avoided in some kinds of formal English. For example:
What are you talking about? (Possible alternative version: About what are you talking?) The song that you were listening to ... (more formal: The song to which you were listening ...)
Notice that in the second example the relative pronoun that could be omitted. Stranded prepositions can also arise in passive voice constructions and other uses of passive past participial phrases, where the complement in a prepositional phrase can become zero in the same way that a verb's direct object would: it was looked at; I will be operated on; get your teeth seen to. The same can happen in certain uses of infinitive phrases: he is nice to talk to; this is the page to make copies of. Conjunctions Conjunctions express a variety of logical relations between items, phrases, clauses and sentences. The principal coordinating conjunctions in English are and, or, and but, as well as nor, so, yet, and for. These can be used in many grammatical contexts to link two or more items of equal grammatical status, for example:
Noun phrases combined into a longer noun phrase, such as John, Eric, and Jill, the red coat or the blue one. When and is used, the resulting noun phrase is plural. A determiner does not need to be repeated with the individual elements: the cat, the dog, and the mouse and the cat, dog, and mouse are both correct. The same applies to other modifiers. (The word but can be used here in the sense of "except": nobody but you.) Adjective or adverb phrases combined into a longer adjective or adverb phrase: tired but happy, over the fields and far away. Verbs or verb phrases combined as in he washed, peeled, and diced the turnips (verbs conjoined, object shared); he washed the turnips, peeled them, and diced them (full verb phrases, including objects, conjoined). Other equivalent items linked, such as prefixes linked in pre- and post-test counselling, numerals as in two or three buildings, etc. Clauses or sentences linked, as in We came, but they wouldn't let us in. They wouldn't let us in, nor would they explain what we had done wrong.
There are also correlative conjunctions, where as well as the basic conjunction, an additional element appears before the first of the items being linked. The common correlatives in English are:
either ... or (either a man or a woman); neither ... nor (neither clever nor funny); both ... and (they both punished and rewarded them); not ... but, particularly in not only ... but also (not exhausted but exhilarated, not only football but also many other sports).
Subordinating conjunctions make relations between clauses, making the clause in which they appear into a subordinate clause. Some common subordinating conjunctions in English are:
conjunctions of time, including after, before, since, until, when, while; conjunctions of cause and effect, including because, since, now that, as, in order that, so; conjunctions of opposition or concession, such as although, though, even though, whereas, while; conjunctions of condition: such as if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, in case (that); the conjunction that, which produces content clauses, as well as words that produce interrogative content clauses: whether, where, when, how, etc.
A subordinating conjunction generally comes at the very start of its clause, although many of them can be preceded by qualifying adverbs, as in probably because ..., especially if .... The conjunction that can be omitted after certain verbs, as in she told us (that) she was ready. (For the use of that in relative clauses, see § Relative pronouns above.) Case Although English has largely lost its case system, personal pronouns still have three morphological cases that are simplified forms of the nominative, objective and genitive cases:
The nominative case (subjective pronouns such as I, he, she, we, they, who, whoever), used for the subject of a finite verb and sometimes for the complement of a copula. The oblique case (object pronouns such as me, him, her, us, it, us, them, whom, whomever), used for the direct or indirect object of a verb, for the object of a preposition, for an absolute disjunct, and sometimes for the complement of a copula. The genitive case (possessive pronouns such as my/mine, his, her(s), our(s), its, our(s), their, theirs, whose), used for a grammatical possessor. This is not always considered to be a case; see English possessive § Status of the possessive as a grammatical case.
