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Emperor Huizong of Song
Emperor Huizong of Song
(7 June 1082[citation needed] – 4 June 1135), personal name Zhao Ji, was the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China. He was also a very well-known calligrapher. Born as the 11th son of Emperor Shenzong, he ascended the throne in 1100 upon the death of his elder brother and predecessor, Emperor Zhezong, because Emperor Zhezong's only son died prematurely. He lived in luxury, sophistication and art in the first half of his life. In 1126, when the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty invaded the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
during the Jin–Song Wars, Emperor Huizong abdicated and passed on his throne to his eldest son, Emperor Qinzong, while he assumed the honorary title of Taishang Huang (or "Retired Emperor"). The following year, the Song capital, Bianjing, was conquered by Jin forces in an event historically known as the Jingkang Incident. Emperor Huizong, along with Emperor Qinzong
Emperor Qinzong
and the rest of their family, were taken captive by the Jurchens and brought back to the Jin capital, Huining Prefecture in 1128. The Jurchen ruler, Emperor Taizong, gave the former Emperor Huizong a title, Duke Hunde (literally "Besotted Duke"), to humiliate him. Emperor Huizong died in Wuguo after spending about nine years in captivity. Despite his incompetence in rulership, Emperor Huizong was known for his promotion of Taoism
Taoism
and talents in poetry, painting, calligraphy and music. He sponsored numerous artists at his imperial court, and the catalogue of his collection listed over 6,000 known paintings.[1]

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Jurchen invasion

2 Art, calligraphy, music, and culture 3 Titles from birth 4 Family

4.1 Spouses

4.1.1 Empresses 4.1.2 Consorts 4.1.3 Imperial Concubines 4.1.4 Minor

4.2 Issue

4.2.1 Sons 4.2.2 Daughters

5 Ancestry 6 See also 7 References

Life[edit] Emperor Huizong, besides his partaking in state affairs that favoured the reformist party that supported Wang Anshi's New Policies, was a cultured leader who spent much of his time admiring the arts. He was a collector of paintings, calligraphy, and antiques of previous dynasties, building huge collections of each for his amusement. He wrote poems of his own, was known as an avid painter, created his own calligraphy style, had interests in architecture and garden design, and even wrote treatises on medicine and Taoism.[2] He assembled an entourage of painters that were first pre-screened in an examination to enter as official artists of the imperial court, and made reforms to court music.[2] Like many learned men of his age, he was quite a polymath personality, and is even considered to be one of the greatest Chinese artists of all time. However, his reign would be forever scarred by the decisions made (by counsel he received) on handling foreign policy, as the end of his reign marked a period of disaster for the Song Empire. Jurchen invasion[edit] Main articles: Jin–Song Wars
Jin–Song Wars
and Jingkang Incident Emperor Huizong neglected the military, and the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
became increasingly weak and at the mercy of foreign invaders, despite his recasting of the symbolic Nine Tripod Cauldrons
Nine Tripod Cauldrons
in 1106 in an attempt to assert his authority.[3] When the Jurchens founded the Jin dynasty and attacked the Khitan-led Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
to the north of the Song, the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
allied with the Jin dynasty and attacked the Liao from the south. This succeeded in destroying the Liao, a longtime enemy of the Song. However, an enemy of the even more formidable Jin dynasty was now on the northern border. Not content with the annexation of the Liao domain, and perceiving the weakness of the Song army, the Jurchens soon declared war on their former ally, and by the beginning of 1126 the troops of the Jin "Western Vice-Marshal" Wolibu crossed the Yellow River
Yellow River
and came in sight of Bianjing, the capital of the Song Empire. Stricken with panic, Emperor Huizong abdicated on 18 January 1126 in favour of his son, now known as Emperor Qinzong (欽宗), and departed the capital.[4]

