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Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès[a] (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836), most commonly known as the Abbé
Abbé
Sieyès (French: [sjejɛs]), was a French Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
abbé, clergyman and political writer. He was one of the chief political theorists of the French Revolution, and also played a prominent role in the French Consulate
French Consulate
and First French Empire. His 1789 pamphlet What is the Third Estate?
What is the Third Estate?
became the manifesto of the Revolution, helping to transform the Estates-General into the National Assembly in June 1789. He was offered a position on the French Directory, but turned it down. After becoming a director in 1799, he was among the instigators of the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (9 November), which brought Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
to power. He also coined the term "sociologie" in an unpublished manuscript, and made significant theoretical contributions to the nascent social sciences.[1]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Education 3 Religious career 4 What Is the Third Estate?

4.1 Impact on the Revolution

5 Assemblies, Convention, and the Terror 6 Directory 7 Second Consul of France 8 Napoleonic era and final years 9 Contribution to social sciences 10 Personal life 11 See also 12 Footnotes 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

Early life[edit] Sieyès was born on 3 May 1748 as the fifth child of Honoré and Annabelle Sieyès in the town of Fréjus
Fréjus
in southern France.[2] His father was a local tax collector who made a humble income, and while the family had some noble blood, they were commoners.[2] His earliest education came by way of tutors and of the Jesuits. He also spent some time at the collège of the Doctrinaires of Draguignan.[2] He originally wanted to join the military and become a soldier, but his frail health, combined with his parents' piety, led him instead to pursue a religious career. The vicar-general of Fréjus
Fréjus
offered aid to Sieyès, because he felt he was obliged to his father.[3] Education[edit] Sieyès spent ten years at the seminary of Saint-Sulpice in Paris. There, he studied theology and engineering to prepare himself to enter the priesthood.[3] He quickly gained a reputation at the school for his aptitude and interest in the sciences, combined with his obsession over the "new philosophic principles" and dislike for conventional theology.[3] Sieyès was educated for priesthood in the Catholic Church at the Sorbonne. While there, he became influenced by the teachings of John Locke, Condillac, Quesnay, Mirabeau, Turgot, the Encyclopédistes, and other Enlightenment political thinkers, all in preference to theology. In 1770, he obtained his first theology diploma, ranking at the bottom of the list of passing candidates – a reflection of his antipathy toward his religious education. In 1772, he was ordained as a priest, and two years later he obtained his theology license.[4] Religious career[edit]

Bust of Sieyès by David d'Angers
David d'Angers
(1838).

Despite Sieyès' embrace of Enlightenment thinking, he was ordained to the priesthood in 1773.[3] In spite of this, he was not hired immediately. He spent this time researching philosophy and developing music until about a year later in October 1774 when, as the result of demands by powerful friends, he was promised a canonry in Brittany.[5] Unfortunately for Sieyès, this canonry went into effect only when the preceding holder died. At the end of 1775, Sieyès acquired his first real position as secretary to the bishop of Tréguier
Tréguier
where he spent two years as deputy of the diocese. It is here that he sat in the Estates of Brittany
Brittany
and became disgusted with the immense power the privileged classes held.[5] In 1780, the bishop of Tréguier
Tréguier
was transferred to the bishopric of Chartres, and Sieyès accompanied him there as his vicar general, eventually becoming a canon of the cathedral and chancellor of the diocese of Chartres. Due to the fact that the bishop of Tréguier
Tréguier
had high regards for Sieyès, he was able to act as a representative of his diocese in the Upper Chamber of the Clergy.[5]. It was during this time that Sieyès became aware of the ease with which nobles advanced in ecclesiastical offices compared to commoners. In particular, he was resentful of the privileges granted to the nobles within the Church system and thought the patronage system was a humiliation for commoners.[6] While remaining in ecclesiastical offices, Sieyès maintained a religious cynicism at odds with his position. By the time he took his orders to enter priesthood, Sieyès had "freed himself from all superstitious sentiments and ideas."[7] Even when corresponding with his deeply religious father, Sieyès showed a severe lack of piety for the man in charge of the diocese of Chartres.[7] It is theorised that Sieyès accepted a religious career not because he had any sort of strong religious inclination, but because he considered it the only means to advance his career as a political writer.[8]

What Is the Third Estate?[edit] In 1788, Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI of France
proposed the convocation of the Estates-General of France
France
after an interval of more than a century and a half. This proposal, and Jacques Necker's invitation to French writers to state their views as to the organization of society by Estates, enabled Sieyès to publish his celebrated January 1789 pamphlet, Qu'est-ce que le tiers-état? (What Is the Third Estate?) He begins his answer:

" What is the Third Estate?
What is the Third Estate?
Everything. What has it been hitherto in the political order? Nothing. What does it desire to be? Something."

