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The Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnaceae
are a plant family, the oleaster family, of the order Rosales
Rosales
comprising small trees and shrubs, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, south into tropical Asia and Australia. The family has about 60 species in three genera.[2] They are commonly thorny, with simple leaves often coated with tiny scales or hairs. Most of the species are xerophytes (found in dry habitats); several are also halophytes, tolerating high levels of soil salinity. The Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnaceae
often harbor nitrogen-fixing actinomycetes of the genus Frankia
Frankia
in root nodules, making them useful for soil reclamation.[3] This characteristic, together with their production of plentiful seeds, often results in the Eleagnaceae being viewed as weeds. The stems and leaves are covered with silvery brown or golden hairs which are either peltate or scaly. Shepherdia
Shepherdia
and Hippophae
Hippophae
are unisexual, the female and male borne on different plants (dioecious). There are no petals, the perianth comprising a single whorl of two to eight fused sepals. In the male flower the receptacle is often flat, while in the bisexual and female flowers it is tubular, there are four to eight stamens with free filaments and bilocular anthers. The ovary is superior with one carpel containing a single erect anatropous ovule. The style is long and bears a single stigma. The fruit is an achene or a drupe like structure enclosed by the thickened lower part of the persistent calyx. It contains a single seed with little or no endosperm and a stright embryo with thick fleshy cotyledons. A number of species are grown as ornamental shrubs, notably Elaeagnus angustifolia (oleaster), Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
pungens, Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
umbellata and Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
macrophylla, which are mainly grown as deciduous or evergreen shrubs for their attractive foliage and Hippophae
Hippophae
rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) for its bright orange berries in autumn and winter. The fruits of a number of species are edible, for example those of Shepherdia
Shepherdia
argentea (silver buffalo berry). Its fruits are used as jelly and are also eaten dried with sugar in various parts of the United States of America
United States of America
and Canada. The berries of Shepherdia canadensis (russet buffalo berry) when dried or smoked are used as food by Eskimos. The berries of Hippophae
Hippophae
rhamnoides are made into a sauce in France and into jelly elsewhere. The wood of this species is fine-grained and is used for turnery. The fruit of the Japanese shrub Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
multiflora (cherry elaeagnus) are used as preserves and are used in alcoholic beverage.[4]

Contents

1 Phylogeny 2 Fossil history 3 References 4 External links

Phylogeny[edit] Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[5]

Rhamnaceae (outgroup)

Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnus

Shepherdia

Hippophae

Fossil history[edit] Fossil pollen
Fossil pollen
of Elaeagnacites is described from the late Cretaceous (Santonian) of China
China
and pollen similar to that of Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnaceae
is widespread in the Paleocene.[6] There are pollen evidence of Elaeagnus from the upper Eocene
Eocene
Florissant Formation, Colorado, McGinitie's Wardell Ranch Flora locality in Colorado
Colorado
of middle to late middle Eocene
Eocene
and similar samples from the Washakie Basin Laney Shale Member of early Eocene.[7] A fossil † Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
orchidioides flower is recorded from the late Pliocene
Pliocene
of Willershausen (Kalefeld), Hesse, Germany. There are two fossil wood records with extensive documentation of anatomical features: Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
semiannulipora from the early Miocene
Miocene
of Yamagata, Japan
Japan
and †EIeagnaceoxylon shepherdioides, considered similar to Shepherdia, from the Pliocene Beaufort Formation, northwestern Banks Island, Canada. Four fossil leaves have been described with diagnostic features of Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
from the late Miocene
Miocene
of eastern Tibet, modern altitude of 3910 m The silverberry genus Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
(Elaeagnaceae) reaches its greatest diversity (54 species) and endemism (36 species) in this area. The diversification of Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
in the Qinghai- Tibet
Tibet
Plateau and adjacent areas might have been driven by continuous uplift at least since the late Miocene, causing formation of complex topography and climate with high rainfall seasonality.[8] References[edit]

^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society (PDF)format= requires url= (help). 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.  ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.  ^ "Elaeagnus: A Widely Distributed Temperate Nitrogen Fixer". Winrock International. December 1992. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2009.  ^ Flowering Plants of the World by consultant editor Vernon H. Heywood, 1978, Oxford
Oxford
University Press, Walton Street, Oxford
Oxford
OX2 6DP, England, ISBN 019217674-9 ^ Sun M, Naeem R, Su J-X, Cao Z-Y, J. Burleigh G, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Chen Z-D. (2016). "Phylogeny of the Rosidae: A dense taxon sampling analysis". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (4): 363–391. doi:10.1111/jse.12211. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution by Else Marie Friis, Peter R. Crane, Kaj Raunsgaard Pedersen - Cambridge University Press, 18. aug. 2011 - ISBN 0521592836 ^ Paleontology of the Upper Eocene
Eocene
Florissant Formation, Colorado
Colorado
by Herbert William Meyer, Dena M. Smith, Geological Society of America ^ Miocene
Miocene
leaves of Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
(Elaeagnaceae) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, its modern center of diversity and endemism by Tao Su, Peter Wilf, He Xu and Zhe-Kun Zhou. American Journal of Botany. 2014 Aug;101(8):1350-61. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1400229.

This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German. (October 2009) Click [show] for important translation instructions.

View a machine-translated version of the German article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary (using German): Content in this edit is translated from the existing German article at [[:de:Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template TranslateddeÖlweidengewächse to the talk page. For more guidance, see:Translation.

This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. (October 2009) Click [show] for important translation instructions.

View a machine-translated version of the Russian article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary (using German): Content in this edit is translated from the existing German article at [[:de:Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template TranslatedruЛоховые to the talk page. For more guidance, see:Translation.

External links[edit]

Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnaceae
of Mongolia in FloraGREIF

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q156326 EoL: 4380 EPPO: 1ELAF FoC: 10298 Fossilworks: 55680 GBIF: 2408 GRIN: 402 IPNI: 30001966-2 ITIS: 27768 NCBI: 25996 Tropicos: 42000185 VASCAN: 126 Watson & Dallwitz: elae

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