Pigeon on a Peach Branch, by Emperor Huizong

Overcoming the walls of Bianjing was a difficult undertaking for the Jurchen cavalry, and this, together with fierce resistance from some Song officials who had not totally lost their nerve, as Emperor Huizong had, resulted in the Jurchens lifting the siege of Bianjing and returning north. The Song Empire, however, had to sign a humiliating treaty with the Jin Empire, agreeing to pay a colossal war indemnity and to give a tribute to the Jurchens every year. From 1126 until 1138, refugees from the Song Empire migrated south towards the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
valley.[5] But even such humiliating terms could not save the Song dynasty. Within a matter of months, the troops of both Jurchen vice-marshals, Wolibu and Nianhan,[6] were back south again, and this time they were determined to overcome the walls of Bianjing. After a bitter siege, the Jurchens eventually entered Bianjing on 9 January 1127, and many days of looting, rapes, and massacre followed. Emperor Huizong, his son Emperor Qinzong, as well as the entire imperial court and harem were captured by the Jurchens in an event known historically as the Jingkang Incident, and transported north, mostly to the Jin capital of Shangjing (in present-day Harbin). One of the sons of Emperor Huizong managed to escape to southern China where, after many years of struggle, he would establish the Southern Song dynasty, of which he was the first ruler, Emperor Gaozong. Emperors Huizong and Qinzong were demoted to the rank of commoners by the Jurchens on 20 March 1127. Then on 10 May 1127, Emperor Huizong was deported to Heilongjiang, where he spent the last eight years of his life as a captive. In a humiliating episode, in 1128 the two former Song emperors had to venerate the Jin ancestors at their shrine in Shangjing, wearing mourning dress.[7] The Jurchen ruler, Emperor Taizong, granted the two former Song emperors degrading titles to humiliate them: Emperor Huizong was called "Duke Hunde" (昏德公; literally "Besotted Duke") while Emperor Qinzong
Emperor Qinzong
was called "Marquis Chonghun" (重昏侯; literally "Doubly Besotted Marquis").[7] In 1137, the Jin Empire formally notified the Southern Song Empire about the death of their former Emperor Huizong.[7] Emperor Huizong, who had lived in opulence and art for the first half of his life, died a broken man in faraway northern Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
in June 1135, at the age of 52. A few years later (1141), as the peace negotiations leading up to the Treaty of Shaoxing
Treaty of Shaoxing
between the Jin and the Song empires were proceeding, the Jin Empire posthumously honored the former Emperor Huizong with the neutral-sounding title of "Prince of Tianshui Commandery" (天水郡王), after a commandery in the upper reaches of the Wei River. Art, calligraphy, music, and culture[edit]

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Emperor Huizong's calligraphy "Chong Ning Tongbao"

Emperor Huizong was a great painter, poet, and calligrapher. He was also a player of the guqin (as exemplified by his famous painting 聽琴圖 Listening to the Qin); he also had a Wanqin Tang (萬琴堂; "10,000 Qin Hall") in his palace. The emperor took huge efforts to search for art masters. He established the "Hanlin Huayuan" (翰林畫院; "Hanlin imperial painting house") where top painters around China shared their best works. The primary subjects of his paintings are birds and flowers. Among his works is Five-Colored Parakeet on Blossoming Apricot Tree. He also recopied Zhang Xuan's painting Court Ladies Preparing Newly Woven Silk, and Emperor Huizong's reproduction is the only copy of that painting that survives today. Emperor Huizong invented the "Slender Gold" (瘦金體) style of calligraphy. The name "Slender Gold" came from the fact that the emperor's writing resembled gold filament, twisted and turned. One of the emperor's era names, Xuanhe, is also used to describe a style of mounting paintings in scroll format. In this style, black borders are added between some of the silk planes. In 1114, following a request from the Goryeo
Goryeo
ruler Yejong, Emperor Huizong sent to the palace in the Goryeo
Goryeo
capital at Gaeseong a set of musical instruments to be used for royal banquet music. Two years later, in 1116, he sent another, even larger gift of musical instruments (numbering 428 in total) to the Goryeo
Goryeo
court, this time yayue instruments, beginning that nation's tradition of aak.[8] Emperor Huizong was also a great tea enthusiast. He wrote the Treatise on Tea, the most detailed and masterful description of the Song sophisticated style of tea ceremony.