This phrase, which was to remain famous, is said to have been inspired by Nicolas Chamfort.[citation needed] The pamphlet was very successful, and its author, despite his clerical vocation (which made him part of the First Estate), was elected as the last (the twentieth) of the deputies to the Third Estate from Paris to the Estates-General. He played his main role in the opening years of the Revolution, drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, expanding on the theories of national sovereignty, popular sovereignty, and representation implied in his pamphlet, with a distinction between active and passive citizens that justified suffrage limited to male owners of property. Sieyès's pamphlet incited a radical reaction from its audience because it involved the "political issues of the day and twisted them in a more revolutionary direction".[9] In the third chapter of the pamphlet, Sieyès proposed that the Third Estate wanted to be "something". But he also stated that, in allowing the privileged orders to exist, they are asking to become "the least thing possible". The usage of such rhetoric in his pamphlet appealed to common causes to unite the audience. At the same time it influenced them to move beyond simple demands and take a more radical position on the nature of government. In this case, the radical position taken by the Third Estate created a sense of awareness that the problems of France
France
were not simply a matter of addressing "royal tyranny," but that unequal privileges under the law had divided the nation. It was from this point that the Revolution’s struggle for fair distribution of power and equal rights began in earnest. Impact on the Revolution[edit] Sieyès's pamphlet played a key role in shaping the currents of revolutionary thought that propelled France
France
towards the French Revolution. In his pamphlet, he outlined the desires and frustrations of the alienated class of people that made up the third estate. He attacked the foundations of the French Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
by arguing the nobility to be a fraudulent institution, preying on an overburdened and despondent bourgeoisie. The pamphlet voiced concerns that were to become crucial matters of debate during the convocation of the Estates-General of 1789. Whereas the aristocracy defined themselves as an élite ruling class charged with maintaining the social order in France, Sieyès saw the third estate as the primary mechanism of public service. Expression of radical thought at its best, the pamphlet placed sovereignty not in the hands of aristocrats but instead defined the nation of France
France
by its productive orders composed of those who would generate services and produce goods for the benefit of the entire society. These included not only those involved in agricultural labor and craftsmanship, but also merchants, brokers, lawyers, financiers and others providing services. Sieyès challenged the hierarchical order of society by redefining who represented the nation. In his pamphlet, he condemns the privileged orders by saying their members were enjoying the best products of society without contributing to their production. Sieyès essentially argued that the aristocracy's privileges established it as an alien body acting outside of the nation of France, and deemed noble privilege "treason to the commonwealth". Sieyès's pamphlet had a significant influence on the structural concerns that arose surrounding the convocation of the Estates general. Specifically, the third estate demanded that the number of deputies for their order be equal to that of the two privileged orders combined, and most controversially "that the States General Vote, Not by Orders, but by Heads". The pamphlet took these issues to the masses and their partial appeasement was met with revolutionary reaction. By addressing the issues of representation directly, Sieyès inspired resentment and agitation that united the third estate against the feudalistic traditions of the Ancien Régime. As a result, the Third Estate demanded the reorganization of the Estates General, but the two other orders proved unable or unwilling to provide a solution. Sieyès proposed that the members of the First and Second order join the Third Estate and become a united body to represent the nation as a whole. He not only suggested an invitation, however, but also stated that the Third Estate had the right to consider those who denied this invitation to be in default of their national responsibility.[10] The Third Estate adopted this measure on 5 June 1789; by doing so, they assumed the authority to represent the nation. This radical action was confirmed when they decided to change the name of the Estates General to the National Assembly, indicating that the separation of orders no longer existed. Assemblies, Convention, and the Terror[edit] Although not noted as a public speaker (he spoke rarely and briefly), Sieyès held major political influence, and he recommended the decision of the Estates to reunite its chamber as the National Assembly, although he opposed the abolition of tithes and the confiscation of Church lands. His opposition to the abolition of tithes discredited him in the National Assembly, and he was never able to regain his authority.[11] Elected to the special committee on the constitution, he opposed the right of "absolute veto" for the King of France, which Honoré Mirabeau
