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Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
(後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo-tennō) (November 26, 1288 – September 19, 1339) was the 96th emperor of Japan,[1] according to the traditional order of succession.[2] He successfully overthrew the Kamakura shogunate
Kamakura shogunate
in 1333 and established the short lived Kenmu Restoration to bring the Imperial House back into power. This was to be the last time the emperor had any power until the Meiji Restoration in 1868.[3] The Kenmu
Kenmu
restoration was in turn overthrown by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, ushering in the Ashikaga shogunate, and split the imperial family into two opposing factions between the Ashikaga backed Northern Court
Northern Court
situated in Kyoto
Kyoto
and the Southern Court
Southern Court
based in Yoshino led by Go-Daigo and his later successors. Post-Meiji historians construe Go-Daigo's reign to span 1318–1339; however, pre-Meiji accounts of his reign considered the years of his reign to encompass only between 1318–1332. Pre-Meiji scholars also considered Go-Daigo a pretender emperor in the years from 1336 through 1339.[citation needed] This 14th-century sovereign personally chose his posthumous name after the 9th-century Emperor Daigo
Emperor Daigo
and go- (後), translates as "later", and he is thus sometimes called the "Later Emperor Daigo", or, in some older sources, "Daigo, the second" or as "Daigo II".

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Events of Go-Daigo's life

2 Genealogy

2.1 Consorts and children

3 Kugyō 4 Eras of Go-Daigo's reign 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Biography[edit] Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum
Throne, his personal name (imina) was Takaharu-shinnō (尊治親王).[4] He was the second son of the Daikakuji-tō emperor, Emperor Go-Uda. His mother was Fujiwara no Chūshi/Tadako (藤原忠子), daughter of Fujiwara no Tadatsugu (Itsutsuji Tadatsugu) (藤原忠継/五辻忠継). She became Nyoin called Dantenmon-in (談天門院). His older brother was Emperor Go-Nijō. Emperor Go-Daigo's ideal was the Engi era (901–923) during the reign of Emperor Daigo, a period of direct imperial rule. An emperor's posthumous name was normally chosen after his death, but Emperor Go-Daigo chose his personally during his lifetime, to share it with Emperor Daigo. Events of Go-Daigo's life[edit] Main article: Kenmu
Kenmu
Restoration

Woodblock print triptych by Ogata Gekkō; Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
dreams of ghosts at his palace in Kasagiyama

1308 (Enkyō 1): At the death of Emperor Go-Nijō, Hanazono accedes to the Chrysanthemum Throne
Chrysanthemum Throne
at age 12 years; and Takaharu-shinnō, the second son of former- Emperor Go-Uda
Emperor Go-Uda
is elevated as Crown Prince and heir apparent under the direction of the Kamakura shogunate.[5] March 29, 1318 ( Bunpō
Bunpō
2, 26th day of 2nd month): In the 11th year of Hanazono's reign (花園天皇十一年), the emperor abdicated; and the succession (senso) was received by his cousin, the second son of former-Emperor Go-Uda. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
is said to have acceded to the throne (sokui).[6] 1319 ( Bunpō
Bunpō
3, 4th month): Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
caused the nengō to be changed to Gen'ō
Gen'ō
to mark the beginning of his reign.[7]

