Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day
year. The year consisted of three seasons of 120 days each, plus an
intercalary month of 5 epagomenal days treated as outside of the year
proper. Each season was divided into four months of 30 days. These
twelve months were initially numbered within each season but came to
also be known by the names of their principal festivals. Each month
was divided into three 10-day periods known as decans or decades. It
has been suggested that during the Nineteenth Dynasty and the
Twentieth Dynasty the last two days of each decan were usually treated
as a kind of weekend for the royal craftsmen, with royal artisans free
Because this calendrical year was nearly a quarter of a day shorter
than the solar year, the
Egyptian calendar lost about one day every
four years relative to the Gregorian calendar. It is therefore
sometimes referred to as the wandering year (Latin: annus vagus), as
its months rotated about one day through the solar year every 4 years.
Canopus Decree attempted to correct this through the
introduction of a sixth epagomenal day every four years but the
proposal was resisted by the Egyptian priests and people and abandoned
until the establishment of the Alexandrian or
Coptic calendar by
Augustus. The introduction of a leap day to the
Egyptian calendar made
it equivalent to the reformed Julian calendar, although it continues
to diverge from the
Gregorian calendar at the turn of most centuries.
This civil calendar ran concurrently with an Egyptian lunar calendar
which was used for some religious rituals and festivals. Some
Egyptologists have described it as lunisolar, with an intercalary
month supposedly added every two or three years to maintain its
consistency with the solar year, but no evidence of such intercalation
before the 4th century BC has yet been discovered.
1.2 Lunar calendar
1.3 Civil calendar
1.4 Ptolemaic calendar
1.5 Roman calendar
4 See also
7 External links
Setting a calendar by the
Nile flood would be about as vague a
business as if we set our calendar by the return of the Spring
Nile flood at
Cairo c. 1830.
Current knowledge of the earliest development of the Egyptian calendar
remains speculative. A tablet from the reign of the First-Dynasty
Djer (c. 3000 BC) was once thought to indicate that the
Egyptians had already established a link between the heliacal rising
Sirius (Ancient Egyptian: Spdt or Sopdet, "Triangle"; Greek:
Σῶθις, Sō̂this) and the beginning of their year, but more
recent analysis has questioned whether the tablet's picture refers to
Sirius at all. Similarly, based on the Palermo Stone, Scharff
proposed that the
Old Kingdom observed a 320-day year but his theory
has not become widely accepted. Some evidence suggests the early
civil calendar had 360 days, although it might merely reflect the
unusual status of the five epagomenal days as days "added on" to the
With its interior effectively rainless for thousands of years,
Egypt was "a gift of the river" Nile, whose annual flooding
organized the year into three broad seasons known to the Egyptians
Flood (Ancient Egyptian: Ꜣḫt, sometimes anglicized as Akhet),
Emergence (Prt, sometimes anglicized as Peret), and
Low Water or Harvest (Šmw, sometimes anglicized as Shomu).
The first lasted from roughly June to September, the second from
roughly October to January, and the last from roughly February to
May. As early as the reign of
Djer (c. 3000 BC, Dynasty I),
yearly records were being kept of the flood's high-water mark.
Neugebauer noted that a 365-day year can be established by averaging a
few decades of accurate observations of the
Nile flood without any
need for astronomical observations, although the great
irregularity of the flood from year to year[a] and the difficulty of
maintaining a sufficiently accurate
Nilometer and record in
Egypt has caused other scholars to doubt that it formed
the basis for the Egyptian calendar.
A lunar calendar for 2017
The Egyptians appear to have used a purely lunar calendar prior to the
establishment of the solar civil calendar in which each month
began on the morning when the waning crescent moon could no longer be
seen. Until the closing of Egypt's pagan temples under the
Byzantines, the lunar calendar continued to be used as the liturgical
year of various cults. The month may have been divided into four
"weeks" of 7 or 8 days, reflecting each quarter of the lunar
phases. Because the exact time of morning considered to begin the
Egyptian day remains uncertain and there is no evidence that any
method other than observation was used to determine the beginnings of
the lunar months prior to the 4th century BC, there is no sure way
to reconstruct exact dates in the lunar calendar from its known
dates. The difference between beginning the day at the first light
of dawn or at sunrise accounts for an 11–14 year shift in dated
observations of the lunar cycle. It remains unknown how the
Egyptians dealt with obscurement by clouds when they occurred and the
best current algorithms have been shown to differ from actual
observation of the waning crescent moon in about one-in-five
Parker and others have argued for its development into an
observational and then calculated lunisolar calendar which used a
30-day intercalary month every two to three years to accommodate the
lunar year's loss of about 11 days a year relative to the solar year
and to maintain the placement of the heliacal rising of
its twelfth month. No evidence for such a month, however, exists
in the present historical record.