Honoré Mirabeau
unsuccessfully supported. He had considerable influence on the framing of the departmental system, but, after the spring of 1790, he was eclipsed by other politicians, and was elected only once to the post of fortnightly president of the Constituent Assembly. Like all other members of the Constituent Assembly, he was excluded from the Legislative Assembly by the ordinance, initially proposed by Maximilien Robespierre, that decreed that none of its members should be eligible for the next legislature. He reappeared in the third national Assembly, known as the National Convention
National Convention
of the French Republic (September 1792 – September 1795). He voted for the death of Louis XVI, but not in the contemptuous terms sometimes ascribed to him.[12] He participated to the Constitution Committee that drafted the Girondin constitutional project. Menaced by the Reign of Terror and offended by its character, Sieyès even abjured his faith at the time of the installation of the Cult of Reason; afterwards, when asked what he had done during the Terror, he famously replied, "J'ai vécu" ("I lived"). Ultimately, Sieyès failed to establish the kind of bourgeois revolution he had hoped for, one of representative order "devoted to the peaceful pursuit of material comfort."[13] His initial purpose was to instigate change in a more passive way, and to establish a constitutional monarchy. According to William Sewell, Sieyès' pamphlet set "the tone and direction of The French Revolution…but its author could hardly control the Revolution's course over the long run".[14] Even after 1791, when the monarchy seemed to many to be doomed, Sieyès "continued to assert his belief in the monarchy", which indicated he did not intend for the Revolution to take the course it did.[15] During the period he served in the National Assembly, Sieyès wanted to establish a constitution that would guarantee the rights of French men and would uphold equality under the law as the social goal of the Revolution; he was ultimately unable to accomplish his goal. Directory[edit] After the execution of Robespierre in 1794, Sieyès reemerged as an important political player during the constitutional debates that followed.[16] In 1795, he went on a diplomatic mission to The Hague, and was instrumental in drawing up a treaty between the French and Batavian republics. He resented the Constitution of the Year III enacted by the Directory, and refused to serve as a Director of the Republic. In May 1798, he went as the plenipotentiary of France
France
to the court of Berlin, in order to try to induce Prussia
Prussia
to ally with France against the Second Coalition; this effort ultimately failed. His prestige grew nonetheless, and he was made Director of France
France
in place of Jean-François Rewbell
Jean-François Rewbell
in May 1799. Nevertheless, Sieyès considered ways to overthrow the Directory, and is said to have taken in view the replacement of the government with unlikely rulers such as Archduke Charles of Austria
Archduke Charles of Austria
and Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand of Brunswick (a major enemy of the Revolution). He attempted to undermine the constitution, and thus caused the revived Jacobin Club to be closed while making offers to General Joubert for a coup d'état. Second Consul of France[edit] The death of Joubert at the Battle of Novi
Battle of Novi
and the return of Napoleon Bonaparte from the Egypt campaign put an end to this project, but Sieyès regained influence by reaching a new understanding with Bonaparte. In the coup of 18 Brumaire, Sieyès and his allies dissolved the Directory, allowing Napoleon
Napoleon
to seize power. Thereafter, Sieyès produced the constitution which he had long been planning, only to have it completely remodeled by Bonaparte, who thereby achieved a coup within a coup – Bonaparte's Constitution of the Year VIII became the basis of the French Consulate
French Consulate
of 1799–1804. Corps législatif
Corps législatif
appointed Bonaparte, Sieyès, and Roger Ducos
Roger Ducos