Emperor Huizong of Song, Ladies making silk, (a remake of an 8th-century original by artist Zhang Xuan)

Emperor Huizong of Song, Ting Qin Tu (Chinese: 聽琴圖, literally "Listening to the Qin"

Emperor Huizong of Song
Emperor Huizong of Song
(Poem and Calligraphy)

Emperor Huizong of Song, Plum and Birds

Emperor Huizong of Song, Golden Pheasant and Cotton Rose Flowers

Emperor Huizong of Song, Dragon Stone

Emperor Huizong of Song, Cranes 1112

Emperor Huizong of Song, Classic Thousand-character Grass script

Titles from birth[edit]

Prince of Suining Commandery (遂寧郡王) Prince of Duan (端王) Emperor Emperor Jiaozhu Daojun (教主道君皇帝) Duke Hunde (昏德公) Prince of Tianshui Commandery (天水郡王)

Family[edit] Spouses[edit] Empresses[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Empress Xiangong 显恭皇后 Lady Wang 王氏 1084 1108 Wang Zao 王藻 unknown 1. Qinzong 2. Princess of Rongde Became Empress in 1100

Empress Xiansu 显肃皇后 Lady Zheng 郑氏 1079 1131 Zheng Shen, Prince of Leping 乐平郡王郑绅 unknown 1. Princess of Jiade 2. Prince of Yan 4. Princess of Shoushu 8. Princess of Ande 11. Princess of Rongshu 13. Princess of Chengde Empress Qinsheng's maid Became Able Consort (贤妃) in 1100 Promoted to Noble Consort (贵妃) Promoted to Empress in 1111 Became Empress Dowager Ningde (宁德太后) in 1126 Abducted during Jingkang Incident Died in captivity in Wuguo

Empress Mingda 明达皇后 Lady Liu 刘氏 unknown 1113 unknown unknown 6. Princess of Anshu 9. Princess of Maode 8. Prince of Yi 11. Prince of Qi 14. Princess of Xunde 18. Prince of Xin Talented Lady (才人) Promoted to Noble Consort (贵妃) Posthumously honoured in 1113

Empress Mingjie 明节皇后 Lady Liu 刘氏 1088 1121 Liu Yanqing 刘彦清 unknown 25. Prince of Jian'an 29. Princess of Hefu 26. Duke of Jia 28. Duke of Ying Empress Zhaohuai's maid Became Talented Lady (才人) Promoted to Pure Consort (淑妃) Posthumously honoured in 1121

Empress Xianren 显仁皇后 Lady Wei 韦氏 1080 1159 Wei Andao, Prince 郡王韦安道 Lady Song, Madame of Yi 益国夫人宋氏 9. Gaozong Empress Xiansu's maid Became Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌郡君) Became Talented Lady (才人) Promoted to Lady of Handsome Fairness (婕妤) in 1107 Promoted to Wanrong (婉容) Promoted to Able Consort (贤妃) in 1126 Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
and seized by Wanyan Zongxian (完颜宗贤) Sent to the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) in retaliation to Gaozong's ascension Transferred to Wuguo in 1135 Returned to Southern Song in 1142

Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Issue Notes

Noble Consort Yisu 懿肃贵妃 Lady Wang 王氏 unknown 1117 5. Princess of Huishu 10. Princess of Kangshu 12. Prince of Shen 20. Princess of Roufu 26. Princess of Xianfu 22. Duke of Chen Became Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌郡君) in 1100

