Eduard Bernstein
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Eduard Bernstein (; 6 January 1850 – 18 December 1932) was a German
social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individu ...
Marxist theorist and
politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some ...

politician
. A member of the
Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major parties of contemporary Germany along with the CDU/CSU, Union parties ...
(SPD), Bernstein had held close association to
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wis ...

Karl Marx
and
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
, but he began to identify what he believed to be errors in Marxist thinking and began to criticize views held by
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies socia ...
when he investigated and challenged the Marxist materialist theory of history. He rejected significant parts of Marxist theory that were based upon Hegelian metaphysics and rejected the
Hegelian Hegelianism is the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel in which reality has a conceptual structure. Pure Concepts are not subjectively applied to sense-impressions but rather things exist for actualizing their ''a priori'' pure concept. The concept o ...
perspective of an immanent economic necessity to socialism.


Early life

Bernstein was born in
Schöneberg Schöneberg () is a locality of Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it t ...

Schöneberg
(now part of
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city limits. One of 's , Berlin is surrounded by the state of , and contiguous with , Brande ...

Berlin
) to Jewish parents who were active in the Reform Temple on the Johannistrasse whose services were performed on Sunday. His father was a locomotive driver. From 1866 to 1878, he was employed in banks as a banker's clerk after leaving school. Bernstein's political career began in 1872, when he joined a
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, s ...

socialist
party with
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress, ...
tendencies, known formally as the
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany The Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SDAP) was a Marxist socialist political party in the North German Confederation during Unification of Germany, unification. Founded in Eisena ...
. The party was a proponent of the
Eisenach Eisenach () is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin ...
style of German socialism, named after the German town where it was founded. Bernstein soon became known as an activist. His party contested two elections against a rival socialist party, the Lassalleans (
Ferdinand Lassalle Ferdinand Lassalle (; 11 April 1825 – 31 August 1864) was a Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian: ''Prūsa'' or ''Prūsija'' was a historically prominent Germans, German state that originated in 1525 with Duchy of Prussia, a duchy centered on t ...

Ferdinand Lassalle
's
General German Workers' Association The General German Workers' Association (german: Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiter-Verein, ADAV) was a German political party founded on 23 May 1863 in Leipzig Leipzig (, also , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German Sta ...
), but in both elections neither party was able to win a significant majority of the
left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equality, prioritizing it for all people. ...
vote. Consequently, Bernstein, together with
August Bebel Ferdinand August Bebel (22 February 1840 – 13 August 1913) was a German socialist politician, writer, and orator. He is best remembered as one of the founders of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (SDAP) in 1869, which in 1875 mer ...
and
Wilhelm Liebknecht Wilhelm Martin Philipp Christian Ludwig Liebknecht
(29 March 1826 – 7 August 1900) was a German sociali ...

Wilhelm Liebknecht
, prepared the ''Einigungsparteitag'' ("Unification Party Congress") with the Lassalleans in
Gotha Gotha () is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the si ...
in 1875.
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wis ...

Karl Marx
's famous ''
Critique of the Gotha Program The ''Critique of the Gotha Programme'' (german: Kritik des Gothaer Programms) is a document based on a letter by Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices ...
'' criticised what he saw as a Lassallean victory over the Eisenachers, whom he favoured. Bernstein later noted that it was Liebknecht, considered by many to be the strongest Marxist advocate within the Eisenacher faction, who proposed the inclusion of many of the ideas that so thoroughly irritated Marx. In the 1877 elections, the
German Social Democratic Party The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD; ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with ...
(SPD) gained 493,000 votes. However, two assassination attempts on
Kaiser Wilhelm I , signature = Wilhelm_I,_German_Emperor_Signature.svg , religion = Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German Protestant Reformers, r ...

Kaiser Wilhelm I
the next year provided Chancellor
Otto von Bismarck Otto, Prince of Bismarck, Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg (german: Otto Fürst von Bismarck, Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Herzog zu Lauenburg ; 1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), born Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, was a c ...

