EMPEROR TENMU (天武天皇, Tenmu tennō, c. 631 – October 1, 686)
was the 40th emperor of
Tenmu's reign lasted from 673 until his death in 686.
* 1 Traditional narrative
* 1.1 Events of Tenmu\'s life
* 1.3 Politics
* 1.3.1 Kugyō
* 2 Era of Tenmu\'s reign
* 2.1 Non-nengō period
* 3 Wives and Children * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links
Tenmu was the youngest son of
Emperor Jomei and
Empress Kōgyoku ,
and the younger brother of the
Tenmu had many children, including his crown prince Kusakabe by
Princess Tōchi ;
Prince Ōtsu and Princess Ōku
Princess Ōta (whose father also was Tenji); and
Prince Toneri ,
the editor of the
EVENTS OF TENMU\'S LIFE
The only document on his life was Nihon Shoki. However, it was edited by his son, Prince Toneri, and the work was written during the reigns of his wife and children, causing one to suspect its accuracy and impartiality. He is also mentioned briefly in the preface to the Kojiki , being hailed as the emperor to have commissioned them.
Tenmu's father died while he was young, and he grew up mainly under the guidance of Empress Saimei. He was not expected to gain the throne, because his brother Tenji was the crown prince, being the older son of their mother, the reigning empress.
During the Tenji period , Tenmu was appointed his crown prince. This was because Tenji had no appropriate heir among his sons at that time, as none of their mothers was of a rank high enough to give the necessary political support. Tenji was suspicious that Tenmu might be so ambitious as to attempt to take the throne, and felt the necessity to strengthen his position through politically advantageous marriages.
Tenji was particularly active in improving the military institutions which had been established during the Taika reforms.
In his old age, Tenji had a son, Prince Ōtomo, by a low-ranking consort. Since Ōtomo had weak political support from his maternal relatives, the general wisdom of the time held that it was not a good idea for him to ascend to the throne, yet Tenji was obsessed with the idea.
In 671 Tenmu felt himself to be in danger and volunteered to resign
the office of crown prince to become a monk. He moved to the mountains
Yamato Province (now
A year later, (in 672) Tenji died and Prince Ōtomo ascended to the throne as Emperor Kōbun . Tenmu assembled an army and marched from Yoshino to the east, to attack the capital of Omikyō in a counterclockwise movement. They marched through Yamato, Iga and Mino Provinces to threaten Omikyō in the adjacent province. The army of Tenmu and the army of the young Emperor Kōbun fought in the northwestern part of Mino (nowadays Sekigahara, Gifu ). Tenmu's army won and Kōbun committed suicide, an incident known as the Jinshin War . POST-MEIJI CHRONOLOGY
* IN THE 10TH YEAR OF TENJI, in the 11th month (671):
* IN THE 1ST YEAR OF KōBUN (672):
PRE-MEIJI CHRONOLOGY Prior to the 19th century, Otomo was understood to have been a mere interloper, a pretender, an anomaly; and therefore, if that commonly accepted understanding were to have been valid, then it would have followed:
* IN THE 10TH YEAR OF TENJI, in the 11th month (671):
As might be expected,
In 673 Tenmu moved the capital back to Yamato on the Kiymihara plain, naming his new capital Asuka. The Man\'yōshū includes a poem written after the Jinshin War ended:
Our Sovereign, a god, Has made his Imperial City Out of the stretch of swamps, Where chestnut horses sank To their bellies. – Ōtomo Miyuki
Tenmu reigned from this capital until his death in 686. His wife, Empress Jito became the emperor until their son became the 42nd Emperor. The actual site of his grave is known. This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial shrine (misasagi) in Nara Prefecture . The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Tenmu's mausoleum . It is formally named Hinokuma no Ōuchi no misasagi.
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In the Nihon Shoki, Tenmu is described as a great innovator, but the neutrality of this description is doubtful, since the work was written under the control of his descendants. It seems clear, however, that Tenmu strengthened the power of the emperor and appointed his sons to the highest offices of his government, reducing the traditional influence of powerful clans such as the Ōtomo and Soga clans . He renewed the system of kabane , the hereditary titles of duty and rank, but with alterations, including the abolition of some titles. Omi and Muraji , the highest kabane in the earlier period, were reduced in value in the new hierarchy, which consisted of eight kinds of kabane. Each clan received a new kabane according to its closeness to the imperial bloodline and its loyalty to Tenmu.