Noble Consort 贵妃 Lady Wang (Elder) 王氏 unknown unknown 3. Prince of Yun 7. Princess of Chongde 12. Princess of Baoshu 16. Princess of Xishu 23. Duke of Xiang Empress Qinsheng's maid Became Lady of Shouchang Commandery (寿昌郡君) Became Beautiful Lady (美人) in 1101 Promoted to Wanrong (婉容) in 1103 Promoted to Virtuous Consort (德妃) in 1104 Promoted to Pure Consort (淑妃) in 1105 Promoted to Noble Consort in 1107

Lady Qiao 乔氏 1081 unknown 6. Prince of Jing 7. Prince of Ji Empress Xiansu's maid Abducted during Jingkang Incident Died in captivity in Wuguo

Lady Cui 崔氏 1091 1130 15. Princess of Daomu 21. Princess of Dunfu 19. Prince of Han 23. Princess of Renfu 25. Princess of Yongfu 28. Princess of Ningfu Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌郡君) Became Talented Lady (才人) Promoted to Beautiful Lady (美人) Promoted to Lady of Handsome Fairness (婕妤) Promoted to Pure Consort (淑妃) Promoted to Noble Consort Stripped of her titles in 1121 Abducted during Jingkang Incident

Lady Wang (Younger) 王氏 1092 1127 15. Prince of Yi 27. Princess of Shenfu Became Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌郡君) in 1107 Became Talented Lady (才人) then Beautiful Lady (美人) in 1108 Promoted to Lady of Cultivated Countenance (修容) in 1111 Promoted to Wanrong (婉容) in 1113 Promoted to Able Consort (贤妃) in 1118 Promoted to Virtuous Consort (德妃) Abducted during Jingkang Incident Died in captivity

Able Consort 贤妃 Lady Yang 杨氏 unknown 1115 3. Princess of Shunshu 17. Prince of He Became Lady of Yongjia Commandery (永嘉郡君) in 1102 Became Talented Lady (才人) in 1103 Promoted to Beautiful Lady (美人) in 1108 Promoted to Lady of Cultivated Countenance (修容) in 1111 Posthumously honoured in 1115

Imperial Concubines[edit]

Title Name Born Died Issue Notes

Guiyi 贵仪 Jin Qiuyue 金秋月 unknown unknown none

Zhu Guilin 朱桂林 unknown unknown none

Decent Beauty 淑仪 Jin Nongyu 金弄玉 unknown unknown none

Wanyi 婉仪 Lin Yuezi 林月姊 unknown unknown none

Shunyi 顺仪 Cao Rou 曹柔 unknown unknown none

Shunrong 顺容 Xu Sanhua 徐散花 unknown unknown none

Zhou Jingqiu 周镜秋 unknown unknown none

Shurong 淑容 Chen Jiaozi 陈娇子 unknown unknown none

Peiyueli Chang'e 裴月里嫦娥 1109 unknown none

Wanrong 婉容 Yan Baose 阎宝瑟 1109 1133 34. Zhu Abducted and impregnated during Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
march (father unknown) Returned to Huizong upon arrival in Jin Bore a son, who died young, in 1128 Bore another son, Zhao Zhu, in 1130

Ren Jinnu 任金奴 unknown unknown none

Wang Yuegong 王月宫 unknown unknown none

Lady of Bright Deportment 昭仪 Lady Xia 夏氏 unknown 1115 none Court lady Became Lady of Anding Commandery (安定郡君) in 1101 Became Talented Lady (才人) in 1111