Otto von Bismarck
a pretext to introduce a law banning all socialist organisations, assemblies and publications. There had been no Social Democratic involvement in either assassination attempt, but the popular reaction against "enemies of the Reich" induced a compliant
Reichstag is a German word generally meaning parliament, more directly translated as ''Diet (assembly), Diet of the Realm'' or ''National diet'', or more loosely as ''Imperial Diet''. It may refer to: Buildings and places is the god specific German word ...
to approve Bismarck's
Anti-Socialist Laws The Anti-Socialist Laws or Socialist Laws (german: Sozialistengesetze; officially ''Gesetz gegen die gemeingefährlichen Bestrebungen der Sozialdemokratie'', approximately "Law against the public danger of Social Democratic endeavours") were a serie ...
.''The Preconditions of Socialism'' Eduard Bernstein Bismarck's strict anti-socialist legislation was passed on 12 October 1878. For nearly all practical purposes the SPD was outlawed, and it was actively suppressed throughout Germany. However, it was still possible for Social Democrats to campaign as individuals for election to the Reichstag, which they did in spite of severe persecution. The party actually increased its electoral success, gaining 550,000 votes in 1884 and 763,000 in 1887.


Exile

The vehemence of Bernstein's opposition to the government of Bismarck made it desirable for him to leave Germany. Shortly before the Anti-Socialist Laws came into effect, Bernstein went into
exile To be in exile means to be forced away from one's home (i.e. , , , , , or even ) and unable to return. People (or corporations and even ) may be in exile for legal or other reasons. In , ''exsilium'' denoted both voluntary exile and banishme ...

exile
in
Zurich
Zurich
, accepting a position as the private secretary of Karl Höchberg, a wealthy supporter of social democracy. A warrant subsequently issued for his arrest ruled out any possibility for him to return to Germany, and he was to remain in exile for more than 20 years. In 1888, Bismarck convinced the Swiss government to expel a number of important members of German social democracy and so Bernstein relocated to
London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the as ' and retains b ...

London
, where he associated with
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
and
Karl Kautsky Karl Johann Kautsky (; ; 16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning ...
. It was soon after his arrival in Switzerland that he began to think of himself as a Marxist. In 1880, he accompanied Bebel to London to clear up a misunderstanding concerning his involvement with an article published by Höchberg that was denounced by Marx and Engels as being "chock-full of bourgeois and petty bourgeois ideas". The visit was a success, and Engels in particular was impressed by Bernstein's zeal and ideas. Back in Zurich, Bernstein became increasingly active in working for ''Der Sozialdemokrat'' (''Social Democrat'') and later succeeded
Georg von Vollmar Georg Heinrich Ritter (Chevalier) von Vollmar auf Veldheim (March 7, 1850 – June 30, 1922) was a democratic socialist politician from Bavaria. Biography Vollmar was born in Munich, and educated in a school attached to a Benedictine monastery at A ...

Georg von Vollmar
as the paper's editor, which he was for 10 years. It was during those years between 1880 and 1890 that Bernstein established his reputation as a major party theoretician and a Marxist of impeccable orthodoxy. He was helped in that by the close personal and professional relationship he established with Engels. The relationship owed much to the fact that he shared Engels's strategic vision and accepted most of the particular policies that Engels believed the ideas to entail. In 1887, the German government persuaded the Swiss authorities to ban ''Der Sozialdemokrat''. Bernstein moved to London, where he resumed publication from premises in
Kentish Town Kentish Town is an area of northwest London, England in the London Borough of Camden, immediately north of Camden Town. Less than four miles north of central London, Kentish Town has good transport connections and is situated close to the open ...
. His relationship with Engels soon developed into friendship. He also communicated with various English socialist organizations, notably the
Fabian Society The Fabian Society is a History of the socialist movement in the United Kingdom, British socialist organisation whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualism, gradualist and reformism, reformist effort in Demo ...
and Henry Mayers Hyndman's Social Democratic Federation. In later years, his opponents routinely claimed that his "revisionism (Marxism), revisionism" was caused by seeing the world "through English spectacles". However, Bernstein denied the charges. In 1895, Engels was deeply distressed when he discovered that his introduction to a new edition of ''The Class Struggles in France'', written by Marx in 1850, had been edited by Bernstein and Kautsky in a manner that left the impression that he had become a proponent of a peaceful road to socialism. On 1 April 1895, four months before his death, Engels wrote to Kautsky:
I was amazed to see today in the ''Vorwärts'' an excerpt from my 'Introduction' that had been ''printed without my knowledge'' and tricked out in such a way as to present me as a peace-loving proponent of legality ''quand même'' (at all costs). Which is all the more reason why I should like it to appear in its entirety in the ''Neue Zeit'' in order that this disgraceful impression may be erased. I shall leave Liebknecht in no doubt as to what I think about it and the same applies to those who, irrespective of who they may be, gave him this opportunity of perverting my views and, what's more, without so much as a word to me about it.
In 1891, Bernstein was one of the authors of the Erfurt Program and from 1896 to 1898, he published a series of articles entitled ''Probleme des Sozialismus'' (''Problems of Socialism'') that resulted in the revisionism debate in the SPD. He also published the book ''Die Voraussetzungen des Sozialismus und die Aufgaben der Sozialdemokratie'' (''The Prerequisites for Socialism and the Tasks of Social Democracy'') in 1899. The book was in great contrast to the positions of Bebel, Kautsky and Liebknecht. Rosa Luxemburg's 1900 essay ''Reform or Revolution?'' was also a polemic against Bernstein's position. In 1900, Berstein published ''Zur Geschichte und Theorie des Sozialismus'' (''The History and Theory of Socialism'').