Ꜣbd n ḥwt-nṯr
A second lunar calendar is attested by a demotic astronomical
papyrus dating to sometime after AD 144 which outlines a
lunisolar calendar operating in accordance with the Egyptian civil
calendar according to a 25-year cycle. The calendar seems to show
its month beginning with the first visibility of the waxing crescent
moon, but Parker displayed an error in the cycle of about a day in 500
years, using it to show the cycle was developed to correspond with
the new moon around 357 BC. This date places it prior to the
Ptolemaic period and within the native Egyptian Dynasty XXX. Egypt's
1st Persian occupation, however, seems likely to have been its
inspiration. This lunisolar calendar's calculations apparently
continued to be used without correction into the Roman period, even
when they no longer precisely matched the observable lunar phases.
The days of the lunar month—known to the Egyptians as a "temple
month"—were individually named and celebrated as stages in the
life of the moon god, variously Thoth in the Middle Kingdom or Khonsu
in the Ptolemaic era: "He... is conceived... on Psḏntyw; he is born
on Ꜣbd; he grows old after Smdt".
Days of the lunar month[b]
Meaning (if known)
Literal meaning unknown but possibly related to the Ennead; the day of
the New Moon.
"Beginning the Month" or "The Month"; the beginning of the Crescent
"The Going Forth of the Sm", a kind of priest
I͗ḫt Ḥr Ḫꜣwt
"Offerings upon the Altar"
"Partial"; the first-quarter day.
Literal meaning uncertain; the day of the Full Moon.
Mspr Sn Nw
"Covering the Head"
"Day of the Moon"
"Partial"; the third-quarter day.
"The Going Forth"
Ḥb Sd Nwt
"The Jubilee of Nut"
"The Going Forth of Min"
Sirius (bottom) and Orion (right), seen from the Hubble Telescope.
Together, the three brightest stars of the northern winter
Betelgeuse (top right), and
Procyon (top left)—can
also be understood as forming the Winter Triangle.
A Middle Kingdom star chart
A hieroglyphic calendar at Elephantine.
Further information: Sothic cycle
The civil calendar was established at some early date in or before the
Old Kingdom, with probable evidence of its use early in the reign of
Shepseskaf (c. 2510 BC, Dynasty IV) and certain attestation
during the reign of Neferirkare (mid-25th century BC, Dynasty
V). It was probably based upon astronomical observations of
Sirius whose reappearance in the sky closely corresponded to the
average onset of the
Nile flood through the 5th and 4th millennium
BC.[p] A recent development is the discovery that the 30-day month
Mesopotamian calendar dates as late as the Jemdet Nasr Period
(late 4th-millennium BC), a time Egyptian culture was
borrowing various objects and cultural features from the Fertile
Crescent, leaving open the possibility that the main features of the
calendar were borrowed in one direction or the other as well.
The civil year comprised exactly 365 days,[q] divided into 12 months
of 30 days each and an intercalary month of 5 days, were
celebrated as the birthdays of the gods Osiris, Horus, Set, Isis, and
Nephthys. The regular months were grouped into Egypt's three
seasons, which gave them their original names, and divided
into three 10-day periods known as decans or decades. In later
sources, these were distinguished as "first", "middle", and
"last". It has been suggested that during the Nineteenth Dynasty
and the Twentieth Dynasty the last two days of each decan were usually
treated as a kind of weekend for the royal craftsmen, with royal
artisans free from work. Dates were typically expressed in a YMD
format, with a pharaoh's regnal year followed by the month followed by
the day of the month. For example, the New Year occurred on I
Lord of Years
The importance of the calendar to Egyptian religion is reflected in
the use of the title "Lord of Years" (Nb Rnpt) for its various
creator gods. Time was also considered an integral aspect of
Maat, the cosmic order which opposed chaos, lies, and violence.
