EMPEROR GO-DAIGO (後醍醐天皇 _Go-Daigo-tennō_) (November 26,
1288 – September 19, 1339) was the 96th emperor of
Post-Meiji historians construe Go-Daigo's reign to span 1318–1339; however, pre-Meiji accounts of his reign considered the years of his reign to encompass only between 1318–1332. Pre-Meiji scholars also considered Go-Daigo a pretender emperor in the years from 1336 through 1339.
This 14th-century sovereign was named after the 9th-century Emperor Daigo and _go-_ (後), translates as "later", and he is thus sometimes called the "Later Emperor Daigo", or, in some older sources, "Daigo, the second" or as "Daigo II".
* 1 Biography
* 1.1 Events of Go-Daigo\'s life
* 2 Genealogy
* 2.1 Consorts and children
* 3 Kugyō * 4 Eras of Go-Daigo\'s reign * 5 In popular culture * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links
Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne , his personal name was Takaharu_-shinnō_ (尊治親王).
He was the second son of the Daikakuji-tō emperor, Emperor Go-Uda . His mother was Fujiwara no _Chūshi_/Tadako (_藤原忠子_), daughter of Fujiwara no Tadatsugu (Itsutsuji Tadatsugu) (_藤原忠継/五辻忠継_). She became Nyoin called Dantenmon-in (談天門院).
Emperor Go-Daigo's ideal was the Engi era (901–923) during the
Emperor Daigo , a period of direct imperial rule. An
emperor's posthumous name was normally chosen after his death, but
EVENTS OF GO-DAIGO\'S LIFE
Woodblock print triptych by Gekko Ogata . Emperor Go-Daigo dreams of ghosts at his palace in Kasagiyama.
* 1308 (_Enkyō 1_): At the death of
Emperor Go-Nijō , Hanazono
accedes to the
Chrysanthemum Throne at age 12 years; and
Takaharu_-shinnō_, the second son of former-
Emperor Go-Uda is
elevated as Crown Prince and heir apparent under the direction of the
Kamakura shogunate .
* MARCH 29, 1318 (_
Bunpō 2, 26th day of 2nd month_): In the 11th
year of Hanazono's reign (花園天皇十一年), the emperor
abdicated; and the succession (_senso_) was received by his cousin,
the second son of former-Emperor Go-Uda. Shortly thereafter, Emperor
Go-Daigo is said to have acceded to the throne (_sokui_).
* 1319 (_
Bunpō 3, 4th month_):
In the Genkō Incident of 1331, Emperor Go-Daigo's plans were again discovered, this time by a betrayal by his close associate Yoshida Sadafusa. He quickly hid the Sacred Treasures in a secluded castle in Kasagiyama (the modern town of Kasagi , Sōraku District , Kyōto Prefecture ) and raised an army, but the castle fell to the Shogunate 's army the following year, and they enthroned Emperor Kōgon , exiling Daigo to Oki Province (the Oki Islands in modern-day Shimane Prefecture ), the same place to which Emperor Go-Toba had been exiled after the Jōkyū War of 1221.
Upon his triumphal return to Kyoto, Daigo took the throne from
Emperor Kōgon and began the
Kenmu Restoration . The Restoration was
ostensibly a revival of the older ways, but, in fact, the emperor had
his eye set on an imperial dictatorship like that of the emperor of
China . He wanted to imitate the Chinese in all their ways and become
the most powerful ruler in the East. Impatient reforms, litigation
over land rights, rewards, and the exclusion of the samurai from the
political order caused much complaining, and his political order began
to fall apart. In 1335,
Ashikaga Takauji , who had travelled to
When Ashikaga's army entered Kyōto,
Go-Daigo escaped from the capital in Jan. 1337, the regalia that he had handed over to the Ashikaga being counterfeit, and set up the Southern Court among the mountains of Yoshino , beginning the Period of Northern and Southern Courts in which the Northern Dynasty in Kyōto and the Southern Dynasty in Yoshino faced off against each other. :55,59
* SEPTEMBER 18, 1339 (_ Ryakuō 2, 15th day of the 8th month_): In the 21st year of Go-Daigo's reign, the emperor abdicated at Yoshino in favor of his son, Noriyoshi_-shinnō,_ who would become Emperor Go-Murakami . * SEPTEMBER 19, 1339 (_ Ryakuō 2, 16th day of the 8th month_): Go-Daigo died;
The actual site of Go-Daigo's grave is settled. This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine (_misasagi_) at Nara.