Return to Germany

In 1901, Bernstein returned to Germany after the end of the ban that had kept him from entering the country. He became an editor of the newspaper ''Vorwärts'' that year and a member of the Reichstag from 1902 to 1918. He voted against the armament tabling in 1913, together with the SPD fraction's left wing. Although he voted for war credits in August 1914, he opposed World War I from July 1915 and, in 1917, was among the founders of the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), which united antiwar socialists, including reformists like Bernstein, Centrist Marxism, centrists like Kautsky and revolutionary socialism, revolutionary socialists like Karl Liebknecht. He was a member of the USPD until 1919, when he rejoined the SPD. From 1920 to 1928, Bernstein was again a member of the Reichstag. He retired from political life in 1928.


Death and legacy

Bernstein died on 18 December 1932 in Berlin. A commemorative plaque is placed in his memory at Bozener Straße 18, Berlin-Schöneberg, where he lived from 1918 until his death. His grave in the Eisackstrasse Cemetery became a ''grave of honour'' (german: Ehrengrab) in Berlin.


Opinions


Opposition to violent revolution

''Die Voraussetzungen des Sozialismus'' (1899) was Bernstein's most significant work. Bernstein was principally concerned with refuting
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wis ...

Karl Marx
's predictions about the imminent and inevitable demise of Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory), capitalism and Marx's consequent laissez-faire policy which opposed ameliorative social interventions before the demise. Bernstein indicated simple facts, which he considered to be evidence that Marx's predictions were not being borne out while he noted that while the centralisation of capitalist industry was significant, it was not becoming wholescale and that the ownership of capital was becoming more and not less diffuse.''Die Voraussetzungen des Sozialismus'' (1899) Bernstein's analysis of agriculture, according to which Bernstein believed that land ownership was becoming less concentrated, was largely based on the work of Eduard David and was in its marshalling of facts impressive enough that even his Orthodox Marxist opponent
Karl Kautsky Karl Johann Kautsky (; ; 16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning ...
acknowledged its value. As to Marx's belief in the disappearance of the middleman, Bernstein declared that the entrepreneurship, entrepreneur class was being steadily recruited from the proletariat class and so all compromise measures, such as the state regulation of the hours of labour and provisions for old-age pensions should be encouraged. For that reason, Bernstein urged the working class, labouring classes to take an active interest in politics. Bernstein also indicated what he considered to be some of the flaws in Marx's labour theory of value. Looking especially at the rapid growth in Germany, Bernstein argued that middle-sized firms would flourish, the size and power of the middle class would grow and that capitalism would successfully adjust and not collapse. He warned that a violent proletarian revolution, as in French Revolution of 1848, France in 1848, produced only reactionary successes, which undermined workers' interests. Therefore, he rejected revolution and instead insisted the best strategy to be patiently building up a durable social movement working for continuous nonviolent incremental change. In his work, ''The Quest for Evolutionary Socialism: Eduard Bernstein and Social Democracy'', Manfred Steger touches on Bernstein's desire for socialism through peaceful means and incremental legislation. Some say that is Marxism in its mature form after the revisionists claimed many of Marx's theories to be wrong and came up with theories of their own, including socialism coming through democratic means.