The civil calendar was apparently established in a year when Sirius
rose on its New Year (
I Akhet 1) but, because of its lack of leap
years, it began to slowly cycle backwards through the solar year.
Sirius itself, about 40° below the ecliptic, follows a Sothic year
almost exactly matching that of the Sun, with its reappearance now
occurring at the latitude of
Cairo (ancient Heliopolis and Memphis) on
19 July (Julian), only two or three days later than its
occurrence in early antiquity.
Following Censorinus and Meyer, the standard understanding was
that, four years from the calendar's inception,
Sirius would have no
longer reappeared on the Egyptian New Year but on the next day (I
Akhet 2); four years later, it would have reappeared on the day after
that; and so on through the entire calendar until its rise finally
I Akhet 1 1460 years after the calendar's
inception,[r] an event known as "apocatastasis". Owing to the
event's extreme regularity, Egyptian recordings of the calendrical
date of the rise of
Sirius have been used by
Egyptologists to fix its
calendar and other events dated to it, at least to the level of the
four-Egyptian-year periods which share the same date for Sirius's
return, known as "tetraëterides" or "quadrennia". For example, an
account that Sothis rose on
III Peret 1—the 181st day of the
year—should show that somewhere 720, 721, 722, or 723 years have
passed since the last apocatastasis. Following such a scheme, the
Sirius rising on
II Shemu 1 in 239 BC implies
apocatastases on 1319 and 2779 BC ±3 years.[s] Censorinus's
placement of an apocatastasis on 21 July AD 139[t] permitted
the calculation of its predecessors to 1322, 2782, and
4242 BC. The last is sometimes described as "the first
exactly dated year in history" but, since the calendar is attested
Dynasty XVIII and the last date is now known to far predate
early Egyptian civilization, it is typically credited to Dynasty II
around the middle date.[u]
Heliacal rising of
Sirius at Heliopolis[v]
III Peret 3
II Shemu 8
I Akhet 8
III Peret 14
II Shemu 19
I Akhet 19
III Peret 25
II Shemu 30
IV Akhet 2
The classic understanding of the
Sothic cycle relies, however, on
several potentially erroneous assumptions. Following Scaliger,
Censorinus's date is usually emended to 20 July[w] but ancient
authorities give a variety of 'fixed' dates for the rise of Sirius.[x]
His use of the year 139 seems questionable, as 136 seems to have
been the start of the tetraëteris and the later date chosen to
flatter the birthday of Censorinus's patron. Perfect observation
of Sirius's actual behavior during the cycle—including its minor
shift relative to the solar year—would produce a period of 1457
years; observational difficulties produce a further margin of error of
about two decades. Although it is certain the Egyptian day began
in the morning, another four years are shifted depending on whether
the precise start occurred at the first light of dawn or at
sunrise. It has been noted that there is no recognition in
surviving records that Sirius's minor irregularities sometimes produce
a triëteris or penteteris (three- or five-year periods of agreement
with an Egyptian date) rather than the usual four-year periods and,
given that the expected discrepancy is no more than 8 years in 1460,
the cycle may have been applied schematically according to the
civil years by Egyptians and the Julian year by the Greeks and
Romans. The occurrence of the apocatastasis in the 2nd millennium
BC so close to the great political and sun-based religious reforms of
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaton also leaves open the possibility that the
cycle's strict application was occasionally subject to political
interference. The record and celebration of Sirius's rising would
also vary by several days (equating to decades of the cycle) in eras
when the official site of observation was moved from near Cairo.[y]
The return of
Sirius to the night sky varies by about a day per degree
of latitude, causing it to be seen 8–10 days earlier at
at Alexandria, a difference which causes Krauss to propose dating
much of Egyptian history decades later than the present consensus.
Following Alexander the Great's conquest of the Persian Empire, the
Ptolemaic Dynasty came to power in Egypt, continuing to use
its native calendars with Hellenized names. In 238 BC, Ptolemy
Canopus Decree ordered that every 4th year should
incorporate a sixth day its intercalary month, honoring him and
his wife as gods equivalent to the children of Nut. The reform was
resisted by the Egyptian priests and people and was abandoned.
