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Emperor Go-Yōzei
Emperor Go-Yōzei
(後陽成天皇, Go-Yōzei-tennō, December 31, 1571 – September 25, 1617) was the 107th Emperor of Japan,[1] according to the traditional order of succession.[2] Go-Yōzei's reign spanned the years 1586 through to his abdication in 1611,[3] corresponding to the transition between the Azuchi–Momoyama period and the Edo period. This 16th-century sovereign was named after the 9th-century Emperor Yōzei, and go- (後), translates as later, and thus, he could be called the "Later Emperor Yōzei". The Japanese word go has also been translated to mean the second one, and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Yōzei, the second", or as "Yōzei II".

Contents

1 Genealogy 2 Events of Go-Yōzei's life

2.1 Legacy

2.1.1 Kugyō

3 Eras of Go-Yōzei's reign 4 Ancestry 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

Genealogy[edit] Before Go-Yōzei's ascension to the Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum
Throne, his personal name (imina) was Katahito (周仁).[4] He was the eldest son of Prince Masahito
Prince Masahito
(誠仁親王, Masahito-shinnō, 1552–1586),[5] also known as Prince Sanehito and posthumously named Yōkwōin
Yōkwōin
daijō-tennō, who was the eldest son of Emperor Ōgimachi.[6] His mother was a lady-in-waiting. Go-Yōzei's Imperial family lived with him in the Dairi of the Heian Palace. The family included at least 35 children:[7]

Court Lady: Konoe Sakiko (近衛前子) – Empress Dowager Chūwa (中和門院) (1575–1630)

First daughter: Princess Shōkō (聖興女王) (1590–1594) Second daughter: Ryūtōin-no-miya (龍登院宮) (1592–1600) Third daughter: Imperial Princess Seishi (清子内親王) (1593–1674) Fourth daughter: Princess Bunkō (文高女王) (1595–1644) Third son: Imperial Prince Kotohito (政仁親王) (later Emperor Go-Mizunoo) (1596–1680) Fifth daughter: Princess Son'ei (尊英女王) (1598–1611) Fourth son: Konoe Nobuhiro (近衛信尋) (1599–1649) Seventh son: Imperial Prince Yoshihito (好仁親王) (later First Takamatsu-no-miya) (1603–1638) Ninth son: Ichijō Akiyoshi (一条昭良) (1605–1672) Sixth daughter: Imperial Princess Teishi? (貞子内親王) (1606–1675) Tenth son: Imperial Prince Morochika (庶愛親王) (later Buddhist Priest Sonkaku) (1608–1661) Twelfth daughter: Princess Son'ren? (尊蓮女王) (1614–1627)

Lady-in-waiting: Nakayama Chikako (中山親子) (1576–1608)

First son: Imperial Prince Katahito (良仁親王) (later Princely Priest Kakushin) (1588–1648) Second son: Princely Priest Shōkai (承快法親王) (1591–1609)

Lady-in-waiting: Hino Teruko (日野輝子) (1581–1607)

Fifth son: Imperial Prince Toshiatsu (毎敦親王) (later Princely Priest Sonsei) (1602–1651)

Lady-in-waiting: Jimyōin Motoko (持明院基子) (?–1644)

Sixth son: Imperial Prince Tsuneyoshi (常嘉親王) (later Princely Priest Gyōnen) (1602–1661)

Lady-in-waiting: Niwata Tomoko (庭田具子) (?–1626)

Eighth son: Princely Priest Ryōjun (良純法親王) (1603–1669)

Lady-in-waiting: Hamuro Nobuko (葉室宣子) (?–1679)

Eleventh daughter: Princess Sonsei (尊清女王) (1613–1669)

Handmaid?: Nishinotōin Tokiko (西洞院時子) (?–1661)

Seventh daughter: Princess Eishū (永崇女王) (1609–1690) Eighth daughter: Kō'un'in-no-miya (高雲院宮) (1610–1612)