Bernstein's views under attack

Bernstein was vilified by the orthodox Marxism, orthodox Marxists led by
Karl Kautsky Karl Johann Kautsky (; ; 16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning ...
as well as the more radical current led by Rosa Luxemburg for his Revisionism (Marxism), revisionism. Nonetheless, Bernstein remained very much a socialist, albeit an unorthodox one as he believed that socialism would be achieved by the advancement of capitalism to social democracy and so on, not by capitalism's destruction (as rights were gradually won by workers, their cause for grievance would be diminished and consequently, so too would the motivation for revolution). During the intra-party debates about his ideas, Bernstein explained that for him the final goal of socialism was nothing; progress toward that goal was everything. Luxemburg argued that socialism has its end in social revolution and revisionism "amounts in practice to the advice [...] that we abandon the social revolution—the goal of Social Democracy—and turn social reform from a means of the class struggle into its final aim". She says revisionism has lost sight of scientific socialism and reverted to German idealism, idealism and therefore lost its predictive force. Since reformists underestimate the anarchy of capitalism and say it has adaptability and viability, by which they mean that the contradictions of capitalism would not of historical necessity drive it to its doom, Luxemburg said they would abandon the objective necessity for socialism and give up all hope for a socialist future. The movement would collapse unless revisionism is repudiated. Trade unionists, who could see the successes of capitalism and the improvement of working conditions and who wanted to improve working conditions through parliament, generally followed Bernstein while those who were more orthodox generally followed Luxemburg.


Foreign policy

Foreign policy was Bernstein's main intellectual interest between 1902 and 1914, with many articles in the ''Sozialistische Monatshefte'' (''Socialist Monthly''). He advocated policy positions for Germany that were aggressively nationalist, imperialist and expansionist. Bernstein considered protectionism (high tariffs on imports) as helping only a selective few, being ''fortschrittsfeindlich'' (anti-progressive) for its negative effects on the masses. He argued Germany's protectionism was based only on political expediency, isolating Germany from the world (especially from Britain), creating an autarky that would result only in conflict between Germany and the rest of the world. Bernstein wanted to end Germany's protectionism and argued that tariffs did not increase grain production, did not counter British competition, did not increase farm profits and did not promote improvements in farming. Instead, it inflated rents, interest rates and prices, hurting everyone involved. In contrast, he argued that free trade led to peace, democracy, prosperity and the highest material and moral well-being of all humanity. Bernstein rejected reactionary bourgeois nationalism and called instead for a cosmopolitan-libertarian nationalism. He recognized the historical role of the national factor and said that the proletariat must support their country against external dangers. He called on workers to assimilate themselves within nation-states, which entailed support for colonial policies and imperial projects. Bernstein was sympathetic to the idea of imperial expansions as a positive and civilizing mission, which resulted in a bitter series of polemics with the anti-imperialist Ernest Belfort Bax. Bernstein supported colonialism as he believed it uplifted backward peoples and it worked well for both Britain and Germany. Bernstein supported such policies in an intensely racialised manner, arguing in 1896 that "races who are hostile to or incapable of civilisation cannot claim our sympathy when they revolt against civilisation" and that the "savages [must] be subjugated and made to conform to the rules of higher civilisation". However, he was disturbed by the Kaiser's reckless policies. He wanted strong friendship especially with Britain and France and protection against the Russian threat to Germany. He envisioned a sort of league of nations.Roger Fletcher, "An English Advocate in Germany. Eduard Bernstein’s Analysis of Anglo-German Relations 1900-1914." Canadian Journal of History 13.2 (1978) pp: 209-236.


Zionism

Bernstein's views on Jewish matters evolved. He never identified as a Zionist, but after initially favouring a wholly assimilationist solution to "the Jewish Question", his attitude toward Zionism became considerably more sympathetic after World War I.


Other issues

Bernstein is also noted for being "one of the first socialists to deal sympathetically with the issue of homosexuality".