In 1324, with the discovery of Emperor Go-Daigo's plans to overthrow the Kamakura shogunate, the Rokuhara Tandai disposed of his close associate Hino Suketomo in the Shōchū Incident. In the Genkō Incident of 1331, Emperor Go-Daigo's plans were again discovered, this time by a betrayal by his close associate Yoshida Sadafusa. He quickly hid the Sacred Treasures in a secluded castle in Kasagiyama (the modern town of Kasagi, Sōraku District, Kyōto Prefecture) and raised an army, but the castle fell to the shogunate's army the following year, and they enthroned Emperor Kōgon, exiling Daigo to Oki Province
Oki Province
(the Oki Islands
Oki Islands
in modern-day Shimane Prefecture),[8] the same place to which Emperor Go-Toba
Emperor Go-Toba
had been exiled after the Jōkyū War of 1221. In 1333, Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
escaped from Oki with the help of Nawa Nagatoshi and his family, raising an army at Funagami Mountain in Hōki Province
Hōki Province
(the modern town of Kotoura in Tōhaku District, Tottori Prefecture). Ashikaga Takauji, who had been sent by the shogunate to find and destroy this army, sided with the emperor and captured the Rokuhara Tandai. Immediately following this, Nitta Yoshisada, who had raised an army in the east, laid siege to Kamakura. When the city finally fell to Nitta, Hōjō Takatoki, the shogunal regent, fled to Tōshō temple, where he and his entire family committed suicide. This ended Hōjō power and paved the way for a new military regime.[8]:15–21 Upon his triumphal return to Kyoto, Daigo took the throne from Emperor Kōgon and began the Kenmu
Kenmu
Restoration. The Restoration was ostensibly a revival of the older ways, but, in fact, the emperor had his eye set on an imperial dictatorship like that of the emperor of China. He wanted to imitate the Chinese in all their ways and become the most powerful ruler in the East. Impatient reforms, litigation over land rights, rewards, and the exclusion of the samurai from the political order caused much complaining, and his political order began to fall apart. In 1335, Ashikaga Takauji, who had travelled to eastern Japan without obtaining an imperial edict in order to suppress the Nakasendai Rebellion, became disaffected. Daigo ordered Nitta Yoshisada to track down and destroy Ashikaga. Ashikaga defeated Nitta Yoshisada at the Battle of Takenoshita, Hakone. Kusunoki Masashige
Kusunoki Masashige
and Kitabatake Akiie, in communication with Kyoto, smashed the Ashikaga army. Takauji fled to Kyūshū, but the following year, after reassembling his army, he again approached Kyōto. Kusunoki Masashige proposed a reconciliation with Takauji to the emperor, but Go-Daigo rejected this. He ordered Masashige and Yoshisada to destroy Takauji. Kusunoki's army was defeated at the Battle of Minatogawa. When Ashikaga's army entered Kyōto, Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
resisted, fleeing to Mount Hiei, but seeking reconciliation, he sent the imperial regalia to the Ashikaga side. Takauji enthroned the Jimyōin-tō emperor, Kōmyō, and officially began his shogunate with the enactment of the Kenmu
Kenmu
Law Code.[8]:54–58

Memorial
Memorial
Shinto
Shinto
shrine and mausoleum honoring Emperor Go-Daigo

Go-Daigo escaped from the capital in January 1337, the regalia that he had handed over to the Ashikaga being counterfeit, and set up the Southern Court
Southern Court
among the mountains of Yoshino, beginning the Period of Northern and Southern Courts in which the Northern Dynasty
Dynasty
in Kyoto and the Southern Dynasty
Dynasty
in Yoshino faced off against each other.[8]:55,59 Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
ordered Imperial Prince Kaneyoshi to Kyūshū
Kyūshū
and Nitta Yoshisada
Nitta Yoshisada
and Imperial Prince Tsuneyoshi to Hokuriku, and so forth, dispatching his sons all over, so that they could oppose the Northern Court.

September 18, 1339 ( Ryakuō
Ryakuō
2, 15th day of the 8th month): In the 21st year of Go-Daigo's reign, the emperor abdicated at Yoshino in favor of his son, Noriyoshi-shinnō, who would become Emperor Go-Murakami.[9] September 19, 1339 ( Ryakuō
Ryakuō
2, 16th day of the 8th month): Go-Daigo died;[10]

The actual site of Go-Daigo's grave is settled.[1] This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto
Shinto
shrine (misasagi) at Nara. The Imperial Household Agency
Imperial Household Agency
designates this location as Go-Daigo's mausoleum. It is formally named Tō-no-o no misasagi.[11] Genealogy[edit] Consorts and children[edit] Empress (Chūgū): Saionji Kishi (西園寺禧子) (Go-Kyōgoku-in, 後京極院) (1303–1333), daughter of Saionji Sanekane (西園寺実兼)

