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Empedocles
Empedocles
(/ɛmˈpɛdəkliːz/; Greek: Ἐμπεδοκλῆς [empedoklɛ̂ːs], Empedoklēs; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for originating the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements. He also proposed forces he called Love
Love
and Strife which would mix as well as separate the elements. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which also dealt with the origin and development of life. Influenced by the Pythagoreans, Empedocles
Empedocles
was a vegetarian who supported the doctrine of reincarnation. He is generally considered the last Greek philosopher to have recorded his ideas in verse. Some of his work survives, more than is the case for any other pre-Socratic philosopher. Empedocles' death was mythologized by ancient writers, and has been the subject of a number of literary treatments.

Contents

1 Life 2 Works

2.1 Purifications 2.2 On Nature

3 Philosophy

3.1 The four elements 3.2 Love
Love
and Strife 3.3 The sphere of Empedocles 3.4 Cosmogony 3.5 Perception
Perception
and knowledge 3.6 Respiration 3.7 Reincarnation

4 Death and literary treatments 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Life[edit]

The temple of Hera
Hera
at Akragas, built when Empedocles
Empedocles
was a young man, c. 470 BC.

Empedocles
Empedocles
was born, c. 490 BC, at Akragas
Akragas
in Sicily
Sicily
to a distinguished family.[3] Very little is known about his life. His father Meto seems to have been instrumental in overthrowing the tyrant of Akragas, presumably Thrasydaeus in 470 BC. Empedocles
Empedocles
continued this tradition by helping to overthrow the succeeding oligarchic government. He is said to have been magnanimous in his support of the poor;[4] severe in persecuting the overbearing conduct of the oligarchs;[5] and he even declined the sovereignty of the city when it was offered to him.[6] His brilliant oratory,[7] his penetrating knowledge of nature, and the reputation of his marvellous powers, including the curing of diseases, and averting epidemics,[8] produced many myths and stories surrounding his name. He was said to have been a magician and controller of storms, and he himself, in his famous poem Purifications seems to have promised miraculous powers, including the destruction of evil, the curing of old age, and the controlling of wind and rain. Empedocles
Empedocles
was acquainted or connected by friendship with the physicians Pausanias[9] (his eromenos[10]) and Acron;[11] with various Pythagoreans; and even, it is said, with Parmenides
Parmenides
and Anaxagoras.[12] The only pupil of Empedocles
Empedocles
who is mentioned is the sophist and rhetorician Gorgias.[13] Timaeus and Dicaearchus
Dicaearchus
spoke of the journey of Empedocles
Empedocles
to the Peloponnese, and of the admiration, which was paid to him there;[14] others mentioned his stay at Athens, and in the newly founded colony of Thurii, 446 BC;[15] there are also fanciful reports of him travelling far to the east to the lands of the Magi.[16] According to Aristotle, he died at the age of sixty (c. 430 BC), even though other writers have him living up to the age of one hundred and nine.[17] Likewise, there are myths concerning his death: a tradition, which is traced to Heraclides Ponticus, represented him as having been removed from the Earth; whereas others had him perishing in the flames of Mount Etna.[18] The contemporary Life of Empedocles
Empedocles
by Xanthus has been lost. Works[edit]

A piece of the Strasbourg Empedocles
Empedocles
papyrus in the Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire, Strasbourg

Empedocles
Empedocles
is considered the last Greek philosopher to write in verse and the surviving fragments of his teaching are from two poems, Purifications and On Nature. Empedocles
Empedocles
was undoubtedly acquainted with the didactic poems of Xenophanes
Xenophanes
and Parmenides[19]—allusions to the latter can be found in the fragments—but he seems to have surpassed them in the animation and richness of his style, and in the clearness of his descriptions and diction. Aristotle
Aristotle
called him the father of rhetoric, and, although he acknowledged only the meter as a point of comparison between the poems of Empedocles
Empedocles
and the epics of Homer, he described Empedocles
Empedocles
as Homeric
Homeric
and powerful in his diction.[20] Lucretius
Lucretius
speaks of him with enthusiasm, and evidently viewed him as his model.[21] The two poems together comprised 5000 lines.[22] About 550 lines of his poetry survive, although because ancient writers rarely mentioned which poem they were quoting, it is not always certain to which poem the quotes belong. Some scholars now believe that there was only one poem, and that the Purifications merely formed the beginning of On Nature.[23] Purifications[edit] We possess only about 100 sections of his Purifications. It seems to have given a mythical account of the world which may, nevertheless, have been part of Empedocles' philosophical system. The first lines of the poem are preserved by Diogenes Laërtius:

Friends who inhabit the mighty town by tawny Acragas which crowns the citadel, caring for good deeds, greetings; I, an immortal God, no longer mortal, wander among you, honoured by all, adorned with holy diadems and blooming garlands. To whatever illustrious towns I go, I am praised by men and women, and accompanied by thousands, who thirst for deliverance, some ask for prophecies, and some entreat, for remedies against all kinds of disease.[24]

It was probably this work which contained a story about souls,[25] where we are told that there were once spirits who lived in a state of bliss, but having committed a crime (the nature of which is unknown) they were punished by being forced to become mortal beings, reincarnated from body to body. Humans, animals, and even plants are such spirits. The moral conduct recommended in the poem may allow us to become like gods again. On Nature[edit] There are about 450 lines of his poem On Nature extant, including 70 lines which have been reconstructed from some papyrus scraps known as the Strasbourg Papyrus. The poem originally consisted of 2000 lines of hexameter verse,[26] and was addressed to Pausanias.[27] It was this poem which outlined his philosophical system. In it, Empedocles explains not only the nature and history of the universe, including his theory of the four classical elements, but he describes theories on causation, perception, and thought, as well as explanations of terrestrial phenomena and biological processes. Philosophy[edit]

Empedocles
Empedocles
as portrayed in the Nuremberg Chronicle

Although acquainted with the theories of the Eleatics and the Pythagoreans, Empedocles
Empedocles
did not belong to any one definite school. An eclectic in his thinking, he combined much that had been suggested by Parmenides, Pythagoras
Pythagoras
and the Ionian schools. He was a firm believer in Orphic mysteries, as well as a scientific thinker and a precursor of physics. Aristotle
Aristotle
mentions Empedocles
Empedocles
among the Ionic philosophers, and he places him in very close relation to the atomist philosophers and to Anaxagoras.[28] According to House (1956)[29]

Another of the fragments of the dialogue On the Poets (Aristotle) treats more fully what is said in Poetics ch. i about Empedocles, for though clearly implying that he was not a poet, Aristotle
Aristotle
there says he is Homeric, and an artist in language, skilled in metaphor and in the other devices of poetry.

Empedocles, like the Ionian philosophers and the atomists, continued the tradition of tragic thought which tried to find the basis of the relationship of the one and many. Each of the various philosophers, following Parmenides, derived from the Eleatics, the conviction that an existence could not pass into non-existence, and vice versa. Yet, each one had his peculiar way of describing this relation of Divine and mortal thought and thus of the relation of the One and the Many. In order to account for change in the world, in accordance with the ontological requirements of the Eleatics, they viewed changes as the result of mixture and separation of unalterable fundamental realities. Empedocles
Empedocles
held that the four elements (Water, Air, Earth, and Fire) were those unchangeable fundamental realities, which were themselves transfigured into successive worlds by the powers of Love
Love
and Strife ( Heraclitus
Heraclitus
had explicated the Logos or the "unity of opposites").[30] The four elements[edit] Empedocles
Empedocles
established four ultimate elements which make all the structures in the world—fire, air, water, earth[31]— in other words, the several states of matter are represented, being energies, gasses, liquids, and solids. Empedocles
Empedocles
called these four elements "roots", which he also identified with the mythical names of Zeus, Hera, Nestis, and Aidoneus[32] (e.g., "Now hear the fourfold roots of everything: enlivening Hera, Hades, shining Zeus. And Nestis, moistening mortal springs with tears."[33]) Empedocles
Empedocles
never used the term "element" (στοιχεῖον, stoicheion), which seems to have been first used by Plato.[34] According to the different proportions in which these four indestructible and unchangeable elements are combined with each other the difference of the structure is produced. It is in the aggregation and segregation of elements thus arising, that Empedocles, like the atomists, found the real process which corresponds to what is popularly termed growth, increase or decrease. Nothing new comes or can come into being; the only change that can occur is a change in the juxtaposition of element with element. This theory of the four elements became the standard dogma for the next two thousand years. Love
Love
and Strife[edit] Not to be confused with the Greek deities of love and strife.