Zhu Suhui 朱素辉 unknown unknown none

Lady of Bright Countenance 昭容 Li Zhuyuan 李珠媛 unknown unknown none

Wangsan Baonu 王三宝奴 unknown unknown none

Lady of Bright Beauty 昭媛 Zheng Meiniang 郑媚娘 unknown unknown 35. Tan

Lady of Cultivated Deportment 修仪 Jiang Jingshen 蒋敬身 unknown unknown none

Lu Jiaonu 陆娇奴 unknown unknown none

Lady of Cultivated Countenance 修容 Huang Baoqin 黄宝琴 unknown unknown none

Mao Zhuying 毛朱英 unknown unknown none

Lady of Cultivated Beauty 修媛 Chen Dahe 陈大和 unknown unknown none

Lady of Complete Deportment 充仪 Shen Guanyin 申观音 unknown unknown none

Zuo Baoqin 左宝琴 unknown unknown none

Lady of Complete Countenance 充容 Qin Huaishan 秦怀珊 unknown unknown none

Xin Liuniang 新刘娘 unknown unknown none

Lady of Complete Beauty 充媛 Xi Qiaofang 奚巧芳 unknown unknown none

Xi Zhuzhu 席珠珠 unknown unknown none Beautiful Lady (美人)

Minor[edit]

Title Name Born Died Issue Notes

Lady of Handsome Fairness 婕妤 Lady Wang (Younger) 王氏 unknown unknown 33. Ji Pregnant when abducted and bore a son during Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
march Returned to Huizong upon arrival in Jin

Talented Lady 才人 Lady Qiao 乔氏 unknown unknown 17. Princess of Xiande

Issue[edit] Sons[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes

1 Qinzong 钦宗 Huan 桓 23 May 1100 1156 Empress Xiangong

2 Prince of Yan 兖王 Cheng 柽 1101 1101 Empress Xiansu Died in infancy

3 Prince of Yun 郓王 Kai 楷 1101 1 Aug 1130 Noble Consort Wang (Elder)

4 Prince of Jing 荆王 Ji 楫 1102 1103 unknown Died in infancy

5 Prince of Su 肃王 Shu 枢 1103 1130 unknown

6 Prince of Jing 景王 Qi 杞 1104 1138 Noble Consort Qiao

7 Prince of Ji 济王 Xu 栩 1106 unknown

8 Prince of Yi 益王 Yu 棫 1107 1137 Empress Mingda

9 Gaozong 高宗 Gou 构 12 Jun 1107 9 Nov 1187 Empress Xianren

10 Prince of Bin 邠王 Cai 材 1107 1116 unknown Died young

11 Prince of Qi 祁王 Mo 模 1107 1138 Empress Mingda

12 Prince of Shen 莘王 Zhi 植 1108 1148 Noble Consort Yisu

13 Prince of Yi 仪王 Pu 朴 1109 1123 unknown

14 Prince of Xu 徐王 Di 棣 1109 unknown unknown

15 Prince of Yi 沂王 E 㮙 1110 1132 Noble Consort Wang (Younger)

16 Prince of Yun 郓王 Gong 栱 1110 1112 unknown Died young

17 Prince of He 和王 Shi 栻 1111 1128 Able Consort Yang

18 Prince of Xin 信王 Zhen 榛 1111 16 Jul 1139 Empress Mingda

19 Prince of Han 汉王 Chun 椿 1112 1113 Noble Consort Cui Died in infancy

20 Prince of Ankang 安康郡王 Wo 楃 1112 unknown unknown

21 Prince of Guangping 广平郡王 Jian 楗 1112 unknown unknown

22 Duke of Chen 陈国公 Ji 机 1114 1114 Noble Consort Yisu Died in infancy

23 Duke of Xiang 相国公 Chan 梴 1112 1137 Noble Consort Wang (Elder)

24 Duke of Ying 瀛国公 Yue 樾 1115 1131 unknown

25 Prince of Jian'an 建安郡王 Yang 柍 1115 1127 Empress Mingjie

26 Duke of Jia 嘉国公 Yi 椅 1118 1130

27 Duke of Wen 温国公 Dong 栋 1119 unknown unknown

28 Duke of Ying 英国公 Si 楒 1120 unknown Empress Mingjie

29 Duke of Yi 仪国公 Tong 桐 1121 1148 unknown

30 Duke of Chang 昌国公 Bing 柄 1122 1132 unknown

31 Duke of Run 润国公 Cong 枞 1123 unknown unknown

32 Duke of Han 韩国公 Xiang 相 1125 unknown unknown

33

Ji 极 1127 unknown Lady Wang of Handsome Fairness (Younger) Born during Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
march