The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Go-Daigo's mausoleum . It is formally named _Tō-no-o no misasagi_.
CONSORTS AND CHILDREN
Empress (_Chūgū_): Saionji _Kishi _ (_西園寺禧子_) (Go-Kyōgoku-in, 後京極院) (1303–1333), daughter of Saionji Sanekane (西園寺実兼)
Empress (_Chūgū_): Imperial Princess Junshi (珣子内親王) (Shin-Muromachi-in, 新室町院) (1311–1337), daughter of Emperor Go-Fushimi
* Imperial Princess Yukiko (幸子内親王) (1335–?)
_Nyōgo _: Fujiwara no Eishi (藤原栄子), daughter of Nijō Michihira
Court lady: Minamoto no Chikako (源親子), daughter of Kitabatake Morochika (北畠師親)
* Imperial Prince Moriyoshi (or Morinaga) (護良親王) (1308–1335) – Head Priest of Enryakuji (Tendai-zasu, 天台座主) (Buddhist name: Prince Son'un, 尊雲法親王) * Imperial Princess _Hishi_ (妣子内親王) – nun in Imabayashi
Court lady: Fujiwara no _Ishi_/Tameko (藤原為子) (?–1311/2), daughter of Nijō Tameyo (二条為世)
* Imperial Prince Takayoshi (also Takanaga) (尊良親王) (1306/8–1337) * Imperial Prince Munenaga (also Muneyoshi) (宗良親王) (1311–1385?) – Head Priest of Enryakuji (Tendai-zasu, 天台座主) (Buddhist name: Prince Sonchō, 尊澄法親王) * Imperial Princess Tamako (瓊子内親王) (1316–1339) – nun * Imperial Princess _Kinshi_ (欣子内親王) – nun in Imabayashi
Court lady: _Ichijō no Tsubone_ (一条局), daughter of Saionji Sanetoshi (西園寺実俊)
* Imperial Prince Tokiyoshi (also Yoyoshi) (世良親王) (1306/8–1330) * Imperial Prince Jōson (静尊法親王) (Imperial Prince Keison, 恵尊法親王) – priest in Shōgoin (聖護院) * princess – nun in Imabayashi
Court lady: Fujiwara no _Renshi_ (Ano _Renshi_) (藤原廉子/阿野廉子) (Shin-Taikenmon-in, 新待賢門院) (1301–1359), daughter of Ano Kinkado (阿野公廉)
Prince Tsunenaga (also Tsuneyoshi) (恒良親王)
* Imperial Prince Nariyoshi (also Narinaga) (成良親王)
* Imperial Prince Noriyoshi (義良親王) (
Emperor Go-Murakami )
* Imperial Princess _Shoshi_ (祥子内親王) –
Saiō at Ise
Court lady: _Gon-no- Dainagon no Sammi no Tsubone_ (権大納言三位局) (?–1351), daughter of Nijō Tamemichi (二条為道)
Princess: a daughter of Emperor Kameyama
* Kōshō (恒性) (1319–1333) – priest
Court lady: _Shōshō no Naishi_ (少将内侍), daughter of Sugawara no Arinaka (菅原在仲)
* Imperial Prince Seijo (聖助法親王) (?–?) – Head Priest of Onjō-ji
Court lady: Fujiwara no Chikako (藤原親子), daughter of Kazan'in Munechika (花山院宗親)
* Imperial Prince Mitsuyoshi (満良親王)
Court lady: Fujiwara no _Shushi_/Moriko (藤原守子), daughter of Tōin Saneyasu (洞院実泰)
* Imperial Prince Gen'en (玄円法親王) – Head Priest of Kōfuku-ji
Court lady: _Konoe no Tsubone_ (近衛局)
* Prince Tomoyoshi (知良王)
Court lady: _Shōnagon no Naishi_ (少納言内侍), daughter of Shijō Takasuke (四条隆資)
* Sonshin (尊真) – priest
Court lady: _Gon-no-Chūnagon no Tsubone_ (権中納言局), daughter of Sanjō Kinyasu (三条公泰)
* Imperial Princess Sadako (貞子内親王)
Court lady: _Mimbu-kyō no Tsubone_ (民部卿局)