Empedocles
Empedocles
cosmic cycle is based on the conflict between love and strife

The four elements, however, are simple, eternal, and unalterable, and as change is the consequence of their mixture and separation, it was also necessary to suppose the existence of moving powers that bring about mixture and separation. The four elements are both eternally brought into union and parted from one another by two divine powers, Love
Love
and Strife. Love
Love
(φιλότης) is responsible for the attraction of different forms of matter, and Strife (νεῖκος) is the cause of their separation.[35] If the four elements make up the universe, then Love
Love
and Strife explain their variation and harmony. Love
Love
and Strife are attractive and repulsive forces, respectively, which are plainly observable in human behavior, but also pervade the universe. The two forces wax and wane in their dominance, but neither force ever wholly escapes the imposition of the other. The sphere of Empedocles[edit] As the best and original state, there was a time when the pure elements and the two powers co-existed in a condition of rest and inertness in the form of a sphere. The elements existed together in their purity, without mixture and separation, and the uniting power of Love
Love
predominated in the sphere: the separating power of Strife guarded the extreme edges of the sphere.[36] Since that time, strife gained more sway and the bond which kept the pure elementary substances together in the sphere was dissolved. The elements became the world of phenomena we see today, full of contrasts and oppositions, operated on by both Love
Love
and Strife. The sphere being the embodiment of pure existence is the embodiment or representative of God. Empedocles
Empedocles
assumed a cyclical universe whereby the elements return and prepare the formation of the sphere for the next period of the universe. Cosmogony[edit] Empedocles
Empedocles
attempted to explain the separation of elements, the formation of earth and sea, of Sun and Moon, of atmosphere. He also dealt with the first origin of plants and animals, and with the physiology of humans. As the elements entered into combinations, there appeared strange results—heads without necks, arms without shoulders.[37] Then as these fragmentary structures met, there were seen horned heads on human bodies, bodies of oxen with human heads, and figures of double sex.[38] But most of these products of natural forces disappeared as suddenly as they arose; only in those rare cases where the parts were found to be adapted to each other did the complex structures last. Thus the organic universe sprang from spontaneous aggregations that suited each other as if this had been intended. Soon various influences reduced creatures of double sex to a male and a female, and the world was replenished with organic life. It is possible to see this theory as an anticipation of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, although Empedocles
Empedocles
was not trying to explain evolution.[39] Perception
Perception
and knowledge[edit] Empedocles
Empedocles
is credited with the first comprehensive theory of light and vision. He put forward the idea that we see objects because light streams out of our eyes and touches them. While flawed, this became the fundamental basis on which later Greek philosophers and mathematicians like Euclid
Euclid
would construct some of the most important theories of light, vision, and optics.[40] Knowledge is explained by the principle that elements in the things outside us are perceived by the corresponding elements in ourselves.[41] Like is known by like. The whole body is full of pores and hence respiration takes place over the whole frame. In the organs of sense these pores are specially adapted to receive the effluences which are continually rising from bodies around us; thus perception occurs.[2] In vision, certain particles go forth from the eye to meet similar particles given forth from the object, and the resultant contact constitutes vision.[42] Perception
Perception
is not merely a passive reflection of external objects. Empedocles
Empedocles
noted the limitation and narrowness of human perceptions. We see only a part but fancy that we have grasped the whole. But the senses cannot lead to truth; thought and reflection must look at the thing from every side. It is the business of a philosopher, while laying bare the fundamental difference of elements, to show the identity that exists between what seem unconnected parts of the universe.[43] Respiration[edit] In a famous fragment,[2] Empedocles
Empedocles
attempted to explain the phenomena of respiration by means of an elaborate analogy with the clepsydra, an ancient device for conveying liquids from one vessel to another.[44] This fragment has sometimes been connected to a passage in Aristotle's Physics
Physics
where Aristotle
Aristotle
refers to people who twisted wineskins and captured air in clepsydras to demonstrate that void does not exist.[45] There is however, no evidence that Empedocles
Empedocles
performed any experiment with clepsydras.[44] The fragment certainly implies that Empedocles
Empedocles
knew about the corporeality of air, but he says nothing whatever about the void.[44] The clepsydra was a common utensil and everyone who used it must have known, in some sense, that the invisible air could resist liquid.[46] Reincarnation[edit] Like Pythagoras, Empedocles
Empedocles
believed in the transmigration of the soul, that souls can be reincarnated between humans, animals and even plants.[47] For Empedocles, all living things were on the same spiritual plane; plants and animals are links in a chain where humans are a link too. Empedocles
Empedocles
was a vegetarian[48][49] and advocated vegetarianism, since the bodies of animals are the dwelling places of punished souls.[50] Wise people, who have learned the secret of life, are next to the divine,[51] and their souls, free from the cycle of reincarnations, are able to rest in happiness for eternity.[52] Death and literary treatments[edit]