Consort: Furuichi Taneko (古市胤子) (1583–1658)

Ninth daughter: Rei'un'in-no-miya (冷雲院宮) (1611) Eleventh son: Princely Priest Dōkō (道晃法親王) (1612–1679) Tenth daughter: Kūkain-no-miya (空花院宮) (1613)

Consort: Daughter of Chūtō Tokohiro (中東時広) (?–1680)

Twelfth son: Princely Priest Dōshū (道周法親王) (1613–1634) Thirteenth son: Princely Priest Ji'in (慈胤法親王) (1617–1699)

Events of Go-Yōzei's life[edit] Prince Katahito became emperor when his grandfather abdicated. The succession (senso) was considered to have been received by the new monarch; and shortly thereafter, Emperor Go-Yōzei
Emperor Go-Yōzei
is said to have acceded (sokui).[8] The events during his lifetime shed some light on his reign. The years of Go-Yōzei's reign correspond with the start of the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
under the leadership of Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
and Tokugawa Hidetada.

December 31, 1571: The birth of an Imperial prince who will become known by the posthumous name of Go-Yōzei-tennō.[9] November 5, 1586: Prince Katahito was given the title Crown Prince
Crown Prince
and heir.[10] December 17, 1586 (Tenshō 14, on the 7th day of the 11th month): Ogimachi gave over the reins of government to his grandson, who would become Emperor Go-Yōzei. There had been no such Imperial transition since Emperor Go-Hanazono
Emperor Go-Hanazono
abdicated in 1464 (Kanshō 5). The dearth of abdications is attributable to the disturbed state of the country and because there was neither any dwelling for an ex-emperor nor excess funds in the treasury to support him.[11] 1586 (Tenshō 14, in the 12th month): A marriage is arranged between Lady Asahi, the youngest sister of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.[10] 1586 (Tenshō 14, in the 12th month) (1586): The kampaku, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was nominated to be Daijō-daijin (Chancellor of the Realm).[10] 1588 (Tenshō 16, 7th month): Emperor Go-Yōzei
Emperor Go-Yōzei
and his father visit Toyotomi Hideyoshi's mansion in Kyoto. This was the first time that an emperor appeared in public since 1521.[12] 1590 (Tenshō 18, 7th month): Hideyoshi led an army to the Kantō where he lay siege to Odawara Castle. When the fortress fell, Hōjō Ujimasa died and his brother, Hōjō Ujinao
Hōjō Ujinao
submitted to Hideyoshi's power, thus ending a period of serial internal warfare which had continued uninterrupted since the Ōnin War
Ōnin War
(1467–1477).[13] 1592 ( Keichō
Keichō
1): Keichō
Keichō
expedition to Korea en route to invade China.[14] September 18, 1598 ( Keichō
Keichō
3, on the 18th day of the 8th month): Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the Taiko
Taiko
died in his Fushimi Castle
Fushimi Castle
at the age of 63.[13] October 21, 1600 ( Keichō
Keichō
5, 15th day of the 9th month): Battle of Sekigahara. The Tokugawa clan
Tokugawa clan
and its allies decisively vanquish all opposition.[13] 1602 ( Keichō
Keichō
8): The Kyōto
Kyōto
Daibutsu is destroyed by fire. March 24, 1603 ( Keichō
Keichō
8): Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
became shōgun, which effectively begins what will be known as the Edo bakufu. Toyotomi Hideyori was elevated to Naidaijin
Naidaijin
in the Imperial court.[15] January 23, 1605 ( Keichō
Keichō
10, 15th day of the 12th month): A new volcanic island, Hachijōko-jima, arose from the sea at the side of Hachijō Island (八丈島 Hachijō-jima) in the Izu Islands (伊豆諸島, Izu-shotō) which stretch south and east from the Izu Peninsula.[15] 1606 ( Keichō
Keichō
11): Construction began on Edo Castle.[15] 1607 ( Keichō
Keichō
12): Construction began on Sunpu Castle; and an ambassador from China arrived with greetings for the emperor of Japan.[15] 1609 ( Keichō
Keichō
14): Invasion of Ryukyu
Invasion of Ryukyu
by Shimazu daimyō of Satsuma.[16] 1610 ( Keichō
Keichō
15): Reconstruction of the Daibutsu hall in Kyōto
Kyōto
is begun. May 20, 1610 ( Keichō
Keichō
15, the 27th day of the 3rd month): Toyotomi Hideyori came to Kyoto to visit the former-Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu; and the same day, the emperor announces his intention to resign in favor of his son Masahito.[17] May 9, 1611 ( Keichō
Keichō
16): Go-Yōzei abdicates; and his son Prince Masahito receives the succession (the senso); and shortly thereafter, Go-Mizunoo formally accedes to the throne (the sokui).[18]