* princess – married to Konoe Mototsugu (divorced later)
* Imperial Prince Saikei (最恵法親王) – priest in Myōhō-in * Mumon Gensen (無文元選) (1323–1390) – founder of Hōkō-ji (Shizuoka) * Yōdō (?–1398) – 5th Head Nun of Tōkei-ji
Go-Daigo had some other princesses from some court ladies.
_ Kugyō _ (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Go-Daigo's reign, this apex of the _ Daijō-kan included:_
* _ Kampaku _, Nijō Michihira , 1316–1318 * _Kampaku_, Ichijō Uchitsune , 1318–1323 * _Kampaku_, Kujō Fusazane , 1323–1324 * _Kampaku_, Takatsukasa Fuyuhira , 1324–1327 * _Kampaku_, Nijō Michihira, 1327–1330 * _Kampaku_, Konoe Tsunetada , 1330 * _Kampaku_, Takatsukasa Fuyunori, 1330–1333 * _ Sadaijin _ * _ Udaijin _ * _ Naidaijin _ * _ Dainagon _
ERAS OF GO-DAIGO\'S REIGN
The years of Go-Daigo's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or _nengō _. Emperor Go-Daigo's eight era name changes are mirrored in number only in the reign of Emperor Go-Hanazono , who also reigned through eight era name changes. PRE_-NANBOKU-CHō_ COURT
_NANBOKU-CHō_ SOUTHERN COURT
* Eras as reckoned by legitimate sovereign's Court (as determined by Meiji rescript)
* _ Engen _ (1336–1340)
_NANBOKU-CHō_ NORTHERN COURT
* Eras as reckoned by pretender sovereign's Court (as determined by Meiji rescript)
* _Shōkei _ (1332–1338) * _ Ryakuō _ (1338–1342)
IN POPULAR CULTURE
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to EMPEROR GO-DAIGO _.
_ Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
* ^ A_ _B_ Imperial Household Agency (_Kunaichō_): 後醍醐天皇 (96); retrieved 2013-8-28. * ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard . (1959). _The Imperial House of Japan,_ p. 95. * ^ Titsingh, Isaac . (1834). _Annales des empereurs du japon_, p. 281-294; Varley, H. Paul . (1980). _Jinnō Shōtōki_, pp. 241–269. * ^ Titsingh, _p. 281_, p. 281, at Google Books ; Varley, p. 241. * ^ Titsingh, _p. 278_, p. 278, at Google Books ; Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959) _The Imperial House of Japan,_ p. 204. * ^ Titsingh, _p. 281_, p. 281, at Google Books ; Varley, p. 44; a distinct act of _senso_ is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji ; and all sovereigns except Jitō , Yōzei , Go-Toba , and Fushimi have _senso_ and _sokui_ in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami . * ^ Varley, p. 243. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Sansom, George (1961). _A History of Japan, 1334-1615_. Stanford University Press. pp. 7–11. ISBN 0804705259 . * ^ Varley, p. 270. * ^ Titsingh, _p. 295._, p. 295, at Google Books * ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 420. * ^ Titsingh, _p. 281-294._, p. 281, at