The Death of Empedocles
The Death of Empedocles
by Salvator Rosa
Salvator Rosa
(1615 – 1673), depicting the legendary alleged suicide of Empedocles
Empedocles
jumping into Mount Etna
Mount Etna
in Sicily

Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
records the legend that Empedocles
Empedocles
died by throwing himself into Mount Etna
Mount Etna
in Sicily, so that the people would believe his body had vanished and he had turned into an immortal god;[53] the volcano, however, threw back one of his bronze sandals, revealing the deceit. Another legend maintains that he threw himself into the volcano to prove to his disciples that he was immortal; he believed he would come back as a god after being consumed by the fire. Horace
Horace
also refers the death of Empedocles
Empedocles
in his work Ars Poetica and admits poets the right to destroy themselves.[54] In Icaro-Menippus, a comedic dialogue written by the second century satirist Lucian
Lucian
of Samosata, Empedocles’ final fate is re-evaluated. Rather than being incinerated in the fires of Mount Etna, he was carried up into the heavens by a volcanic eruption. Although a bit singed by the ordeal, Empedocles
Empedocles
survives and continues his life on the Moon, surviving by feeding on dew. Empedocles' death has inspired two major modern literary treatments. Empedocles' death is the subject of Friedrich Hölderlin's play Tod des Empedokles (The Death of Empedocles), two versions of which were written between the years 1798 and 1800. A third version was made public in 1826. In Matthew Arnold's poem Empedocles
Empedocles
on Etna, a narrative of the philosopher's last hours before he jumps to his death in the crater first published in 1852, Empedocles
Empedocles
predicts:

To the elements it came from Everything will return. Our bodies to earth, Our blood to water, Heat to fire, Breath to air.

In his History of Western Philosophy, Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
humorously quotes an unnamed poet on the subject – "Great Empedocles, that ardent soul, Leapt into Etna, and was roasted whole."[55] In J R
J R
by William Gaddis, Karl Marx's famous dictum ("From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs") is misattributed to Empedocles.[56] In 2006, a massive underwater volcano off the coast of Sicily
Sicily
was named Empedocles.[57] In 2016, Scottish musician Momus wrote and sung the song "The Death of Empedokles" for his album Scobberlotchers.[58] See also[edit]

List of vegetarians

Notes[edit]