Most English personal pronouns have five forms: the nominative and oblique case forms, the possessive case, which has both a determiner form (such as my, our) and a distinct independent form (such as mine, ours) (with two exceptions: the third person singular masculine and the third person singular neuter it, which use the same form for both determiner and independent [his car, it is his]), and a distinct reflexive or intensive form (such as myself, ourselves). The interrogative personal pronoun who exhibits the greatest diversity of forms within the modern English pronoun system, having definite nominative, oblique, and genitive forms (who, whom, whose) and equivalently coordinating indefinite forms (whoever, whomever, and whosever). Forms such as I, he and we are used for the subject ("I kicked the ball"), whereas forms such as me, him and us are used for the object ("John kicked me"). Declension Further information: Declension Nouns have distinct singular and plural forms; that is, they decline to reflect their grammatical number; consider the difference between book and books. In addition, a few English pronouns have distinct nominative (also called subjective) and oblique (or objective) forms; that is, they decline to reflect their relationship to a verb or preposition, or case. Consider the difference between he (subjective) and him (objective), as in "He saw it" and "It saw him"; similarly, consider who, which is subjective, and the objective whom. Further, these pronouns and a few others have distinct possessive forms, such as his and whose. By contrast, nouns have no distinct nominative and objective forms, the two being merged into a single plain case. For example, chair does not change form between "the chair is here" (subject) and "I saw the chair" (direct object). Possession is shown by the clitic -'s attached to a possessive noun phrase, rather than by declension of the noun itself. Negation As noted above under § Verbs, a finite indicative verb (or its clause) is negated by placing the word not after an auxiliary, modal or other "special" verb such as do, can or be. For example, the clause I go is negated with the appearance of the auxiliary do, as I do not go (see do-support). When the affirmative already uses auxiliary verbs (I am going), no other auxiliary verbs are added to negate the clause (I am not going). (Until the period of early Modern English, negation was effected without additional auxiliary verbs: I go not.) Most combinations of auxiliary verbs etc. with not have contracted forms: don't, can't, isn't, etc. (Also the uncontracted negated form of can is written as a single word cannot.) On inversion of subject and verb (such as in questions; see below), the subject may be placed after a contracted negated form: Should he not pay? or Shouldn't he pay? Other elements, such as noun phrases, adjectives, adverbs, infinitive and participial phrases, etc., can be negated by placing the word not before them: not the right answer, not interesting, not to enter, not noticing the train, etc. When other negating words such as never, nobody, etc. appear in a sentence, the negating not is omitted (unlike its equivalents in many languages): I saw nothing or I didn't see anything, but not (except in non-standard speech) *I didn't see nothing (see Double negative). Such negating words generally have corresponding negative polarity items (ever for never, anybody for nobody, etc.) which can appear in a negative context, but are not negative themselves (and can thus be used after a negation without giving rise to double negatives). Clause and sentence structure Main article: English clause syntax A typical sentence contains one independent clause and possibly one or more dependent clauses, although it is also possible to link together sentences of this form into longer sentences, using coordinating conjunctions (see above). A clause typically contains a subject (a noun phrase) and a predicate (a verb phrase in the terminology used above; that is, a verb together with its objects and complements). A dependent clause also normally contains a subordinating conjunction (or in the case of relative clauses, a relative pronoun or phrase containing one). Word order English word order has moved from the Germanic verb-second (V2) word order to being almost exclusively subject–verb–object (SVO). The combination of SVO order and use of auxiliary verbs often creates clusters of two or more verbs at the centre of the sentence, such as he had hoped to try to open it. In most sentences English only marks grammatical relations through word order. The subject constituent precedes the verb and the object constituent follows it. The Object–subject–verb (OSV) may on occasion be seen in English, usually in the future tense or used as a contrast with the conjunction "but", such as in the following examples: "Rome I shall see!", "I hate oranges, but apples I'll eat!". Questions Like many other Western European languages, English historically allowed questions to be formed by inverting the positions of verb and subject. Modern English permits this only in the case of a small class of verbs ("special verbs"), consisting of auxiliaries as well as forms of the copula be (see subject–auxiliary inversion). To form a question from a sentence which does not have such an auxiliary or copula present, the auxiliary verb do (does, did) needs to be inserted, along with inversion of the word order, to form a question (see do-support). For example:
She can dance. → Can she dance? (inversion of subject she and auxiliary can) I am sitting here. → Am I sitting here? (inversion of subject I and copula am) The milk goes in the fridge. → Does the milk go in the fridge? (no special verb present; do-support required)
The above concerns yes-no questions, but inversion also takes place in the same way after other questions, formed with interrogative words such as where, what, how, etc. An exception applies when the interrogative word is the subject or part of the subject, in which case there is no inversion. For example:
I go. → Where do I go? (wh-question formed using inversion, with do-support required in this case) He goes. → Who goes? (no inversion, because the question word who is the subject)
Note that inversion does not apply in indirect questions: I wonder where he is (not *... where is he). Indirect yes-no questions can be expressed using if or whether as the interrogative word: Ask them whether/if they saw him. Negative questions are formed similarly; however if the verb undergoing inversion has a contraction with not, then it is possible to invert the subject with this contraction as a whole. For example:
John is going. (affirmative) John is not going. / John isn't going. (negative, with and without contraction) Isn't John going? / Is John not going? (negative question, with and without contraction respectively)
See also English auxiliaries and contractions § Contractions and inversion. Dependent clauses The syntax of a dependent clause is generally the same as that of an independent clause, except that the dependent clause usually begins with a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun (or phrase containing such). In some situations (as already described) the conjunction or relative pronoun that can be omitted. Another type of dependent clause with no subordinating conjunction is the conditional clause formed by inversion (see below). Other uses of inversion The clause structure with inverted subject and verb, used to form questions as described above, is also used in certain types of declarative sentence. This occurs mainly when the sentence begins with an adverbial or other phrase that is essentially negative or contains words such as only, hardly, etc.: Never have I known someone so stupid; Only in France can such food be tasted. In elliptical sentences (see below), inversion takes place after so (meaning "also") as well as after the negative neither: so do I, neither does she. Inversion can also be used to form conditional clauses, beginning with should, were (subjunctive), or had, in the following ways:
should I win the race (equivalent to if I win the race); were he a soldier (equivalent to if he were a soldier); were he to win the race (equivalent to if he were to win the race, i.e. if he won the race); had he won the race (equivalent to if he had won the race).