Princess (b. 1314), died young Imperial Princess Kanshi (懽子内親王 Kanshi Naishinnō, 1315–1362) (Senseimon-in, 宣政門院) (1315–1362), Saiō
Saiō
at Ise Shrine; later, married to Emperor Kōgon

Empress (Chūgū): Imperial Princess Junshi (珣子内親王) (Shin-Muromachi-in, 新室町院) (1311–1337), daughter of Emperor Go-Fushimi

Imperial Princess Yukiko (幸子内親王) (b. 1335)

Nyōgo: Fujiwara no Eishi (藤原栄子), daughter of Nijō Michihira Nyōgo: Fujiwara no Jisshi (実子). Daughter of Tōin Saneo

Princess

Court lady: Minamoto no Chikako (源親子), daughter of Kitabatake Morochika (北畠師親)

Imperial Prince Moriyoshi (or Morinaga) (護良親王) (1308–1335) – Head Priest of Enryakuji
Enryakuji
(Tendai-zasu, 天台座主) (Buddhist name: Prince Son'un, 尊雲法親王) Imperial Princess Hishi (妣子内親王) – nun in Imabayashi princess – married to Konoe Mototsugu (divorced later) Imperial Prince Sonsho (尊性法親王)

Lady-in-waiting: Dainagon'nosuke, Kitabatake Moroshige's daughter Lady-in-waiting: ??? (新按察典侍), Jimyoin Yasufuji's daughter Lady-in-waiting: Sochi-no-suke (帥典侍讃岐) Court lady: Fujiwara no Ishi/Tameko (藤原為子) (d. c. 1311–12), daughter of Nijō Tameyo (二条為世)

Imperial Prince Takayoshi (also Takanaga) (尊良親王) (c. 1306–08 – 1337) Imperial Prince Munenaga
Prince Munenaga
(also Muneyoshi) (宗良親王) (1311 – c. 1385) – Head Priest of Enryakuji
Enryakuji
(Tendai-zasu, 天台座主) (Buddhist name: Prince Sonchō, 尊澄法親王) Imperial Princess Tamako (瓊子内親王) (1316–1339) – nun Princess

Court lady: Ichijō no Tsubone (一条局), daughter of Saionji Sanetoshi (西園寺実俊)

Imperial Prince Tokiyoshi (also Yoyoshi) (世良親王) (c. 1306–8 – 1330) Imperial Prince Jōson (静尊法親王) (Imperial Prince Keison, 恵尊法親王) – priest in Shōgoin (聖護院) Imperial Princess Kinshi (欣子内親王) – nun in Imabayashi

Court lady: Fujiwara no Renshi (Ano Renshi) (藤原廉子/阿野廉子) (Shin-Taikenmon-in, 新待賢門院) (1301–1359), daughter of Ano Kinkado (阿野公廉)

Imperial Prince Tsunenaga (also Tsuneyoshi) (恒良親王) (1324–1338) Imperial Prince Nariyoshi (also Narinaga) (成良親王) (1326–1338/1344) Imperial Prince Noriyoshi (義良親王) (Emperor Go-Murakami) (1328–1368) Imperial Princess Shoshi (祥子内親王) – Saiō
Saiō
at Ise Shrine 1333–1336; later, nun in Hōan-ji Imperial Princess Ishi (惟子内親王) – nun in Imabayashi Imperial Princess Noriko (新宣陽門院;

Court lady: Gon-no- Dainagon
Dainagon
no Sammi no Tsubone (権大納言三位局) (d. 1351), daughter of Nijō Tamemichi (二条為道)

Imperial Prince Hōnin (法仁法親王) (1325–1352) – priest in Ninna-ji Prince Kaneyoshi (also Kanenaga) (懐良親王) (1326–1383) – Seisei Taishōgun (征西大将軍) 1336–? princess

Princess: Empress Dowager Shōkeimon'in (憙子内親王, 1270–1324) Princess ??? daughter of Emperor Kameyama