^ Frank Reynolds, David Tracy (eds.), Myth and Philosophy, SUNY Press, 1990, p. 99. ^ a b c Frag. B100 (Aristotle, On Respiration, 473b1–474a6) ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 51 ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 73 ^ Timaeus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 64, comp. 65, 66 ^ Aristotle
Aristotle
ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 63; compare, however, Timaeus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, 66, 76 ^ Satyrus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 78; Timaeus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, 67 ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 60, 70, 69; Plutarch, de Curios. Princ., adv. Colotes; Pliny, H. N. xxxvi. 27, and others ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 60, 61, 65, 69 ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 60: "Pausanias, according to Aristippus and Satyrus, was his eromenos" ^ Pliny, Natural History, xxix.1.4–5; cf. Suda, Akron ^ Suda, Empedocles; Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 55, 56, etc. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 58 ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 71, 67; Athenaeus, xiv. ^ Suda, Akron; Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 52 ^ Pliny, H. N. xxx. 1, etc. ^ Apollonius, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 52, comp. 74, 73 ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 67, 69, 70, 71; Horace, ad Pison. 464, etc. ^ Hermippus and Theophrastus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 55, 56 ^ Aristotle, Poetics, 1, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 57. ^ See especially Lucretius, i. 716, etc. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 77 ^ Simon Trépanier, (2004), Empedocles: An Interpretation, Routledge. ^ DK frag. B112 (Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 61) ^ Frag. B115 (Plutarch, On Exile, 607 C–E; Hippolytus, vii. 29) ^ Suda, Empedocles ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 60 ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics, i. 3, 4, 7, Phys. i. 4, de General, et Corr. i. 8, de Caelo, iii. 7. ^ House, Humphry (1956). Aristotles Poetics. p. 32.  ^ James Luchte, Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn, Bloomsbury, 2011. ^ Frag. B17 (Simplicius, Physics, 157–159) ^ Frag. B6 (Sextus Empiricus, Against the Mathematicians, x, 315) ^ Peter Kingsley, in Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic: Empedocles
Empedocles
and Pythagorean Tradition (Oxford University Press, 1995). ^ Plato, Timaeus, 48b–c ^ Frag. B35, B26 (Simplicius, Physics, 31–34) ^ Frag. B35 (Simplicius, Physics, 31–34; On the Heavens, 528–530) ^ Frag. B57 (Simplicius, On the Heavens, 586) ^ Frag. B61 (Aelian, On Animals, xvi 29) ^ Ted Everson (2007), The gene: a historical perspective page 5. Greenwood ^ Let There be Light
Let There be Light
7 August 2006 01:50 BBC Four ^ Frag. B109 (Aristotle, On the Soul, 404b11–15) ^ Frag. B84 (Aristotle, On the Senses and their Objects, 437b23–438a5) ^ Frag. B2 (Sextus Empiricus, Against the Mathematicians, vii. 123–125) ^ a b c Jonathan Barnes (2002), The Presocratic Philosophers, page 313. Routledge ^ Aristotle, Physics, 213a24–7 ^ W. K. C. Guthrie, (1980), A history of Greek philosophy II: The Presocratic tradition from Parmenides
Parmenides
to Democritus, page 224. Cambridge University Press ^ Frag. B127 (Aelian, On Animals, xii. 7); Frag. B117 (Hippolytus, i. 3.2) ^ Heath, John (2005-05-12). The Talking Greeks: Speech, Animals, and the Other in Homer, Aeschylus, and Plato. Cambridge University Press. p. 322. ISBN 9781139443913. An excellent study of Empedocles' vegetarianism and the various meanings of sacrifice in its cultural context is that of Rundin (1998).  ^ Plato
Plato
(1961) [c. 360 BC]. Bluck, Richard Stanley Harold, ed. Meno. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521172288. This suggests that e.g. Empedocles' vegetarianism was partly at least due to the idea that the spilling of blood brings pollution.  ^ Sextus Empiricus, Against the Mathematicians, ix. 127; Hippolytus, vii. 21 ^ Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, iv. 23.150 ^ Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, v. 14.122 ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 69 ^ Horace, Ars Poetica, 465–466 ^ Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, 1946, p. 60 ^ JR by William Gaddis, Dalkey Archive, 2012 ^ BBC News, Underwater volcano found by Italy, 23 June 2006 ^ Freeman, Zachary (September 2016). "Albums". Now Then. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 

References[edit]

 Laërtius, Diogenes (1925). "Pythagoreans: Empedocles". Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. 2:8. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew (Two volume ed.). Loeb Classical Library. 

Library resources about Empedocles

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By Empedocles

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Bakalis, Nikolaos (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales
Thales
to the Stoics. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford. ISBN 1-4120-4843-5.  Burnet, John (2003) [1892]. Early Greek Philosophy. Whitefish, Mont.: Kessinger. ISBN 0-7661-2826-1.  Gottlieb, Anthony (2000). The Dream of Reason: A History of Western Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9143-7.  Guthrie, W. K. C. (1978) [1965]. A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 2, ed. The Presocratic Tradition from Parmenides
Parmenides
to Democritus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29421-5.  Inwood, Brad (2001). The Poem of Empedocles
Empedocles
(rev. ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-4820-X.  Kingsley, Peter (1995). Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic: Empedocles
Empedocles
and Pythagorean Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-814988-3. 