Legacy[edit] Go-Yōzei's reign corresponds to the rule of Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
and the beginning of the Edo Bakufu. He was the sovereign who confirmed the legitimacy of their accession to power; and this period allowed the Imperial Family to recover a small portion of its diminished powers. This Emperor gave Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
the rank of Taikō, originally a title given to the father of the emperor's chief advisor (Kampaku), or a retired Kampaku, which was essential to increase his status and effectively stabilize his power. When Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
was given the title of Sei-i Taishōgun, the future of any anticipated Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
was by no means assured, nor was his relationship to the emperor at all settled. He gradually began to interfere in the affairs of the Imperial Court. The right to grant ranks of court nobility and change the era became a concern of the bakufu. However, the Imperial Court's poverty during the Warring States Era seemed likely to become a thing of the past, as the bakufu provided steadily for its financial needs. Go-Yōzei did abdicate in favor of his third son; but he wanted to be succeeded by his younger brother, Imperial Prince Hachijō-no-miya Toshihito (八条宮智仁親王) (first of the Hachijō-no-miya line, later called Katsura-no-miya), who built the Katsura Imperial Villa. Go-Yōzei loved literature and art. He published the Kobun Kokyo and part of Nihon Shoki
Nihon Shoki
with movable type dedicated to the emperor by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. After abdication, Go-Yōzei lived for six years in the Sentō Imperial Palace; and thereafter, it became the usual place to which abdicated emperors would retire.[7] The name of this palace and its gardens was Sentō-goshō; and emperors who had abdicated were sometimes called Sentō-goshō.

September 25, 1617: Go-Yōzei died.[9]

The kami of Emperor Go-Yōzei
Emperor Go-Yōzei
is enshrined with other emperors at the imperial mausoleum (misasagi) called Fukakusa no kita no misasagi (深草北陵) in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto.[19] Kugyō[edit] Kugyō
Kugyō
(公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Go-Yōzei's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan
Daijō-kan
included:

Kampaku, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, 1585–1591[10] Kampaku, Toyotomi Hidetsugu, 1591–1595 Kampaku, Kujō Kanetaka, 1600–1604 Kampaku, Konoe Nobutada, 1605–1606 Kampaku, Takatsukasa Nobufusa, 1606–1608 Kampaku, Kujō Yukiie, 1608–1612 Sadaijin Udaijin, Konoe Nobuhiro[7] Naidaijin, Toyotomi Hideyori, 1603–16__[15] Dainagon

Eras of Go-Yōzei's reign[edit] The years of Go-Yōzei's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[13]

Tenshō (1573–1592) Bunroku
Bunroku
(1592–1596) Keichō
Keichō
(1596–1615)

Ancestry[edit] [20]