Other similar forms sometimes appear, but are less common. There is also a construction with subjunctive be, as in be he alive or dead (meaning "no matter whether he is alive or dead"). Use of inversion to express a third-person imperative is now mostly confined to the expression long live X, meaning "let X live long". Imperatives In an imperative sentence (one giving an order), there is usually no subject in the independent clause: Go away until I call you. It is possible, however, to include you as the subject for emphasis: You stay away from me. Elliptical constructions Many types of elliptical construction are possible in English, resulting in sentences that omit certain redundant elements. Various examples are given in the article on Ellipsis. Some notable elliptical forms found in English include:
Short statements of the form I can, he isn't, we mustn't. Here the verb phrase (understood from the context) is reduced to a single auxiliary or other "special" verb, negated if appropriate. If there is no special verb in the original verb phrase, it is replaced by do/does/did: he does, they didn't. Clauses that omit the verb, in particular those like me too, nor me, me neither. The latter forms are used after negative statements. (Equivalents including the verb: I do too or so do I; I don't either or neither do I.) Tag questions, formed with a special verb and pronoun subject: isn't it?; were there?; am I not?
History of English grammars
Main article: History of English grammars
The first published
English grammar was a Pamphlet for
Disputes in English grammar
Notes and references
^ Payne, John; Huddleston, Rodney (2002). "Nouns and noun phrases". In
Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey. The Cambridge
Aarts, Bas (2011). Oxford
Modern English Grammar. Oxford University
Press. p. 410. ISBN 978-0-19-953319-0.
Biber, Douglas; Johansson, Stig; Leech, Geoffrey; Conrad, Susan;
Finegan, Edward (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English.
Pearson Education Limited. p. 1203.
Biber, Douglas; Leech, Geoffrey; Conrad, Susan (2002). Longman student
grammar of spoken and written English. Pearson Education Limited.
p. 487. ISBN 0-582-23726-2.
Bryant, Margaret (1945). A functional English grammar. D.C. Heath and
company. p. 326.
Bryant, Margaret; Momozawa, Chikara (1976).
Modern English Syntax.
Seibido. p. 157.
Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael (2006), Cambridge
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Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: English Grammar
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: English
v t e
Description of the English language
Grammar Phonology Stress and reduced vowels Orthography Alphabet Braille Dialects Language history Phonological history
v t e
Lexical categories and their features
Abstract / Concrete Adjectival Agent Animate / Inanimate Attributive Common / Proper Countable / Mass / Collective Initial-stress-derived Relational Strong / Weak Verbal / Deverbal
Finite / Non-finite Attributive Converb Gerund Gerundive Infinitive Participle (adjectival · adverbial) Supine Verbal noun
Accusative Ambitransitive Andative/Venitive Anticausative Autocausative Auxiliary Captative Catenative Compound Copular Defective Denominal Deponent Ditransitive Dynamic ECM Ergative Frequentative Impersonal Inchoative Intransitive Irregular Lexical Light Modal Monotransitive Negative Performative Phrasal Predicative Preterite-present Reflexive Regular Separable Stative Stretched Strong Transitive Unaccusative Unergative Weak
Collateral Demonstrative Nominalized Possessive Postpositive
Genitive Conjunctive Flat Locative Interrogative Prepositional Pronominal Relative
Demonstrative Disjunctive Distributive Donkey Dummy Formal/Informal Gender-neutral Gender-specific Inclusive/Exclusive Indefinite Intensive Interrogative Objective Personal Possessive Prepositional Reciprocal Reflexive Relative Resumptive Subjective Weak
Inflected Casally modulated Stranded
Article Demonstrative Interrogative Possessive Quantifier
Discourse Interrogative Modal Noun Possessive
Yes and no Copula Coverb Expletive Interjection (verbal) Preverb Pro-form Pro-sentence Pro-verb Proced