Main article: Coptic calendar
Egyptian scholars were involved with the establishment of Julius
Caesar's reform of the Roman calendar, although the Roman priests
initially misapplied its formula and—by counting inclusively—added
leap days every three years instead of every four. The mistake was
Augustus through omitting leap years for a number of
cycles until AD 4. As the personal ruler of Egypt, he also
imposed a reform of its calendar in 26 or 25 BC, possibly to
correspond with the beginning of a new Callipic cycle, with the first
leap day occurring on 6 Epag. in the year 22 BC. This
"Alexandrian calendar" corresponds almost exactly to the Julian,
causing 1 Thoth to remain at 29 August except during the
year before a Julian leap year, when it occurs on 30 August
instead. The calendars then resume their correspondence after
4 Phamenoth / 29 February of the next year.
For much of Egyptian history, the months were not referred to by
individual names, but were rather numbered within the three
seasons. As early as the Middle Kingdom, however, each month had
its own name. These finally evolved into the
New Kingdom months, which
in turn gave rise to the Hellenized names that were used for
Ptolemy in his
Almagest and by others. Copernicus
constructed his tables for the motion of the planets based on the
Egyptian year because of its mathematical regularity. A convention of
Egyptologists is to number the months consecutively using Roman
A persistent problem of
Egyptology has been that the festivals which
give their names to the months occur in the next month. Gardiner
proposed that an original calendar governed by the priests of Ra was
supplanted by an improvement developed by the partisans of Thoth.
Parker connected the discrepancy to his theories concerning the lunar
calendar. Sethe, Weill, and Clagett proposed that the names expressed
the idea that each month culminated in the festival beginning the
1st Month of Flood
2nd Month of Flood
3rd Month of Flood
4th Month of Flood
1st Month of Growth
2nd Month of Growth
3rd Month of Growth
4th Month of Growth
1st Month of Low Water
2nd Month of Low Water
3rd Month of Low Water
4th Month of Low Water
Opening of the Year
Birth of the Sun
Those upon the Year
An 11th-century Coptic calendrical icon displaying two months of
Coptic calendar and Ethiopian calendar
Egyptian calendar continues to be used in
Egypt as the
Coptic calendar of the Egyptian Church and by the Egyptian populace at
large, particularly the peasants, to calculate the agricultural
seasons. It differs only in its era, which is dated from the ascension
of the Roman emperor Diocletian. Contemporary Egyptian farmers, like
their ancient predecessors, divide the year into three seasons:
winter, summer, and inundation. It is also associated with local
festivals such as the annual
Flooding of the Nile
Flooding of the Nile and the ancient
Spring festival Sham el-Nessim.
Ethiopian calendar is based on this reformed calendar but uses
Amharic names for its months and uses a different era. The French
Calendar was similar, but began its year at the autumnal
equinox. British orrery maker John Gleave represented the Egyptian
calendar in a reconstruction of the Antikythera mechanism.
Coptic & Ethiopian calendars
^ In the 30 years prior to the completion of the
Aswan Low Dam in
1902, the period between Egypt's "annual" floods varied from 335 to
415 days, with the first rise starting as early as 15 April and as
late as 23 June.
^ For further variations, see Brugsch.
^ Variant representations of the day of the new moon include
in the Middle Kingdom; and
in later inscriptions.
^ In later sources, Psḏntyw.
^ Variant representations of the day of the first crescent moon
(properly N11A with the moon turned 90° clockwise), and
^ Variant representations of the 6th day of the lunar month include
^ Variant representations of the 1st-quarter day include
^ Properly, the first sign is not an animal jawbone
but the rarer, similar-looking figure of a lion's forepaw
^ Properly, the two circles
are shrunk and placed within the curve of the sickle
. The male figure should be man sowing seeds
, which includes a curve of dots coming from the man's hand.
^ Variant representations of the day of the full moon include
^ Properly, N12t1 or N12A, with the crescent moon
turned 90° clockwise.
^ Variant representations of the 21st day of the lunar month include
^ Variant representations of the 24th day of the lunar month include
^ Variant representations of the 27th day of the lunar month include
. D310 is a foot
crossed by a variant of pool
with 2 or 3 diagonal strokes across it.