Ancestors of Emperor Go-Yōzei

16. Emperor Go-Kashiwabara
Emperor Go-Kashiwabara
(1462–1526)

8. Emperor Go-Nara
Emperor Go-Nara
(1495–1557)

17. Kanshūji Fujiko (1464–1535)

4. Emperor Ōgimachi
Emperor Ōgimachi
(1517–1593)

18. Madenokōji Katafusa (1466–1507)

9. Madenokōji Eiko (1494–1522)

19. Kikkawa

2. Prince Masahito
Prince Masahito
(1552–1586)

20. Madenokōji Katafusa (1466–1507)

10. Madenokōji Hidefusa (1492–1563)

21. Kikkawa

5.Madenokōji Fusako (d. 1581)

11. Hatakeyama

1. Emperor Go-Yōzei

24. Kanshūji Hisaaki (1478–1559)

12. Kanshūji Tadatoyo (1503–1594)

25. Ishida

6. Kanshūji Haruhide (1523–1577)

13. Ise

3. Kanshūji Haruko (1553–1620)

28. Awaya Ken'ya

14. Awaya Mototaka

7. Awaya Motoko

30. Kanshūji Hisaaki (1478–1559)

15. Kanshūji

31. Ishida

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Emperor Go-Yōzei.

Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult

Notes[edit]

Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom

^ Imperial Household Agency
Imperial Household Agency
(Kunaichō): 後陽成天皇 (107) ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, pp. 111–113. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 402–409. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Imperial House, p. 9; Titsingh, p. 402. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Imperial House, p. 424. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Imperial House, p. 10. ^ a b c Ponsonby-Fane, Imperial House, p. 113. ^ Titsingh, p. 402. A distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami
Emperor Go-Murakami
– see Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44. ^ a b Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit, p. 186. ^ a b c d Titsingh, p. 402. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A. B. (1956). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794–1869, pp. 340–341; Titsingh, p. 402; Meyer, p. 186. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Imperial House, p. 111. ^ a b c d Titsingh, p. 405. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Imperial House, pp. 111–112. ^ a b c d e Titisngh, p. 409. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Imperial House, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 409. ^ Titsingh, p. 409; Hirai, Kiyoshi. (1950). "A Short History of the Retired Emperor's Palace in the Edo Era", Architectural Institute of Japan: The Japanese Construction Society Academic Dissertation Report Collection (日本建築学会論文報告集), No.61(19590325), pp. 143–150. ^ Titsingh, p. 410; Meyer, p. 186. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Imperial House, p. 423. ^ "Genealogy". Reichsarchiv. Retrieved 23 January 2018.  (in Japanese)

References[edit]

Hirai, Kiyoshi. (1950). "A Short History of the Retired Emperor's Palace in the Edo Era", Architectural Institute of Japan: The Japanese Construction Society Academic Dissertation Report Collection (日本建築学会論文報告集), No.61(19590325).link to online catalog (English) link to digitized text/drawings (Japanese)[permanent dead link] Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit: unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Jahre 1846 bis 1867. Münster: LIT Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8258-3939-0; OCLC
OCLC
42041594 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1956). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794–1869. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 182637732 __________. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC
OCLC
194887 Screech, Timon. (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0-203-09985-8; OCLC
OCLC
65177072 Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC
OCLC
5850691. Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC
OCLC
59145842

Regnal titles

Preceded by Emperor Ōgimachi Emperor of Japan: Go-Yōzei 1586–1611 Succeeded by Emperor Go-Mizunoo

v t e

Prominent people of the Sengoku period

Three major daimyōs

Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu

Shōgun

Ashikaga Yoshiharu Ashikaga Yoshiteru Ashikaga Yoshihide Ashikaga Yoshiaki Tokugawa Hidetada

Emperors

Go-Kashiwabara Go-Nara Ōgimachi Go-Yōzei

Other daimyōs

List of daimyōs from the Sengoku period

Swordsmen

Hikita Bungorō Kamiizumi Nobutsuna Miyamoto Musashi Sasaki Kojirō Tadashima Akiyama Tsukahara Bokuden Tsutsumi Hōzan Yagyū Munenori Yagyū Munetoshi