Review by John Bussanich Review by John Opsopaus Review by J.-C Picot

Kirk, G. S.; Raven, J.E.; Schofield, M. (1983). The Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25444-2.  Lambridis, Helle (1976). Empedocles : a philosophical investigation. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-6615-6.  Long, A. A. (1999). The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44122-6.  Luchte, James (2011). Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0567353313.  Millerd, Clara Elizabeth (1908). On the interpretation of Empedocles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  O'Brien, D. (1969). Empedocles' cosmic cycle: a reconstruction from the fragments and secondary sources. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-05855-4.  Russell, Bertrand (1945). A History of Western Philosophy, and Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-415-07854-7.  Wright, M. R. (1995). Empedocles: The Extant Fragments (new ed.). London: Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 1-85399-482-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Empedocles.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Empedocles

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Empedocles

Parry, Richard. "Empedocles". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Campbell, Gordon. "Empedocles". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Empedocles
Empedocles
Fragments, translated by Arthur Fairbanks, 1898. Empedocles
Empedocles
by Jean-Claude Picot with an extended and updated bibliography Empedocles
Empedocles
Fragments at demonax.info O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Empedocles", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews . Works by or about Empedocles
Empedocles
at Internet Archive Works by Empedocles
Empedocles
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

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Language

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in Epirus

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Category Portal

v t e

Veganism
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and vegetarianism

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Animal-free agriculture Fruitarianism History Juice fasting Low-carbon diet Raw veganism Nutrition Vegan organic gardening

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Ethics

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Food, drink

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List of meat substitutes

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Groups, events, companies

Vegan

American Vegan Society Beauty Without Cruelty Food Empowerment Project Go Vegan Movement for Compassionate Living Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine Plamil Foods Vegan Awareness Foundation Vegan flag Vegan Ireland Vegan Outreach Vegan Prisoners Support Group The Vegan Society Veganz World Vegan Day

Vegetarian

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Meatless Monday

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Books, reports

Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian
Vegetarian
(1903) The Benefits of Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
(1927) Diet for a Small Planet
Diet for a Small Planet
(1971) Moosewood Cookbook
Moosewood Cookbook
(1977) Fit for Life
Fit for Life
(1985) Diet for a New America (1987) The China Study
The China Study
(2004) Raw Food Made Easy for 1 or 2 People
Raw Food Made Easy for 1 or 2 People
(2005) Skinny Bitch
Skinny Bitch
(2005) Livestock's Long Shadow
Livestock's Long Shadow
(2006) Eating Animals
Eating Animals
(2009) The Kind Diet
The Kind Diet
(2009) Why We Love
Love
Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows (2009) Eat & Run (2012) Meat Atlas
Meat Atlas
(annual)

Films

Meet Your Meat
Meet Your Meat
(2002) Peaceable Kingdom (2004) Earthlings (2005) A Sacred Duty
A Sacred Duty
(2007) Fat, Sick and Nearly Dead (2010) Planeat (2010) Forks Over Knives
Forks Over Knives
(2011) Vegucated (2011) Live and Let Live (2013) Cowspiracy
Cowspiracy
(2014) What the Health
What the Health
(2017) Carnage (2017)

Magazines

Naked Food Vegetarian
Vegetarian
Times VegNews

Physicians, academics

Neal D. Barnard Rynn Berry T. Colin Campbell Caldwell Esselstyn Gary L. Francione Joel Fuhrman Michael Greger Melanie Joy Michael Klaper John A. McDougall Reed Mangels Jack Norris Dean Ornish Richard H. Schwartz

Related

Semi-vegetarianism

Macrobiotic diet Pescetarianism

v t e

Extra-Quranic Prophets of Islam

In Stories of the Prophets

Enoch Eber Khidr Joshua Samuel Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Ezra Daniel

In Islamic tradition

Seth Shem Eli Ahijah Shemaiah Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Urijah Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah Berechiah Samī Joel Amos Obadiah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Malachi Hanzalah Khaled bin Sinan

In Quranic exegesis

Abel Saduq, Masduq, and Shalum Hosea Zechariah, son of Berechiah

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 297576907 LCCN: n79134944 ISNI: 0000 0000 9735 5369 GND: 118530224 SELIBR: 185100 SUDOC: 027205134 BNF: cb11929776m (data) ULAN: 500212584 NKC: jn19981000

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