34

Zhu 柱 1130 unknown Wanrong Yan Born in Jin

35

Tan 檀 1131 unknown Lady Zheng of Bright Beauty Born in Jin

36

unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin

37

unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin

38

unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin

Daughters[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes

1 Princess of Jiade 嘉德帝姬 Yupan 玉盘 1100 1141 Empress Xiansu Ceng Yin (曾夤) Wanyan Zongpan (完颜宗磐) Xizong of Jin

Became Princess of Deqing (德庆公主) in 1101 Title changed to Princess of Jiafu (嘉福帝姬) Abducted during Jingkang Incident Posthumously honoured as Madame (夫人)

2 Princess of Rongde 荣德帝姬 Jinnu 金奴 1103 unknown Empress Xiangong Cao Cheng (曹晟) Wanyan Chang (完颜昌) Xizong of Jin

Princess of Yongqing (永庆公主) Title changed to Princess of Rongfu (荣福帝姬) Abducted during Jingkang Incident

3 Princess of Shunshu 顺淑帝姬 unknown c.1103 c.1105 Able Consort Yang none none Princess of Shunqing (顺庆公主) Died young Posthumously honoured as Princess of Yi (益国帝姬)

4 Princess of Shoushu 寿淑帝姬 unknown c.1104 c.1106 Empress Xiansu none none Princess of Shouqing (寿庆公主) Died young Posthumously honoured as Princess of Yu (豫国帝姬)

5 Princess of Huishu 惠淑帝姬 unknown c.1105 c.1105 Noble Consort Yisu none none Died in infancy

6 Princess of Anshu 安淑帝姬 unknown c.1105 c.1109 Empress Mingda none none Princess of Anqing (安庆公主) Title changed to Princess of Longfu (隆福公主) Died young Posthumously honoured as Princess of Shu (蜀国帝姬)

7 Princess of Chongde 崇德帝姬 unknown c.1105 1121 Noble Consort Wang (Elder) Cao Shi (曹湜)

Princess of Heqing (和庆公主) Title changed to Princess of Chongfu (崇福帝姬)

8 Princess of Ande 安德帝姬 Jinluo 金罗 1106 1127 Empress Xiansu Bang Guang (邦光) Wanyan Dumu (完颜阇母)

Princess of Shuqing (淑庆公主) Title changed to Princess of Anfu (安福帝姬) Abducted during Jingkang Incident Tortured to death in Wanyan Dumu's camp

9 Princess of Maode 茂德帝姬 Fujin 福金 1106 1128 Empress Mingda Cai Tiao (蔡鞗) Wanyan Zongwang (完颜宗望) Wanyan Xiyin

Princess of Yanqing (延庆公主) Title changed to Princess of Kangfu (康福帝姬) The most beautiful of Huizong's daughters, she was specifically requested for by the Jin forces and became the first to enter the Jin camp Tortured to death in Wanyan Xiyin's camp

10 Princess of Kangshu 康淑帝姬 unknown c.1106 c.1108 Noble Consort Yisu none none Died young

11 Princess of Rongshu 荣淑帝姬 unknown c.1107 c.1110 Empress Xiansu none none Died young

12 Princess of Baoshu 保淑帝姬 unknown c.1107 c.1107 Noble Consort Wang (Elder) none none Died in infancy

13 Princess of Chengde 成德帝姬 Hu'er 瑚儿 1110 unknown Empress Xiansu Xiang Zifang (向子房)

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Entered the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin

14 Princess of Xunde 洵德帝姬 Fujin 富金 1110 unknown Empress Mingda Tian Pi (田丕) Wanyan Sheyema (完颜设也马)

Pregnant when abducted during Jingkang Incident "Miscarried" after falling when horse riding

15 Princess of Daomu 悼穆帝姬 Jinxian 金仙 c.1110 c.1117 Noble Consort Cui none none Princess of Huifu (徽福帝姬) Died young

16 Princess of Xishu 熙福帝姬 unknown c.1110 c.1112 Noble Consort Wang (Elder) none none Princess of Xifu (熙福公主) Died young

17 Princess of Xiande 显德帝姬 Qiaoyun 巧云 1111 unknown Talented Lady Qiao Liu Wenyan (刘文彦)

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Entered the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin

18 Princess of Shunde 顺德帝姬 Yingluo 缨络 1111 1137 unknown Xiang Ziyi (向子扆) Wanyan Zonghan Andahe, Prince of Xigu (习古国王按打曷)

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Died in Andahe's camp in Wuguo

19 Princess of Yifu 仪福帝姬 Yuanzhu 圆珠 1111 unknown unknown Wanyan Zongbi

Abducted during Jingkang Incident

20 Princess of Roufu 柔福帝姬 Duofu, Huanhuan 多富, 嬛嬛 1111 1142 Noble Consort Yisu Wanyan Zongwang (完颜宗望) Taizong of Jin Wanyan Zongxian (完颜宗贤) Xu Hai (徐还)

Pregnant when abducted during Jingkang Incident "Miscarried" after falling when horse riding Entered the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin Fled to Southern Song in 1130 Killed by Gaozong after Empress Xianren accused her of being an imposter

21 Princess of Dunfu 敦福帝姬 Sanjin 三金 c.1111 c.1112 Noble Consort Cui none none Princess of Shoufu (寿福帝姬) Died in infancy

22 Princess of Baofu 保福帝姬 Xianlang 仙郎 1112 1127 Lady Han, Lady of Cultivated Countenance 修容韩氏

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Tortured to death in Liujiasi, Sichuan

23 Princess of Renfu 仁福帝姬 Xiangyun 香云 1112 1127 Noble Consort Cui

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Tortured to death in Liujiasi, Sichuan

24 Princess of Huifu 惠福帝姬 Zhuzhu 珠珠 1112 unknown Lady Wang, Wanrong 婉容王氏 Wanyan Xiebao (完颜斜保)

Abducted during Jingkang Incident

25 Princess of Yongfu 永福帝姬 Fubao 佛保 1112 unknown Noble Consort Cui

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Entered the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin

26 Princess of Xianfu 贤福帝姬 Jin'er 金儿 1112 1127 Noble Consort Yisu

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Tortured to death in Liujiasi, Sichuan

27 Princess of Shenfu 申福帝姬 unknown c.1113 c.1114 Noble Consort Wang (Younger) none none Died in infancy

28 Princess of Ningfu 宁福帝姬 Chuanzhu 串珠 1114 unknown Noble Consort Cui Wanyan Zongjuan (完颜宗隽) Xizong of Jin

Abducted during Jingkang Incident

29 Princess of Hefu 和福帝姬 Jinzhu 金珠 1116 unknown Empress Mingjie

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Resided in the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin

30 Princess of Lingfu 令福帝姬 Jinyin 金印 1118 unknown unknown Xizong of Jin

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Resided in the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin

31 Princess of Huafu 华福帝姬 Saiyue 赛月 1119 unknown unknown Xizong of Jin

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Resided in the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin

32 Princess of Qingfu 庆福帝姬 Jingu 金姑 1121 unknown unknown Xizong of Jin

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Resided in the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin

33 Princess of Chunfu 纯福帝姬 Jinling 金铃 1124 unknown unknown Wanyan Sheyema (完颜设也马) Wang Chengdi (王成棣)

Abducted during Jingkang Incident Resided in the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin

34 Princess of Gongfu 恭福帝姬 Xiaojin 小金 c.1126 c.1129 unknown none none Died young

35 Princess of Quanfu 全福帝姬 unknown unknown unknown unknown Li Dunfu (李敦复)

Born in Jin

36

unknown unknown unknown unknown none none Born in Jin Died young

37

unknown unknown unknown unknown

Born in Jin

38

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Born in Jin

39

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Born in Jin

40

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Born in Jin

41

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Born in Jin

42

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Born in Jin

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Emperor Huizong of Song

Zhao Yuanfen, Prince Gongjing of Shang 商恭靖王赵元份 969–1005

3rd son: Zhao Yunrang, Prince Anyi of Pu 濮安懿王赵允让 995–1059

Wife: Lady Li 李氏

13th son: Zhao Shu, Yingzong 英宗赵曙 1032–1067

Ren Gu 任固

Concubine: Lady Ren, Lady of Xianyou County 仙游县君任氏

Lady Zhang, Lady of Xianyuan County 仙源县君张氏

1st son: Zhao Xu, Shenzong 神宗赵顼 1048–1085

Gao Jixun 高继勋 959–1036

Gao Zunfu, Prince of Chu 楚王高遵甫

Wife: Lady Gao, Empress Xuanren 宣仁皇后高氏 1032–1093

Cao Qi, Prince Anxi of Wu 吴安僖王曹玘

Lady Cao, Madame of Chu 楚国夫人曹氏

Lady Feng 冯氏

11th son: Zhao Ji, Huizong 徽宗赵佶 1082–1135

Chen Shougui 陈守贵

Concubine: Lady Chen, Empress Qinci 钦慈皇后陈氏 1058–1089

See also[edit]

Chinese emperors family tree (middle) List of emperors of the Song dynasty Architecture of the Song dynasty Culture of the Song dynasty Economy of the Song dynasty History of the Song dynasty Society of the Song dynasty Technology of the Song dynasty

References[edit]

^ Ebrey, Cambridge, 149. ^ a b Ebrey, 165. ^ Book of Song – Scroll 66 ^ Frederick W. Mote (2003). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.  ^ Robert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4.  ^ Tao (1976). Pages 20–21. ^ a b c Franke (1994), p. 233-234. ^ [1]

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. (2013). Emperor Huizong (Harvard University Press; 2013) 661 pages; scholarly biography online review Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. (1999). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66991-X (paperback). Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton and Mifflin. Jing-shen Tao (1976) The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95514-7. Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett. Alien Regimes and Border States, 907–1368 (Cambridge History of China, vol. 6). Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-24331-9. Partial text on Google Books. Huiping Pang (2009), "Strange Weather: Art, Politics, and Climate Change at the Court of Northern Song Emperor Huizong," Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, Volume 39, 2009, pp. 1–41. ISSN 1059-3152.

Please see: References section in the guqin article for a full list of references used in all qin related articles.

Emperor Huizong of Song House of Zhao Born: November 2 1082 Died: June 4 1135

Regnal titles

Preceded by Emperor Zhezong Emperor of the Song Dynasty 1100–1126 Succeeded by Emperor Qinzong

Honorary titles

Vacant Title last held by Emperor Zhaozong of Tang Retired Emperor of China 1126–1135 Vacant Title next held by Emperor Gaozong of Song

v t e

Emperors of the Song dynasty

Northern Song

Taizu Taizong Zhenzong Renzong Yingzong Shenzong Zhezong Huizong Qinzong

Southern Song

Gaozong Xiaozong Guangzong Ningzong Lizong Duzong Gong Duanzong Zhao Bing

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming → Qing → ROC / PRC

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32929154 LCCN: n83209304 ISNI: 0000 0001 2127 0489 GND: 124403921 SUDOC: 131173812 BNF: cb155558098 (data) BIBSYS: 14031030 ULAN: 500334306 N

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