as "Consuls of the French Republic".[17] In order to once again begin the function of government, these three men took the oath of "Inviolable fidelity to the sovereignty of the people; to the French Republic, one and indivisible; to equality, liberty and the representative system."[17] Although Sieyès had many ideas, a lot of them were disfavored by Bonaparte and Roger-Ducos. One aspect that was agreed upon was the structure of power. A list of active citizens formed the basis of the proposed political structure. This list was to choose one-tenth of its members to form a communal list eligible for local office; from the communal list, one-tenth of its members were to form a departmental list; finally, one further list was made up from one-tenth of the members of the departmental list to create the national list.[18] This national list is where the highest officials of the land were to be chosen. Sieyès envisioned a Tribunat and a College des Conservateurs to act as the shell of the national government. The Tribunat would present laws and discuss ratification of these laws in front of a jury.[19] This jury would not have any say in terms of what the laws granted consist of, rather whether or not these laws passed. The College des Conservateurs would be renewed from the national list. The main responsibility of the College des Conservateurs was to choose the members of the two legislative bodies, and protect the constitution by right of absorption. By this curious provision, the College could forcibly elect to its ranks any individual deemed dangerous to the safety of the state, who would then be disqualified from any other office. This was a way to keep a closer eye on anyone who threatened the state. The power of the College des Conservateurs was extended to electing the titular head of government, the Grand-Electeur. The Grand-Electeur would hold office for life but have no power. If the Grand-Electeur threatened to become dangerous, the College des Conservateurs would absorb him.[19] The central idea of Sieyès' plan was a division of power. Napoleonic era and final years[edit] Sieyès soon retired from the post of provisional Consul, which he had accepted after 18 Brumaire, and became one of the first members of the Sénat conservateur
Sénat conservateur
(acting as its president in 1799); this concession was attributed to the large estate at Crosne that he received from Napoleon.[20] After the plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise in late December 1800, Sieyès defended the arbitrary and illegal proceedings whereby Napoleon
Napoleon
rid himself of the leading Jacobins.[21] During the era of the First Empire (1804–1814), Sieyès rarely emerged from his retirement. When Napoleon
Napoleon
briefly returned to power in 1815, Sieyès was named to the Chamber of Peers. In 1816, after the Second Restoration, Sieyès was expelled from the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences by Louis XVIII. He then moved to Brussels, but returned to France
France
after the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830. He died in Paris in 1836 at the age of 88. Contribution to social sciences[edit] In 1795, Sieyès became one of the first members of what would become the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences
Academy of Moral and Political Sciences
of the Institute of France. When the Académie Française
Académie Française
was reorganized in 1803, he was elected in the second class, replacing, in chair 31, Jean Sylvain Bailly, who had been guillotined on 12 November 1793 during the Reign of Terror. However, after the second Restoration in 1815, Sieyès was expelled for his role in the execution of King Louis XVI, and was replaced by the Marquis of Lally-Tollendal, who was named to the Academy by a royal decree. In 1780, Sieyès coined the term sociologie in an unpublished manuscript.[1] The term was used again fifty years later by the philosopher Auguste Comte
Auguste Comte
to refer to the science of society, which is known in English as sociology.[22] Personal life[edit] Sieyès was always considered intellectual and intelligent by his peers and mentors alike. Through the virtue of his own thoughts, he progressed in his ideologies from personal experiences. Starting at a young age, he began to feel repulsion towards the privileges of the nobility. He deemed this advantage gained by noble right as unfair to those of the lower class. This distaste he felt for the privileged class became evident during his time at the Estates of Brittany
Brittany
where he was able to observe, with dissatisfaction, domination by the nobility. Aside from his opinions towards nobility, Sieyes also had a passion for music. He devoted himself assiduously to cultivating music as he had plenty of spare time.[3] Along with cultivating music, Sieyes also enjoyed writing reflections concerning these pieces.[7] Sieyès had a collection of musical pieces he called "la catologue de ma petite musique."[23] Although Sieyès was passionate about his ideologies, he had a rather uninvolved social life. His journals and papers held much information about his studies but almost nothing pertaining to his personal life. His associates referred to him as cold and vain. In particular, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
remarked that "Men are in his eyes chess-pieces to be moved, they occupy his mind but say nothing to his heart."[24] See also[edit]