^ Properly, the loaf
and diagonal strokes
are shrunk and fit under the two sides of the standard
^ Other possibilities for the original basis of the calendar include
comparison of a detailed record of lunar dates against the rising of
Sirius over a 40 year span, discounted by Neugebauer as likely to
produce a calendar more accurate than the actual one; his own
theory (discussed above) that the timing of successive floods were
averaged over a few decades; and the theory that the position of
the solar rising was recorded over a number of years, permitting
comparison of the timing of the solstices over the years. A
predynastic petroglyph discovered by the University of South
Carolina's expedition at
Nekhen in 1986 may preserve such a record, if
it had been moved about 10° from its original position prior to
^ It has been argued that the
Ebers Papyrus shows a fixed calendar
incorporating leap years, but this is no longer believed.
^ 1460 Julian years (exactly) or Gregorian years (roughly) in modern
calculations, equivalent to 1461 Egyptian civil years, but apparently
reckoned as 1460 civil years (1459 Julian years) by the ancient
^ Per O'Mara, actually ±16 years when including the other factors
affecting the calculated Sothic year.
^ Using Roman dating, he said of the relevant New Year that "when the
Antoninus Pius was consul of Rome for a second time with
Bruttius Prasens this same day coincided with the 13th day before the
calends of August" (Latin: cum... imperatore quinque hoc anno fuit
Antonino Pio II Bruttio Praesente Romae consulibus idem dies fuerit
ante diem XII kal. Aug.).
^ Meyer himself accepted the earliest date, though before the
Chronology was shown to be more likely than the short or long
chronologies of the Middle East. Parker argued for its introduction
ahead of apocatastasis on the middle date based on his understanding
of its development from a Sothic-based lunar calendar. He placed its
introduction within the range c. 2937 – c. 2821 BC,
noting it was more likely in the
Dynasty II part of the range.
^ Specifically, the calculations are for 30° N with no
adjustment for clouds and an averaged amount of aerosols for the
region. In practice, clouds or other obscurement and observational
error may have shifted any of these calculated values by a few
^ Latin: ...ante diem XIII kal. Aug....
^ Most ancient sources place the heliacal rising of
19 July, but Dositheus, probable source of the date of the
239 BC rising, elsewhere places it on 18 July, as do
Hephaistion of Thebes, Salmasius, Zoroaster, Palladius, and
Solinus placed it on the 20th; Meton and the unemended text
of Censorinus's book on the 21st; and
Ptolemy on the day after
^ This seems to be the case, for example, with astronomical records of
XVIII Dynasty and its successors, including the Ebers Papyrus,
which seem to have been made at Thebes rather than Heliopolis.
^ Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation Phaō̂phi (Φαῶφι).
^ Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation Khoíak (Χοίακ).
^ Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation Tŷbi (Τῦβι).
^ Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation Mekheír (Μεχείρ).
^ Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation Pharmoûthi
^ Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation Paûni (Παῦνι).
^ Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation Epeíph (Ἐπείφ).
^ a b c Winlock (1940), p. 450.
^ Clagett (1995), pp. 10–11.
^ Winlock (1940).
^ a b Tetley (2014), p. 40.
^ Winlock (1940), p. 452.
Herodotus (1890), Macaulay, ed., Histories, London: Macmillan, Book
II, §5 .
^ a b Tetley (2014), p. 39.
^ Winlock (1940), p. 453.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 4–5.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 33.
^ a b c Neugebauer (1939).
^ a b Parker (1950), p. 32.
^ a b c Parker (1950), p. 23.
^ Parker (1950), pp. 30-2.
^ a b Høyrup, p. 13.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 3–4.
^ a b c Schaefer (2000), pp. 153–154.
^ Parker (1950), pp. 29.
^ a b c d e f O'Mara (2003), p. 18.
^ Parker (1950), pp. 13-29.
^ Parker (1950), pp. 30–2.
^ Tetley (2014), p. 153.
^ a b Parker (1950), p. 17.
^ "Papyrus Carlsberg 9", The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection, Copenhagen:
University of Copenhagen, retrieved 11 February 2017 .
^ Parker (1950), pp. 13–23.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 25.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 26.
^ Høyrup, p. 14.
^ Parker (1950), p. 27.
^ a b Parker (1950), pp. 11–12.
^ Brugsch, Heinrich (1883), Thesaurus Inscriptionum Aegyptiacarum,
Leipzig, pp. 46–48 .
