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Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, is a superorder of insects within the infraclass Neoptera
Neoptera
that go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. They undergo a radical metamorphosis, with the larval and adult stages differing considerably in their structure and behaviour. This is called holometabolism, or complete metamorphism. The Endopterygota
Endopterygota
are among the most diverse insect superorders, with about 850,000 living species divided between 11 orders, containing insects such as butterflies, flies, fleas, bees, ants, and beetles.[1] They are distinguished from the Exopterygota
Exopterygota
(or Hemipterodea) by the way in which their wings develop. Endopterygota
Endopterygota
(meaning literally "internal winged forms") develop wings inside the body and undergo an elaborate metamorphosis involving a pupal stage. Exopterygota ("external winged forms") develop wings on the outside their bodies and do not go through a pupal stage. The latter trait is plesiomorphic, however, and not exclusively found in the exopterygotes, but also in groups such as Odonata
Odonata
(dragonflies and damselflies), which are not Neoptera, but more basal among insects. The earliest endopterygote fossils date from the Carboniferous.[2] Systematics[edit]

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Holometabolism
Holometabolism
stages in Hymenoptera.

ITIS considers any subdivision of the Neoptera
Neoptera
beyond the orders invalid, but this is almost universally rejected. The Endopterygota
Endopterygota
are sometimes divided into three assemblages: Neuropteroida (Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, and Coleoptera), Hymenopteroida
Hymenopteroida
(Hymenoptera), and Panorpoida (Siphonaptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Strepsiptera, and Mecoptera). The hymenopterans, with their highly developed social systems, were believed to have constituted the most advanced insects, despite their rather "primitive" anatomy compared to flies and beetles, for example. More recently, this has increasingly been rejected and DNA sequence data seem to verify that the hymenopterans are indeed among the most basal endopterygotes, whereas flies and fleas are often considered the most radically advanced insects. This calls the previous subdivision into question, and consequently several new taxa have been proposed, splitting up the Endopterygota. While some groups (such as the "sucking-stinging" fly-flea assemblage or the caddisfly-butterfly group) seem indeed to be good clades, it is not likely that the relationships of the endopterygotes, or the neopteran insects in general, will be resolved in detail soon.

Endopterygota sensu stricto

Neuropterida

Megaloptera
Megaloptera
(alderflies and allies)

Raphidioptera
Raphidioptera
(snakeflies)

Neuroptera
Neuroptera
(lacewings and allies)

Coleopterida

Coleoptera
Coleoptera
(beetles)

Strepsiptera
Strepsiptera
(twisted-wing parasites)

Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
(sawflies, wasps, ants, bees)

Panorpida

Diptera
Diptera
(true flies)

Mecoptera
Mecoptera
(scorpionflies)

Siphonaptera
Siphonaptera
(fleas)

Trichoptera
Trichoptera
(caddisflies)

Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
(butterflies and moths)

Incertae sedis

Glosselytrodea (fossil) Miomoptera (fossil)

See also[edit]

Insect
Insect
morphology Holometabolism

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Endopterygota.

^ Rolf G. Beutel; Hans Pohl (2006). "Endopterygote systematics – where do we stand and what is the goal (Hexapoda, Arthropoda)?". Systematic Entomology. 31 (2): 202–219. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2006.00341.x.  ^ A. Nel; P. Roques; P. Nel; J. Prokop; J. S. Steyer (2007). "The earliest holometabolous insect from the Carboniferous: a "crucial" innovation with delayed success (Insecta Protomeropina Protomeropidae)". Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 43 (3): 349–355. 

v t e

Insect
Insect
orders

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda (unranked): Pancrustacea Subphylum: Hexapoda

Extant

Monocondylia

Archaeognatha
Archaeognatha
(jumping bristletails)

D i c o n d y l i a

Apterygota *

Thysanura
Thysanura
(Zygentoma) (silverfish, firebrats)

P t e r y g o t a

Palaeoptera

Ephemeropteroidea

Ephemeroptera (mayflies)

Odonatoptera

Odonata
Odonata
(dragonflies, damselflies)

N e o p t e r a

Polyneoptera

Plecoptera
Plecoptera
(stoneflies) Dermaptera (earwigs) Embioptera
Embioptera
(webspinners) Phasmatodea
Phasmatodea
(stick and leaf insects) Notoptera
Notoptera
(ice-crawlers, gladiators) Orthoptera
Orthoptera
(crickets, wetas, grasshoppers, locusts) Zoraptera
Zoraptera
(angel insects)

Dictyoptera

Blattodea
Blattodea
(cockroaches, termites) Mantodea (mantises)

E u m e t a b o l a

Paraneoptera *

Psocodea
Psocodea
(barklice, lice) Thysanoptera (thrips) Hemiptera
Hemiptera
(cicadas, aphids, true bugs)

E n d o p t e r y g o t a

basal

Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
(sawflies, wasps, ants, bees)

Neuropteroidea

Coleopterida

Strepsiptera
Strepsiptera
(twisted-winged parasites) Coleoptera
Coleoptera
(beetles)

Neuropterida

Raphidioptera
Raphidioptera
(snakeflies) Megaloptera
Megaloptera
(alderflies, dobsonflies, fishflies) Neuroptera
Neuroptera
(net-winged insects: lacewings, mantidflies, antlions)

Panorpida (Mecopterida)

Antliophora

Mecoptera
Mecoptera
(scorpionflies) + Siphonaptera
Siphonaptera
(fleas) Diptera
Diptera
(gnats, mosquitoes, flies)

Amphiesmenoptera

Trichoptera
Trichoptera
(caddisflies) Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
(moths, butterflies)

Four most speciose orders are marked in bold Italic are paraphyletic groups Based on Sasaki et al. (2013)

Extinct

Aethiocarenodea Alienoptera Archodonata Blattoptera Caloneurodea Campylopteridae Carbotriplurida Coxoplectoptera Diaphanopterodea Eoblattodea Eudiaphanoptera Geroptera Glosselytrodea Heraridea Hypoperlida Lapeyriidae Meganisoptera Megasecoptera Miomoptera Monura Palaeodictyoptera Paoliida Permoplecoptera Protanisoptera Protelytroptera Protephemerida Protodiptera Protorthoptera Protozygoptera Syntonoptera Titanoptera Triadophlebioptera

Extinct incertae sedis families and genera are marked in italic

Wikispecies

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q304358 ADW: Holometabola EoL: 3016961 Fossilworks: 133932 ITIS:

.