Biography portal

What Is the Third Estate?, a political pamphlet written by Sieyès Les Neuf Sœurs, a Parisian Masonic lodge of which Sieyès was a member

Footnotes[edit]

^ Sometimes hyphenated to Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès.

References[edit]

^ a b Jean-Claude Guilhaumou (2006). « Sieyès et le non-dit de la sociologie : du mot à la chose ». Revue d'histoire des sciences humaines. No.15. ^ a b c Van Deusen, Glyndon G., p. 11 ^ a b c d e Van Deusen, Glyndon G., p. 12 ^ William H. Sewell Jr. (1994). A Rhetoric of Bourgeois Revolution: The Abbe Sieyes and What is the Third Estate?. Durham and London: Duke University Press. p. 9. ^ a b c Van Deusen, Glyndon G., p. 13 ^ William H. Sewell Jr., A Rhetoric of Bourgeois Revolution The Abbe Sieyès and What is the Third Estate?
What is the Third Estate?
p. 14. ^ a b c Van Deusen, Glyndon G., p. 15 ^ William H. Sewell Jr., A Rhetoric of Bourgeois Revolution The Abbé Sieyès and What is the Third Estate?
What is the Third Estate?
p. 9 ^ William H. Sewell Jr., A Rhetoric of Bourgeois Revolution: The Abbé Sieyès and What is The Third Estate? p. 43. ^ William H. Sewell Jr. A Rhetoric of Bourgeois Revolution: The Abbé Sieyès and What is the Third Estate?
What is the Third Estate?
p. 16. ^ John J. Meng, Review of Sieyès: His Life and His Nationalism by Glyndon G. Van Deusen, The Catholic Historical Review Vol. 19 No. 2 (July 1933), p. 221. JSTOR (11, February 2010). ^ "La Mort, sans phrases" ("Death, without rhetoric") being his supposed words during the debate on Louis' fate ^ Sewell Jr., William H., p. 198 ^ William H. Sewell Jr., A Rhetoric of Bourgeois Revolution: The Abbe Sieyes and What is The Third Estate? p. 185. ^ Christopher Hibbert, The Days of The French Revolution, p. 133. ^ Sewell Jr., William H., p. 19. ^ a b Van Deusen, Glyndon. Sieyès: His Life And His Nationalism. p. 130. ISBN 0-404-51362-X.  ^ Van Deusen, Glyndon. Sieyès: His Life And His Nationalism. p. 131. ISBN 0-404-51362-X.  ^ a b Van Deusen, Glyndon. Sieyès: His Life And His Nationalism. p. 132. ISBN 0-404-51362-X.  ^ Crosne, Essonne, had belonged to the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, with a seigneurie that descended in the family of Brancas; both came to the French state with the Revolution. ^ Chisholm 1911. ^ Des Manuscrits de Sieyès. 1773–1799 (Volumes I and II). Published by Christine Fauré, Jacques Guilhaumou, Jacques Vallier and Françoise Weil. Paris: Champion (1999, 2007). ^ Van Deusen, Glyndon. Sieyès: His Life And His Nationalism. p. 16. ISBN 0-404-51362-X.  ^ Van Deusen, Glyndon. Sieyès: His Life And His Nationalism. p. 22. ISBN 0-404-51362-X. 

Bibliography[edit]

Baczko, Bronislaw. "the social contract of the French: Sieyès and Rousseau." Journal of Modern History (1988): S98–S125. in JSTOR Fauré, Christine. "Representative Government or Republic? Sieyès on Good Government." in The Ashgate Research Companion to the Politics of Democratization in Europe: Concepts and Histories (2008) pp. 75+ Furet, Francois, and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1989) pp. 313–23 Hibbert, Christopher (1982). The Days of the French Revolution. New York: William Morrow.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sieyès, Emmanuel-Joseph". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Meng, John J. Review of: Sieyès His Life and His Nationalism by Glyndon G. Van Deusen. The Catholic Historical Review, Vol 19, No. 2 (July 1933). JSTOR. Retrieved 11 February 2010. Sewell, Jr., William H (1994). A rhetoric of bourgeois revolution : the Abbé
Abbé
Sieyès and What is the Third Estate?. Durham and London: Duke University Press. Van Deusen, Glyndon G (1933, reprint 1968). Sieyès: his life and his nationalism. New York: AMS Press.