^ a b c d e Parker (1950), p. 11.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 1231.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 1232.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 1668.
^ a b Vygus (2015), p. 33.
^ a b Parker (1950), p. 12.
^ Parker (1950), p. 13.
^ a b Vygus (2015), p. 27.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 28.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 1885.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 1997.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 2464.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 277.
^ Everson (1999), p. 57.
^ Everson (1999), p. 5.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 1235.
^ Parker (1950), p. 18.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 917.
^ Vygus (2015), p. 2294.
^ a b Vygus (2015), p. 2472.
^ Everson (1999), p. 25.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 28.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 37.
^ Englund, Robert K. (1988), "Administrative Timekeeping in Ancient
Mesopotamia", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the
Orient, No. 31, pp. 121–185 .
^ Høyrup, pp. 12–13.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 6.
^ a b c Parker (1950), p. 7.
^ Spalinger (1995), p. 33.
^ a b Parker (1950), pp. 43–5.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 4.
^ Jauhiainen (2009), p. 39.
^ a b c Clagett (1995), p. 5.
^ Budge, Ernest Alfred Wallis (1911), A Hieroglyphic Vocabulary to the
Theban Recension of the
Book of the Dead, Kegan Paul, Trench,
Trübner, & Co., p. 201 .
^ a b Clagett (1995), p. 1.
^ Lacroix, Jean-Pierre (1997), "
Heliacal rising of
Sirius in Thebes",
Thebes: A Reflection of the Sky on the Pharaoh's Earth .
^ a b c d e O'Mara (2003), p. 17.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 29.
^ a b c Gautschy, Rita (2012), The Star
Sirius in Ancient
^ Censorinus, De Die Natali, Ch. XXI, §10 (in Latin),
translated into English by William Maude in 1900.
^ a b c Schaefer (2000), p. 151.
^ Grun, Bernard (1975), "4241 BC", The Timetables of History, 3rd
ed., Thames & Hudson .
^ a b Clagett (1995), p. 31.
^ Parker (1950), p. 53.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 36–7.
^ Van Gent, Robert Harry (2016), "
Calendar Date Module", Ancient
Luni-Solar and Planetary Ephemerides, Utrecht: University of
^ Schaefer (2000), p. 150.
^ Walker, John (2015), "
Calendar Converter", Fourmilab .
^ Scaliger, Joseph Justus (1583), Opus Novum de Emendatione Temporum,
p. 138 . (in Latin)
^ Grafton & al. (1985), p. 455.
^ Luft (2006), p. 314.
^ O'Mara (2003), p. 25.
^ Luft (2006), p. 312.
^ Forisek (2003), p. 12.
^ Clagett (1995), p. 30.
^ Schaefer (2000), p. 152–3.
^ "Ancient Egyptian Civil Calendar", Biblical Archaeology, La
^ Tetley (2014), p. 43.
^ A Chronological Survey of Precisely Dated Demotic and Abnormal
^ Alexandrian reform of the Egyptian calendar
^ Clagett (1995), p. 14–15.
^ Montanari, F. (1995), Vocabolario della Lingua Greca . (in
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1, pp. 33–47 .
Tetley, M. Christine (2014), The Reconstructed
Chronology of the
Egyptian Kings, Vol. I .
Winlock, Herbert Eustis (1940), "The Origin of the Ancient Egyptian
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Vygus, Mark (2015), Middle Egyptian Dictionary (PDF) .
Detailed information about the Egyptian calendars, including lunar
Date Converter for Ancient Egypt
Calendrica Includes the Egyptian civil calendar with years in
Ptolemy's Nabonassar Era (year 1 = 747 BC) as well as the Coptic,
Ethiopic, and French calendars.
Civil, ver. 4.0, is a 25kB DOS program to convert dates in the
Egyptian civil calendar to the Julian or Gregorian ones
In wide use
Hindu or Indian
Slavic Native Faith
Proleptic Gregorian / Proleptic Julian (historiographical)
Dreamspell (New Age)
Discordian / Pataphysical (surreal)
New Earth Time
Star Wars (Galactic Standard Calendar)
Ab urbe condita
Anno Domini/Common Era
List of calendars
Glossary of artifacts
Architecture (Egyptian Revival architecture)
Great Royal Wives