Kōshō (恒性) (1305–1333) – priest Mumon Gensen (無文元選) (1323–1390) – founder of Hōkō-ji (Shizuoka)

Court lady: Koto no Naishi (勾当内侍)

Princess

Court lady: Shōshō no Naishi (少将内侍), daughter of Sugawara no Arinaka (菅原在仲)

Imperial Prince Seijo (聖助法親王) (?–?) – Head Priest of Onjō-ji

Court lady: Fujiwara no Chikako (藤原親子), daughter of Itsutsuji Munechika (五辻宗親)

Imperial Prince Mitsuyoshi (満良親王)

Court lady: Fujiwara no Shushi/Moriko (藤原守子, 1303–1357), daughter of Tōin Saneyasu (洞院実泰)

Imperial Prince Gen'en (玄円法親王) – Head Priest of Kōfuku-ji Imperial Prince Saikei (最恵法親王) – priest in Myōhō-in

Court lady: Konoe no Tsubone (近衛局)

Prince Tomoyoshi (知良王)

Court lady: Shōnagon no Naishi (少納言内侍), daughter of Shijō Takasuke (四条隆資)

Sonshin (尊真) – priest

Court lady: Gon-no-Chūnagon no Tsubone (権中納言局), daughter of Sanjō Kinyasu (三条公泰)

Imperial Princess Sadako (貞子内親王)

Nyōgo: Dainagon-no-tsubone (大納言局), Ogimachi Saneakira's daughter

Imperial Princess Naoko (瑜子内親王)

Nyōgo: Saemon-no-kami-no-tsubone (左衛門督局), Nijō Tametada's daughter

Priest in Imabayashi

Nyōgo: ???, Yoshida Sadafusa's daughter Nyōgo: Bōmon-no-tsubone (坊門局), Bomon Kiyotada's daughter

Yōdō

Nyōgo: ???, Horikawa Mototomo's daughter

Princess

Nyōgo: Minamoto-no-Yasuko (源康子) Asukai-no-tsubone (飛鳥井局), Minamoto-no-Yasutoki's daughter Nyōgo: Wakamizu-no-tsubone (若水局), Minamoto-no-Yasutoki's daughter Nyōgo: ???, Horiguchi Sadayoshi's daughter

daughter married Yoshimizu Munemasa

Court lady: Mimbu-kyō no Tsubone (民部卿局) (unknown women)

Yōdō (d. 1398) – 5th Head Nun of Tōkei-ji Rokujō Arifusa's wife  ??? (竜泉令淬) Kenkō (賢光)

Go-Daigo had some other princesses from some court ladies. Kugyō[edit] Kugyō
Kugyō
(公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Go-Daigo's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan
Daijō-kan
included:

Kampaku, Nijō Michihira, 1316–1318 Kampaku, Ichijō Uchitsune, 1318–1323 Kampaku, Kujō Fusazane, 1323–1324 Kampaku, Takatsukasa Fuyuhira, 1324–1327 Kampaku, Nijō Michihira, 1327–1330 Kampaku, Konoe Tsunetada, 1330 Kampaku, Takatsukasa Fuyunori, 1330–1333 Sadaijin Udaijin Naidaijin Dainagon

Eras of Go-Daigo's reign[edit] The years of Go-Daigo's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō. Emperor Go-Daigo's eight era name changes are mirrored in number only in the reign of Emperor Go-Hanazono, who also reigned through eight era name changes.[12]

Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom

Pre-Nanboku-chō court

Bunpō
Bunpō
(1317–1319) Gen'ō
Gen'ō
(1319–1321) Genkō (1321–1324) Shōchū (1324–1326) Karyaku
Karyaku
(1326–1329) Gentoku
Gentoku
(1329–1331) Genkō (1331–1334) Kenmu
Kenmu
(1334–1336)

Nanboku-chō southern court

Eras as reckoned by legitimate sovereign's Court (as determined by Meiji rescript)

Engen
Engen
(1336–1340)

Nanboku-chō northern Court

Eras as reckoned by pretender sovereign's Court (as determined by Meiji rescript)

Shōkei
Shōkei
(1332–1338) Ryakuō
Ryakuō
(1338–1342)

In popular culture[edit] Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
appears in the alternate history novel Romanitas by Sophia McDougall. See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Emperor Go-Daigo.

Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Yoshino Shrine

Notes[edit]

^ a b Imperial Household Agency
Imperial Household Agency
(Kunaichō): 後醍醐天皇 (96); retrieved 2013-8-28. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 95. ^ Sansom 1977: 22–42. ^ Titsingh, p. 281, p. 281, at Google Books; Varley, p. 241. ^ Titsingh, p. 278, p. 278, at Google Books; Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959) The Imperial House of Japan, p. 204. ^ Titsingh, p. 281, p. 281, at Google Books; Varley, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami. ^ Varley, p. 243. ^ a b c d Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. pp. 7–11. ISBN 0804705259.  ^ Varley, p. 270. ^ Titsingh, p. 295., p. 295, at Google Books ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 420. ^ Titsingh, p. 281–294., p. 281, at Google Books

References[edit]

Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial
Memorial
Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842

External links[edit]

Kansai Digital Archives: Go-Daigo mausoleum enclosure, image

Regnal titles

Preceded by Emperor Hanazono Emperor of Japan: Go-Daigo 1318–1339 Succeeded by Emperor Go-Murakami __________ Emperor Kōgon (Pretender)

v t e

Japanese monarchs

Italics mark imperial consort and regent Jingū, who is not traditionally listed. Years given as CE / AD

Legendary

Jimmu Suizei Annei Itoku Kōshō Kōan Kōrei Kōgen Kaika Sujin Suinin Keikō Seimu Chūai Jingū

Kofun

Ōjin Nintoku Richū Hanzei Ingyō Ankō Yūryaku Seinei Kenzō Ninken Buretsu Keitai Ankan Senka

Asuka

552–710

Kinmei Bidatsu Yōmei Sushun Suiko Jomei Kōgyoku Kōtoku Saimei Tenji Kōbun Tenmu Jitō Monmu Genmei

Nara

710–794

Genmei Genshō Shōmu Kōken Junnin Shōtoku Kōnin Kanmu

Heian

794–1185

Kanmu Heizei Saga Junna Ninmyō Montoku Seiwa Yōzei Kōkō Uda Daigo Suzaku Murakami Reizei En'yū Kazan Ichijō Sanjō Go-Ichijō Go-Suzaku Go-Reizei Go-Sanjō Shirakawa Horikawa Toba Sutoku Konoe Go-Shirakawa Nijō Rokujō Takakura Antoku Go-Toba

Kamakura

1185–1333

Tsuchimikado Juntoku Chūkyō Go-Horikawa Shijō Go-Saga Go-Fukakusa Kameyama Go-Uda Fushimi Go-Fushimi Go-Nijō Hanazono Go-Daigo

Northern Court

1333–1392

Kōgon Kōmyō Sukō Go-Kōgon Go-En'yū Go-Komatsu

Muromachi

1333–1573

Go-Murakami Chōkei Go-Kameyama Go-Komatsu Shōkō Go-Hanazono Go-Tsuchimikado Go-Kashiwabara Go-Nara Ōgimachi

Azuchi-Momoyama

1573–1603

Ōgimachi Go-Yōzei

Edo

1603–1868

Go-Yōzei Go-Mizunoo Meishō Go-Kōmyō Go-Sai Reigen Higashiyama Nakamikado Sakuramachi Momozono Go-Sakuramachi Go-Momozono Kōkaku Ninkō Kōmei Meiji

Empire of Japan

1868–1947

Meiji Taishō Shōwa

Japan
Japan
(Post-war Japan)

1947–present

Shōwa Akihito
Akihito
(Heisei period; Reigning Emperor)

Imperial family tree Imperial house

List Category Book

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 18517454 LCCN: n80040246 ISNI: 0000 0000 3051 5022 GND: 172707897 SUDOC: 12612

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