Primary sources

Sieyès, Comte Emmanuel Joseph, M. Blondel, and Samuel Edward Finer, eds. What is the Third Estate?
What is the Third Estate?
London: Pall Mall Press, 1963.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
at Find a Grave Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, What is the Third Estate?
What is the Third Estate?
(Excerpts)

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club
Jacobin Club
(11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany
Brittany
(13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition
Second Coalition
(1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi
Battle of Novi
(15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé
Abbé
Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé
Abbé
Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

v t e

French Directory
French Directory
(2 November 1795 to 10 November 1799)

Directors

Lazare Carnot Étienne-François Letourneur Jean-François Rewbell Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai François de Neufchâteau Jean Baptiste Treilhard Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Jean-François-Auguste Moulin Louis-Jérôme Gohier Roger Ducos

Ministers

Foreign Affairs

Charles-François Delacroix Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Charles-Frédéric Reinhard

Justice

Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Jean Joseph Victor Génissieu Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Charles Joseph Mathieu Lambrechts Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès

War

Jean-Baptiste Annibal Aubert du Bayet Claude Louis Petiet Lazare Hoche Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Louis Marie de Milet de Mureau Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé

Finance

Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin Guillaume-Charles Faipoult Dominique-Vincent Ramel-Nogaret Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai

Police

Charles Cochon de Lapparent Jean-Jacques Lenoir-Laroche Jean-Marie Sotin de La Coindière Nicolas Dondeau Marie Jean François Philibert Lecarlier d'Ardon Jean-Pierre Duval Claude Sébastien Bourguignon Joseph Fouché

Interior

Pierre Bénézech François de Neufchâteau François Sébastien Letourneux François de Neufchâteau Nicolas Marie Quinette

Navy and Colonies

Laurent Jean François Truguet Georges René Le Peley de Pléville Étienne Eustache Bruix Marc Antoine Bourdon de Vatry

Preceded by National Convention Followed by French Consulate

v t e

French Consulate
French Consulate
(10 November 1799 – 18 May 1804)

Provisional consuls

Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Roger Ducos

Bonaparte First Consul

Consuls

Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance

Ministers

Foreign Affairs

Charles-Frédéric Reinhard Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord

Justice

Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès André Joseph Abrial Claude Ambroise Régnier

War

Louis-Alexandre Berthier Lazare Carnot Louis-Alexandre Berthier

Finance

Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin

Police

Joseph Fouché

Interior

Pierre-Simon Laplace Lucien Bonaparte Jean-Antoine Chaptal

Navy and Colonies

Marc Antoine Bourdon de Vatry Pierre-Alexandre-Laurent Forfait Denis Decrès

Secretary of State

Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano

Treasury

François Barbé-Marbois

War Administration

Jean François Aimé Dejean

Preceded by French Directory Followed by First cabinet of Napoleon

v t e

Académie française
Académie française
seat 31

Pierre de Boissat (1634) Antoine Furetière
Antoine Furetière
(1662) Jean de La Chapelle
Jean de La Chapelle
(1688) Pierre-Joseph Thoulier d'Olivet
Pierre-Joseph Thoulier d'Olivet
(1723) Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
(1768) Louis-Élisabeth de La Vergne de Tressan
Louis-Élisabeth de La Vergne de Tressan
(1780) Jean Sylvain Bailly
Jean Sylvain Bailly
(1783) Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
(1803) Gérard de Lally-Tollendal
Gérard de Lally-Tollendal
(1816) Jean-Baptiste Sanson de Pongerville
Jean-Baptiste Sanson de Pongerville
(1830) Xavier Marmier
Xavier Marmier
(1870) Henri de Bornier
Henri de Bornier
(1893) Edmond Rostand
Edmond Rostand
(1901) Joseph Bédier
Joseph Bédier
(1920) Jérôme Tharaud
Jérôme Tharaud
(1938) Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
(1955) Jacques Rueff (1964) Jean Dutourd (1978) Michael Edwards (2013)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 59101071 LCCN: n81071067 ISNI: 0000 0001 1027 5815 GND: 11879714X SELIBR: 368406 SUDOC: 028618661 BNF: cb12041767q (data) BIBSYS: 90199153 ULAN: 500354570 NDL: 00526193 Léonore: LH/2516/40 BNE: XX1002

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