Works


''Ferdinand Lassalle as a Social Reformer.''
Eleanor Marx Aveling, trans. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1893.
''Evolutionary Socialism: A Criticism and Affirmation.''
[1899] Edith C. Harvey, trans. New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1909. This book has also been translated into English as ''The Preconditions of Socialism''. *
Cromwell and Communism: Socialism and Democracy in the Great English Revolution
'' H.J. Stenning, trans. London: Allen and Unwin, 1930.
''My Years of Exile: Reminiscences of a Socialist.''
trans. Bernard Miall, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1921
online free
* ''Selected Writings of Eduard Bernstein, 1900–1921.'' Prometheus Books, 1996. * Marius S. Ostrowski (ed.)
''Eduard Bernstein on Social Democracy and International Politics: Essays and Other Writings''
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. * Marius S. Ostrowski (ed.)
''Eduard Bernstein on the German Revolution: Selected Historical Writings''
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019. * Marius S. Ostrowski (ed.)
''Eduard Bernstein on Socialism Past and Present: Essays and Lectures on Ideology''
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021.


Primary sources

* Tudor, Henry Tudor and J. M. Tudor, eds. ''Marxism and Social Democracy: The Revisionist Debate, 1896–1898.'' Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1988.


References


Sources

* Fletcher, Richard A. "Cobden as Educator: The Free-Trade Internationalism of Eduard Bernstein, 1899–1914." ''American Historical Review'' 88.3 (1983): 561–578
online
* Fletcher, R. A. "In the interest of peace and progress: Eduard Bernstein's socialist foreign policy." ''Review of International Studies'' 9.2 (1983): 79–93. * Fletcher, Roger. "A Revisionist Looks at Imperialism: Eduard Bernstein's Critique of Imperialism and Kolonialpolitik, 1900–14." ''Central European History'' 12.3 (1979): 237–271. * Fletcher, Roger. "Revisionism and Nationalism: Eduard Bernstein's Views on the National Question, 1900–1914." ''Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism'' 11.1 (1984) pp 103–117. * Fletcher, Roger. "World Power without War. Eduard Bernstein's Proposals for an Alternative Weltpolitik, 1900–1914." ''Australian Journal of Politics & History'' 25.2 (1979): 228–236. * Fletcher, Roger. "An English Advocate in Germany. Eduard Bernstein’s Analysis of Anglo-German Relations 1900–1914." ''Canadian Journal of History'' 13.2 (1978): 209–236. * Peter Gay, Gay, Peter, ''The Dilemma of Democratic Socialism: Eduard Bernstein's challenge to Marx.'' (Columbia UP, 1952
online
* Gustafsson, Bo. "A new look at Bernstein: Some reflections on reformism and history." ''Scandinavian Journal of History'' 3#1-4 (1978): 275–296. * Hamilton, Richard F. ''Marxism, Revisionism, and Leninism: Explication, Assessment, and Commentary'' (Greenwood, 2000
online
* Hulse, James W. ''Revolutionists in London: A Study of Five Unorthodox Socialists.'' (Clarendon Press, 1970. * Pachter, Henry. "The Ambiguous Legacy of Eduard Bernstein." ''Dissent'' 28#2 (1981). pp 203–216. * Rogers, H. Kendall. ''Before the Revisionist Controversy: Kautsky, Bernstein, and the Meaning of Marxism, 1895–1898.'' (Routledge, 2015). * Steger, Manfred B. ''The Quest for Evolutionary Socialism: Eduard Bernstein and Social Democracy.'' (Cambridge UP, 1997). * Steger, Manfred. "Historical materialism and ethics: Eduard Bernstein's revisionist perspective." ''History of European ideas'' 14.5 (1992): 647–663. * Thomas, Paul. ''Marxism & Scientific Socialism: From Engels to Althusser.'' (Routledge, 2008).


External links

* *

at Marxists Internet Archive

* [https://books.google.com/books?id=sK2ZAAAAIAAJ Evolutionary Socialism: a Criticism and Affirmation: (Die Voraussetzungen Des Sozialismus und Die Aufgaben Der Sozialdemokratie)] (Google Books) * Archive o
Eduard Bernstein Papers
at the International Institute of Social History * {{DEFAULTSORT:Bernstein, Eduard 1850 births 1932 deaths Politicians from Berlin People from the Province of Brandenburg Jewish German politicians Social Democratic Party of Germany politicians Independent Social Democratic Party politicians Members of the 10th Reichstag of the German Empire Members of the 11th Reichstag of the German Empire Members of the 13th Reichstag of the German Empire Members of the Reichstag of the Weimar Republic Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold members German Marxists Marxist theorists Anti-poverty advocates Jewish socialists 19th-century German Jews People from Schöneberg Critics of dialectical materialism