Tenmu attempted to keep a balance of power among his sons. Once he traveled to Yoshino together with his sons, and there had them swear to cooperate and not to make war on each other. This turned out to be ineffective: one of his sons, Prince Ōtsu, was later executed for treason after the death of Tenmu.
Tenmu's foreign policy favored the Korean kingdom
Tenmu used religious structures to increase the authority of the
imperial throne. During his reign there was increased emphasis on the
tie between the imperial household and Ise Grand
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Tenmu's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:
ERA OF TENMU\'S REIGN
The years of Tenmu's reign were marked by only one era name or nengō, which was proclaimed in the final months of the emperor's life; and Shuchō ended with Tenmu's death.
* Shuchō (686)
The early years of Tenmu's reign are not linked by scholars to any
era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods –
nengō – was discontinued during these years, but it was
reestablished briefly in 686. The use of nengō languished yet again
after Tenmu's death until
* See Tenmu period (673–686).
In this context, Brown and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers
an explanation about the years of Empress Jitō's reign which muddies
a sense of easy clarity in the pre-Taihō time-frame: "The eras
that fell in this reign were: (1) the remaining seven years of Shuchō
; and (2) Taika, which was four years long . (The first year of this
era was kinoto-hitsuji .) ... In the third year of the Taika era ,
WIVES AND CHILDREN
Empress : Princess Uno-no-sarara (鸕野讃良皇女) (Empress Jitō ) (645–703)
Hi : Princess Ōta (大田皇女) (644–667), daughter of Emperor Tenji
Bunin : Fujiwara no Hikami-no-iratsume (藤原氷上娘) (?–682), daughter of Fujiwara no Kamatari
* Princess Tajima (但馬皇女) (?–708), married to Prince Takechi
Bunin : Soga no Ōnu-no-iratsume (蘇我大蕤娘) (?–724), daughter of Soga no Akae
Bunin : Fujiwara no Ioe-no-iratsume (藤原五百重娘), daughter of Fujiwara no Kamatari
* Prince Niitabe (新田部皇子) (?–735)
Court lady: Nukata no Ōkimi (額田王)
* Princess Tōchi (十市皇女) (653?–678), married to Emperor Kōbun
Court lady: Munakata no Amako-no-iratsume (胸形尼子娘), daughter of Munakata-no-Kimi Tokuzen
* Prince Takechi (高市皇子) (654–696)
Court lady: Shishihito no Kajihime-no-iratsume (宍人梶媛娘), daughter of Shishihito-no- Omi Ōmaro
Prince Osakabe (刑部皇子/忍壁皇子) (?–705)
Princess Hatsusebe (泊瀬部皇女) (?–741), married to Prince
Kawashima (son of
Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
* ^ A B
Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 天武天皇 (40);
* ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard . (1959). The Imperial House of Japan,
* ^ Titsingh, Isaac . (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp.
55–58, p. 55, at
Google Books ; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō,
* ^ "Tennō" at Critannica.com; retrieved 2013-8-28.
* ^ Asakawa, Kan\'ichi . (1903). The Early Institutional Life of
Japan, p. 313.
* ^ de Gruyter, Walter (1976). Ancestors. Paris: Mouton Publishers.
ISBN 90-279-7859-X .
* ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, H. Paul . (1980). Jinnō
Shōtōki, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to
* Asakawa, Kan\'ichi . (1903). The Early Institutional Life of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to EMPEROR TENMU .
* Asuka Historical National Government Park: image of Mausoleum
* v * t * e
* Italics mark imperial consort and regent Jingū, who is not traditionally listed. * Years given as CE / AD
* Jimmu * Suizei * Annei * Itoku * Kōshō * Kōan * Kōrei * Kōgen * Kaika * Sujin * Suinin * Keikō * Seimu * Chūai * Jingū