Ninja, rogues and mercenaries

Fūma Kotarō Hattori Hanzō Ishikawa Goemon Katō Danzō Kirigakure Shikaemon Kōzuki Sasuke Nakamura Chōbei Ohama Kagetaka Saika Magoichi

Suzuki Sadayu Suzuki Shigehide Suzuki Shigetomo

Suzuki Magoroku Igasaki Dōshun

Monks and other religious figures

Ankokuji Ekei Hongan-ji Kennyo Hon'inbō Sansa Ishin Sūden Jion Nankōbō Tenkai Rennyo Sessai Chōrō Shimozuma Chūkō Shimozuma Rairen Shimozuma Rairyū Takuan Sōhō

Onna-bugeisha

Ii Naotora Ikeda Sen Kaihime Komatsuhime Maeda Matsu Ōhōri Tsuruhime Tachibana Ginchiyo Otatsu No Kata Myorin Otsune

Other women

Asahihime Chacha Chikurin-in Dota Gozen Gotokuhime Hosokawa Gracia Izumo no Okuni Kitsuno Kyōgoku Maria Kyōgoku Tatsuko Nene Nōhime Oeyo Oichi Ohatsu Okaji no Kata Lady Kasuga Lady Saigō Lady Tsukiyama Senhime Sentōin Tobai-in Tokuhime

See also

List of samurai from the Sengoku period

v t e

Japanese monarchs

Italics mark imperial consort and regent Jingū, who is not traditionally listed. Years given as CE / AD

Legendary

Jimmu Suizei Annei Itoku Kōshō Kōan Kōrei Kōgen Kaika Sujin Suinin Keikō Seimu Chūai Jingū

Kofun

Ōjin Nintoku Richū Hanzei Ingyō Ankō Yūryaku Seinei Kenzō Ninken Buretsu Keitai Ankan Senka

Asuka

552–710

Kinmei Bidatsu Yōmei Sushun Suiko Jomei Kōgyoku Kōtoku Saimei Tenji Kōbun Tenmu Jitō Monmu Genmei

Nara

710–794

Genmei Genshō Shōmu Kōken Junnin Shōtoku Kōnin Kanmu

Heian

794–1185

Kanmu Heizei Saga Junna Ninmyō Montoku Seiwa Yōzei Kōkō Uda Daigo Suzaku Murakami Reizei En'yū Kazan Ichijō Sanjō Go-Ichijō Go-Suzaku Go-Reizei Go-Sanjō Shirakawa Horikawa Toba Sutoku Konoe Go-Shirakawa Nijō Rokujō Takakura Antoku Go-Toba

Kamakura

1185–1333

Tsuchimikado Juntoku Chūkyō Go-Horikawa Shijō Go-Saga Go-Fukakusa Kameyama Go-Uda Fushimi Go-Fushimi Go-Nijō Hanazono Go-Daigo

Northern Court

1333–1392

Kōgon Kōmyō Sukō Go-Kōgon Go-En'yū Go-Komatsu

Muromachi

1333–1573

Go-Murakami Chōkei Go-Kameyama Go-Komatsu Shōkō Go-Hanazono Go-Tsuchimikado Go-Kashiwabara Go-Nara Ōgimachi

Azuchi-Momoyama

1573–1603

Ōgimachi Go-Yōzei

Edo

1603–1868

Go-Yōzei Go-Mizunoo Meishō Go-Kōmyō Go-Sai Reigen Higashiyama Nakamikado Sakuramachi Momozono Go-Sakuramachi Go-Momozono Kōkaku Ninkō Kōmei Meiji

Empire of Japan

1868–1947

Meiji Taishō Shōwa

Japan
Japan
(Post-war Japan)

1947–present

Shōwa Akihito
Akihito
(Heisei period; Reigning Emperor)

Imperial family tree Imperial house

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 31906384 LCCN: nr97045091 ISNI: 0000 0000 5291 4008 GND: 1029182418 SUDOC: 181816156 BIBSYS: 15009921 NDL: 00544619

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